Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


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14,170 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Longitudinal associations between ambient air pollution with insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, and adiposity in Los Angeles Latino children: Supplementary material

Authors: Alderete, TL; Habre, R; Toledo-Corral, CM; Berhane, K; Chen, Z; Lurmann, FW; Weigensberg, MJ; Goran, MI; Gilliland, FD (In Press) Diabetes. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3800414


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Supplemental information: Understanding particles emitted from spray and wall-guided gasoline direct injection and flex fuel vehicles operating on ethanol and iso-butanol gasoline blends

Authors: Short, D; Vu, D; Chen, V; Espinoza, C; Berte, T; Karavalakis, G; Durbin, TD; Asa-Awuku, A (In Press) Aerosol Science and Technology. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3554428


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Outdoor Air Pollution and Incidence of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Small-Area Level Ecological Study

Authors: Maheswaran, R; Pearson, T; Smeeton, NC; Beevers, SD; Campbell, MJ; Wolfe, CD (In Press) Stroke. HERO ID: 842306

[Less] BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evidence linking outdoor air pollution and incidence of stroke is limited. We . . . [More] BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evidence linking outdoor air pollution and incidence of stroke is limited. We examined effects of outdoor air pollution on the incidence of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke at the population level focusing on middle-aged and older people. METHODS: We used a small-area level ecological study design and a stroke register set up to capture all incident cases of first-ever stroke occurring in a defined geographical area in south London (948 census output areas) where road traffic contributes to spatial variation in air pollution. Population-weighted averages were calculated for output areas using outdoor nitrogen dioxide and PM(10) concentrations modeled at a 20-m resolution. RESULTS: There were 1832 ischemic and 348 hemorrhagic strokes in 1995 to 2004 occurring among a resident population of 267 839. Mean (SD) concentration was 25.1 (1.2) μg/m(3) (range, 23.3-36.4 μg/m(3)) for PM(10) and 41.4 (3.0) μg/m(3) (range, 35.4-68.0 μg/m(3)) for nitrogen dioxide. For ischemic stroke, adjusted rate ratios per 10-μg/m(3) increase, for all ages, 40 to 64 and 65 to 79 years, respectively, were 1.22 (0.77-1.93), 1.12 (0.55-2.28), and 1.86 (1.10-3.13) for PM(10) and 1.11 (0.93-1.32), 1.13 (0.86-1.50), and 1.23 (0.99-1.53) for nitrogen dioxide. For hemorrhagic stroke, the corresponding rate ratios were 0.52 (0.20-1.37), 0.78 (0.17-3.51), and 0.51 (0.12-2.22) for PM(10) and 0.86 (0.60-1.24), 1.12 (0.66-1.90), and 0.78 (0.44-1.39) for nitrogen dioxide. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was no significant association between outdoor air pollutants and ischemic stroke incidence for all ages combined, there was a suggestion of increased risk among people aged 65 to 79 years. There was no evidence of increased incidence in hemorrhagic stroke.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Titanium Dioxide Exposure Induces Acute Eosinophilic Lung Inflammation in Rabbits

Authors: Choi, GS; Oak, C; Chun, BK; Wilson, D; Jang, TW; Kim, HK; Jung, M; Tutkun, E; Park, EK (In Press) Industrial Health. HERO ID: 2337959

[Less] Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 . . . [More] Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 aggravates respiratory symptoms by induction of pulmonary inflammation although the mechanisms have not been well investigated. We aimed to investigate lung inflammation in rabbits after intratracheal instillation of P25 TiO2. One ml of 10, 50 and 250 µg of P25 TiO2 was instilled into one of the lungs of rabbits, chest computed-tomography was performed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected before, at 1 and 24hr after P25 TiO2 exposure. Changes in inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids were measured. Lung pathological assay was also carried out at 24hr after P25 TiO2 exposure. Ground glass opacities were noted in both lungs 1hr after P25 TiO2 and saline (control) instillation. Although the control lung showed complete resolution at 24hr, the lung exposed to P25 TiO2 showed persistent ground glass opacities at 24hr. The eosinophil counts in BAL fluid were significantly increased after P25 TiO2 exposure. P25 TiO2 induced a dose dependent increase of eosinophils in BAL fluid but no significant differences in neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts were detected. The present findings suggest that P25 TiO2 induces lung inflammation in rabbits which is associated with eosinophilic inflammation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air pollution-induced placental epigenetic alterations in early life: A candidate miRNA approach

Authors: Tsamou, M; Vrijens, K; Madhloum, N; Lefebvre, W; Vanpoucke, C; Nawrot, TS (In Press) Epigenetics. HERO ID: 3359719

[Less] Particulate matter (PM) exposure during in utero life may entail adverse health outcomes in later-life. . . . [More] Particulate matter (PM) exposure during in utero life may entail adverse health outcomes in later-life. Air pollution's adverse effects are known to alter gene expression profiles, which can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). We investigate the potential influence of air pollution exposure in prenatal life on placental miRNA expression. Within the framework of the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, we measured the expression of six candidate miRNAs in placental tissue from 210 mother-newborn pairs by qRT-PCR. Trimester-specific PM2.5 exposure levels were estimated for each mother's home address using a spatiotemporal model. Multiple regression models were used to study miRNA expression and in utero exposure to PM2.5 over various time windows during pregnancy. The placental expression of miR-21 (-33.7%, 95% CI: -53.2 to -6.2, P=0.022), miR-146a (-30.9%, 95% CI: -48.0 to -8.1, P=0.012) and miR-222 (-25.4%, 95% CI: -43.0 to -2.4, P=0.034) was inversely associated with PM2.5 exposure during the 2(nd) trimester of pregnancy, while placental expression of miR-20a and miR-21 was positively associated with 1(st) trimester exposure. Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was identified as a common target of the miRNAs significantly associated with PM exposure. Placental PTEN expression was strongly and positively associated (+59.6% per 5 μg/m³ increment, 95% CI: 26.9 to 100.7, P<0.0001) with 3(rd) trimester PM2.5 exposure. Further research is required to establish the role these early miRNA and mRNA expression changes might play in PM-induced health effects. We provide molecular evidence showing that in utero PM2.5 exposure affects miRNAs expression as well as its downstream target PTEN.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inhalation of fine particulate matter impairs endothelial progenitor cell function via pulmonary oxidative stress

Authors: Haberzettl, P; Conklin, DJ; Abplanalp, WT; Bhatnagar, A; O'Toole, TE (2018) Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 38:131-142. HERO ID: 4165772

[Less] OBJECTIVE: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution is associated . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution is associated with the depletion of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), as well as vascular injury and dysfunction. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether PM2.5 exposure leads to significant impairments in EPC function. Hence, we studied the effects of PM2.5 on EPC-mediated recovery of vascular perfusion after hindlimb ischemia and examined the mechanisms whereby PM2.5 exposure affects EPC abundance and function.

APPROACH AND RESULTS: In comparison with EPCs isolated from mice breathing filtered air, EPCs from mice exposed for 9 consecutive days (6 hours per day) to concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) had defects in both proliferation and tube formation. However, CAP exposure of mice overexpressing extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD-Tg) in the lungs did not affect EPC tube formation. Exposure to CAP also suppressed circulating EPC levels, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)-stimulated aortic Akt phosphorylation, and plasma NO levels in wild-type but not in ecSOD-Tg mice. EPCs from CAP-exposed wild-type mice failed to augment basal recovery of hindlimb perfusion when injected into unexposed mice subjected to hindlimb ischemia; however, these deficits in recovery of hindlimb perfusion were absent when using EPCs derived from CAP-exposed ecSOD-Tg mice. The improved reparative function of EPCs from CAP-exposed ecSOD-Tg mice was also reflected by greater expression of Mmp-9 and Nos3 when compared with EPCs from CAP-exposed wild-type mice.

CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to PM2.5 impairs EPC abundance and function and prevents EPC-mediated vascular recovery after hindlimb ischemia. This defect is attributed, in part, to pulmonary oxidative stress and was associated with vascular VEGF resistance and a decrement in NO bioavailability.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Fine particulate matters: The impact of air quality standards on cardiovascular mortality

Authors: Corrigan, AE; Becker, MM; Neas, LM; Cascio, WE; Rappold, AG (2018) HERO ID: 4165868

[Less] BACKGROUND: In 1997 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency set the first annual National . . . [More] BACKGROUND: In 1997 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency set the first annual National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Although the weight of scientific evidence has determined that a causal relationship exists between PM2.5 exposures and cardiovascular effects, few studies have concluded whether NAAQS-related reductions in PM2.5 led to improvements in public health.

METHODS: We examined the change in cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate and the association between change in PM2.5 and change in CV-mortality rate before (2000-2004) and after implementation of the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS (2005-2010) among U.S. counties. We further examined how the association varied with respect to two factors related to NAAQS compliance: attainment status and design values (DV). We used difference-in-differences and linear regression models, adjusted for sociodemographic confounders.

FINDINGS: Across 619 counties, there were 1.10 (95% CI: 0.37, 1.82) fewer CV-deaths per year per 100,000 people for each 1µg/m3 decrease in PM2.5. Nonattainment counties had a twofold larger reduction in mean annual PM2.5, 2.1µg/m3, compared to attainment counties, 0.97µg/m3. CV-mortality rate decreased by 0.59 (95% CI: -0.54, 1.71) in nonattainment and 1.96 (95% CI: 0.77, 3.15) deaths per 100,000 people for each 1µg/m3 decrease in PM2.5 in attainment counties. When stratifying counties by DV, results were similar: counties with DV greater than 15µg/m3 experienced the greatest decrease in mean annual PM2.5 (2.29µg/m3) but the smallest decrease in CV-mortality rate per unit decrease in PM2.5, 0.73 (95% CI: -0.57, 2.02).

INTERPRETATION: We report a significant association between the change in PM2.5 and the change in CV-mortality rate before and after the implementation of NAAQS and note that the health benefits per 1µg/m3 decrease in PM2.5 persist at levels below the current national standard.

FUNDING: US EPA intermural research.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A county-level estimate of PM2.5 related chronic mortality risk in China based on multi-model exposure data

Authors: Wang, Q; Wang, J; He, MZ; Kinney, PL; Li, T (2018) Environment International 110:105-112. HERO ID: 4166581

[Less] BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a serious . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a serious environmental problem in China, but evidence of health effects with higher resolution and spatial coverage is insufficient.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide a better overall understanding of long-term mortality effects of PM2.5 pollution in China and a county-level spatial map for estimating PM2.5 related premature deaths of the entire country.

METHOD: Using four sets of satellite-derived PM2.5 concentration data and the integrated exposure-response model which has been employed by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) to estimate global mortality of ambient and household air pollution in 2010, we estimated PM2.5 related premature mortality for five endpoints across China in 2010.

RESULT: Premature deaths attributed to PM2.5 nationwide amounted to 1.27million in total, and 119,167, 83,976, 390,266, 670,906 for adult chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, respectively; 3995 deaths for acute lower respiratory infections were estimated in children under the age of 5. About half of the premature deaths were from counties with annual average PM2.5 concentrations above 63.61μg/m3, which cover 16.97% of the Chinese territory. These counties were largely located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the North China Plain. High population density and high pollution areas exhibited the highest health risks attributed to air pollution. On a per capita basis, the highest values were mostly located in heavily polluted industrial regions.

CONCLUSION: PM2.5-attributable health risk is closely associated with high population density and high levels of pollution in China. Further estimates using long-term historical exposure data and concentration-response (C-R) relationships should be completed in the future to investigate longer-term trends in the effects of PM2.5.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Contribution of the in-vehicle microenvironment to individual ambient-source nitrogen dioxide exposure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution

Authors: Hazlehurst, MF; Spalt, EW; Nicholas, TP; Curl, CL; Davey, ME; Burke, GL; Watson, KE; Vedal, S; Kaufman, JD (2018) HERO ID: 4287094

[Less] Exposure estimates that do not account for time in-transit may underestimate exposure to traffic-related . . . [More] Exposure estimates that do not account for time in-transit may underestimate exposure to traffic-related air pollution, but exact contributions have not been studied directly. We conducted a 2-week monitoring, including novel in-vehicle sampling, in a subset of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution cohort in two cities. Participants spent the majority of their time indoors and only 4.4% of their time (63 min/day) in-vehicle, on average. The mean ambient-source NO2concentration was 5.1 ppb indoors and 32.3 ppb in-vehicle during drives. On average, indoor exposure contributed 69% and in-vehicle exposure contributed 24% of participants' ambient-source NO2exposure. For participants in the highest quartile of time in-vehicle (≥1.3 h/day), indoor and in-vehicle contributions were 60 and 31%, respectively. Incorporating infiltrated indoor and measured in-vehicle NO2produced exposure estimates 5.6 ppb lower, on average, than using only outdoor concentrations. The indoor microenvironment accounted for the largest proportion of ambient-source exposure in this older population, despite higher concentrations of NO2outdoors and in vehicles than indoors. In-vehicle exposure was more influential among participants who drove the most and for participants residing in areas with lower outdoor air pollution. Failure to characterize exposures in these microenvironments may contribute to exposure misclassification in epidemiologic studies.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Low-level lead exposure and mortality in US adults: A population-based cohort study

Authors: Lanphear, BP; Rauch, S; Auinger, P; Allen, RW; Hornung, RW (2018) The Lancet Public Health 3:e177-e184. HERO ID: 4260470

[Less] Background: Lead exposure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease mortality, but the number of deaths . . . [More] Background: Lead exposure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease mortality, but the number of deaths in the USA attributable to lead exposure is poorly defined. We aimed to quantify the relative contribution of environmental lead exposure to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and ischaemic heart disease mortality.

Methods: Our study population comprised a nationally representative sample of adults aged 20 years or older who were enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) between 1988 and 1994 and followed up to Dec 31, 2011. Participants had completed a medical examination and home interview and had results for concentrations of lead in blood, cadmium in urine, and other relevant covariates. Individuals were linked with the National Death Index. This study presents extended follow-up of an earlier analysis.

Findings: We included 14 289 adults in our study. The geometric mean concentration of lead in blood was 2·71 μg/dL (geometric SE 1·31). 3632 (20%) participants had a concentration of lead in blood of at least 5 μg/dL (≥0·24 μmol/L). During median follow-up of 19·3 years (IQR 17·6–21·0), 4422 people died, 1801 (38%) from cardiovascular disease and 988 (22%) from ischaemic heart disease. An increase in the concentration of lead in blood from 1·0 μg/dL to 6·7 μg/dL (0·048 μmol/L to 0·324 μmol/L), which represents the tenth to 90th percentiles, was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1·37, 95% CI 1·17–1·60), cardiovascular disease mortality (1·70, 1·30–2·22), and ischaemic heart disease mortality (2·08, 1·52–2·85). The population attributable fraction of the concentration of lead in blood for all-cause mortality was 18·0% (95% CI 10·9–26·1), which is equivalent to 412 000 deaths annually. Respective fractions were 28·7% (15·5–39·5) for cardiovascular disease mortality and 37·4% (23·4–48·6) for ischaemic heart disease mortality, which correspond to 256 000 deaths a year from cardiovascular disease and 185 000 deaths a year from ischaemic heart disease.

Interpretation: Low-level environmental lead exposure is an important, but largely overlooked, risk factor for cardiovascular disease mortality in the USA. A comprehensive strategy to prevent deaths from cardiovascular disease should include efforts to reduce lead exposure.

Funding: The Artemis Fund and Simon Fraser University.