Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


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14,194 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Deposition of aerosol particles and flow resistance in mathematical and experimental airway models

Authors: Kim, CS; Brown, LK; Lewars, GG; Sackner, MA (1983) Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology 55:154-163. HERO ID: 3222089

[Less] Aerosol deposition and flow resistance in obstructed airways were determined from five mathematical . . . [More] Aerosol deposition and flow resistance in obstructed airways were determined from five mathematical and experimental airway models. The first three models were theoretical and based upon Weibel's symmetrical lung model with 1) uniform reduction of airway diameter in various groups of airway generations; 2) obstruction of a few major airways such that a severe uneven flow distribution occurs in the lung; 3) focal constriction of selected large airways. In model 3, an empirical formula was utilized to assess deposition and resistance in the constricted airways. The remaining two models were tested experimentally; 4) oscillation of a compliant wall in a straight tube and 5) two-phase gas-liquid flow utilizing human sputum in a rigid branching tube. In models 1, 2, and 3, airway resistance increased to a greater extent than did the increase of aerosol deposition except when small airways were obstructed in model 1. Here, the increase of aerosol deposition was slightly higher than the rise in airway resistance. A sharp increase of aerosol deposition with a minimal increase of flow resistance was demonstrated in models 4 and 5. These data indicate that aerosol deposition may be a more sensitive indicator of airway abnormalities than overall airway resistance in small airways obstruction, during oscillation of large and medium airway walls, and when excessive secretions within the airways move with a wave or slug motion.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ambient Stressors

Author: Campbell, FW (1983) Environment and Behavior 15:355-380. HERO ID: 190172


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Tracheobronchial airway structure as revealed by casting techniques

Authors: Phalen, RF; Oldham, MJ (1983) American Review of Respiratory Disease 128:S1-S4. HERO ID: 1522

[Less] Research quality tracheobronchial airway casts, prepared in the intact thorax, have proved to be useful . . . [More] Research quality tracheobronchial airway casts, prepared in the intact thorax, have proved to be useful in comparative mammalian anatomic studies. Grossly, casts trimmed free of alveoli are quite different in appearance for different species. Overall organ shape, tracheal length/diameter ratio, presence or absence of a tracheal bronchus, and degree of branching symmetry constitute the major gross characteristics. Detailed morphometric measurements performed on such casts reveal important species differences in branch shape, number of divisions in the tree, and variations in such structure as a function of airway generation number. Of the mammalian tracheobronchial casts examined to date, those of humans have several distinctive characteristics. Their overall shape is the most nearly spherical; most other mammals have lungs that are significantly longer along the tracheal axis in relation to their width or thickness. Human branches are typically relatively symmetric with respect to both daughter tube diameter ratio and daughter branch angle ratio. In short, of all of the studied mammalian lungs those of humans appear to be the least heterogeneous.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of nitroarenes: all nitro-containing chemicals were not created equal

Authors: Rosenkranz, HS; Mermelstein, R (1983) DNA Repair 114:217-267. HERO ID: 4819


Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

An epidemiological study of arsenic in drinking water in Millard County, Utah

Authors: Southwick, JW; Western, AE; Beck, MM; Whitley, T; Isaacs, R; Petajan, J; Hansen, CD (1983) In WH Lederer; RJ Fensterheim (Eds.), Arsenic: Industrial, biomedical and environmental perspectives (pp. 210-225). New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. HERO ID: 8721

[Less] This epidemiological study evaluated the health effects of arsenic in drinking water at levels approximately . . . [More] This epidemiological study evaluated the health effects of arsenic in drinking water at levels approximately four times the maximum allowed by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Study participants came from west Millard County, a desert area of Utah, which has a homogeneous, stable population with a predominantly Mormon lifestyle. Physical examinations were given to 250 people and included evaluating dermatological and neurological health, sampling hair and urine for arsenic content and testing for anemia. Water consumption estimates were used to estimate arsenic ingestion. The 145 exposed participants came from the small communities of Hinckley and Deseret, where drinking water arsenic content averaged 0.18 and 0.21 mg/l respectively. The predominant arsenic species was arsenate (86% As+5). A matched control group of 105 participants was selected from a larger, neighboring community named Delta, where drinking water arsenic averaged 0.02 mg/l. A clear relationship was shown between the amount of arsenic consumed and the amount of arsenic present in hair and urine smaples. Dermatological signs compatible with arsenic exposure were rare and, when found, were scattered singly among exposed and control participants rather than being clustered as multiple signs on individuals with higher arsenic exposure. Anemia was not found significantly more often among exposed participants. Nerve conduction slowing did not correlate significantly with arsenic exposure levels. Typical signs and symptoms of arsenic intoxication were not found in any of the study participants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Retention of monodisperse or polydisperse aluminosilicate particles inhaled by dogs, rats, and mice

Authors: Snipes, MB; Boecker, BB; McClellan, RO (1983) HERO ID: 20735


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Optical properties of aerosols--comparison of measurements with model calculations

Author: Sloane, CS (1983) Atmospheric Environment 17:409-416. HERO ID: 25039

[Less] #Light scattering and absorption by a model aerosol is compared with measurements. The aerosol model . . . [More] #Light scattering and absorption by a model aerosol is compared with measurements. The aerosol model is consistent with size distribution measurements by chemical species and with meteorological variables. External and internal mixtures of homogeneous, spherical particles at thermodynamic equilibrium are considered. Calculations with this physical model are contrasted with those of statistical models.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Modeling human judgments of urban visual air quality

Authors: Middleton, P; Stewart, TR; Dennis, RL (1983) Atmospheric Environment 17:1015-1021. HERO ID: 37415


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Carboxyhaemoglobin and pulmonary epithelial permeability in man

Authors: Jones, JG; Minty, BD; Royston, D; Royston, JP (1983) Thorax 38:129-133. HERO ID: 155884

[Less] The effect of cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary epithelial permeability was studied in 45 smokers . . . [More] The effect of cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary epithelial permeability was studied in 45 smokers and 22 non-smokers. An index of cigarette smoke exposure was obtained from the carboxyhaemoglobin concentration (HbCO%). Pulmonary epithelial permeability was proportional to the half-time clearance rate of technetium-99m-labelled diethylene triamine pentacetate (99mTc DTPA) from lung to blood (T1/2LB). The relationship between T1/2LB and HbCO% was hyperbolic in form and the data could be fitted to the quadratic formula (formula; see text) where the parameters a0, a1, and a2 represent respectively the asymptotic T1/2LB value at large carboxyhaemoglobin values and the slope and shape of the curve. The values of these parameters were a0 4.4 (2.6), a1 = 77.8 (15.5), and a2 -25.5 (9.7) (SE). This is the first demonstration of a dose-response relationship between carboxyhaemoglobin and an increased permeability of the lungs in man and provides a technique for identifying the roles of carbon monoxide and other cigarette smoke constituents in causing increased pulmonary epithelial permeability.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Breathing patterns. 1. Normal subjects

Authors: Tobin, MJ; Chadha, TS; Jenouri, G; Birch, SJ; Gazeroglu, HB; Sackner, MA (1983) HERO ID: 156122

[Less] Ventilatory monitoring devices that require mouthpiece breathing produce a rise in tidal volume (VT), . . . [More] Ventilatory monitoring devices that require mouthpiece breathing produce a rise in tidal volume (VT), a fall in frequency (f) and alterations in periodicity and variability of breathing components. Together with the introduction of the respiratory inductive plethysmograph, a reliable noninvasive monitoring device of ventilation, major advances have taken place in understanding the significance of the components of the breathing pattern. We measured the breathing pattern of normal subjects utilizing respiratory inductive plethysmography and continuously processed these data with a microprocessor system. The mean values of the breathing pattern components in normal subjects were not affected by age, but the rhythmicity was more irregular in the elderly. The values of breathing pattern components obtained noninvasively by respiratory inductive plethysmography in normal subjects are fairly predictable in limits similar to other tests of pulmonary function.