Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


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14,178 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

People and Air Pollution: A Study of Attitudes in Buffalo, N. Y

Authors: Degroot, I; Loring, W; Rihm, A; Samuels, SW; Winkelstein, W (1966) HERO ID: 3121486


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Regional distribution of inspired gas in the lung

Authors: Milic-Emili, J; Henderson, JAM; Dolovich, MB; Trop, D; Kaneko, K (1966) HERO ID: 12413


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mechanism of bronchoconstriction during inhalation of sulfur dioxide

Authors: Nadel, JA; Salem, H; Tamplin, B; Tokiwa, Y (1965) Journal of Applied Physiology 20:164-167. HERO ID: 14846

[Less] Inhalation of SO2 (4–6 ppm) for 10 min decreased airway conductance (increased airway resistance) in . . . [More] Inhalation of SO2 (4–6 ppm) for 10 min decreased airway conductance (increased airway resistance) in seven healthy subjects. Subcutaneous injection of atropine prevented this effect. In anesthetized, paralyzed, artifically ventilated cats, SO2 increased pulmonary resistance, whether delivered to the upper or to the lower airways. This was prevented by complete cold block of the cervical vagosympathetic nerves or by injecting atropine intravenously before the SO2 was inhaled. These results establish the reflex nature of bronchoconstriction during inhalation of SO2.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Experimental study of the dust-clearance mechanism of the lung: I histological study in rats of the intra-pulmonary bronchial route of elimination

Author: Brundelet, PJ (1965) HERO ID: 6828


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The environment and disease: Association or causation?

Author: Hill, AB (1965) Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 58:295-300. HERO ID: 71664


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Postnatal growth of the lung

Author: Dunnill, MS (1962) Thorax 17:329-333. HERO ID: 579


Journal Article
Journal Article

Electron microscopic observations of the olfactory mucosa and olfactory nerve

Author: De Lorenzo, AJ (1957) Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical Cytology 3:839-850. HERO ID: 3858952

[Less] The olfactory receptor cell is characterized by a distal process (the dendrite) which terminates in . . . [More] The olfactory receptor cell is characterized by a distal process (the dendrite) which terminates in the olfactory passage as the olfactory rod. The olfactory rod is provided with numerous cilia which are similar in structure to those seen in other tissues. The central processes of the bipolar cell constitute the fila olfactoria. The cytoplasmic organelles of the sustentacular cell are concentrated at the apical and basal ends of the cell with a paucity of cytoplasmic elements in the region of the nucleus. The plasma membrane of the supporting cell forms a mesaxon for both the dendrite and axon of the bipolar cell. Terminal bars are present in the epithelial cells. The axons constituting the fila olfactoria form fascicles which are ensheathed by mesaxons of adjacent Schwann cells. Thus the olfactory neurons are ensheathed throughout their course by the membranes of sustentacular and Schwann cells. Observations of the olfactory mucosa with the electron microscope are discussed with respect to recent electrophysiological studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The size distribution and aging of natural aerosols as determined from electrical and optical data on the atmosphere

Author: Junge, C (1955) Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 12:13-25. HERO ID: 72545

[Less] A first attempt at surveying the complete size distribution of natural aerosol particles is made. The . . . [More] A first attempt at surveying the complete size distribution of natural aerosol particles is made. The size range covers more than three orders of magnitude in radius, with approximate limits of 2 × 10−3 and 5 × 10−7 cm. Previously only parts of this spectrum had been carefully investigated, due to the size limits of the various experimental methods used. Particle spectra down to radii below 10&-4 cm are well known, having been obtained by direct count under the microscope. Particles of radius less than 10−5 cm are counted in the Aitken counter, but their size distribution can only be determined from mobility measurements on those particles which are charged. However, to deduce nuclei spectra from ion spectra, the fraction of charged particles must be known. Previous determinations of this fraction are examined and are shown to contain inaccuracies or errors. The expression derived here theoretically, is used to convert some of the ion-spectra data into nuclei spectra. The particle-size range between radii of 10×5 and 10−4 cm has hardly been investigated by direct measurements, because of the experimental difficulties encountered. Valuable information can be gained here from the dependence of haze scattering on wavelength.

The available data seem to indicate that the maximum number concentration is located in the size region between 10−5 and 10−6 cm radius, and that the number concentration drops to zero between 10−6cm and 10−7 cm radius. The size range greater than 10&-5 cm can be well represented by a power law which seems to hold for large parts of the world. It can be shown further, where ion and nuclei counts or other electrical data are available from a large number of places all over the world, that the average radius of all particles increases when the total number decreases. This can be explained by coagulation processes.

It should be emphasized that the results obtained in this article are to be considered as a rough first approach, valid only for average conditions in time and space, and that more detailed information is needed to improve our knowledge of this field.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The permeability of lung parenchyma to particulate matter

Authors: Gross, P; Westrick, M (1954) The American Journal of Pathology 30:195-213. HERO ID: 4304071

[Less] The manner in which dust particles are transported from alveoli into the pulmonary parenchyma and lymph . . . [More] The manner in which dust particles are transported from alveoli into the pulmonary parenchyma and lymph nodes has been the subject of controversy for over 8o years. During the past 50 years opinions in regard to this mechanism have become largely set, with only a few dissenting. The prevailing concept is that macrophages emigrating to the free surface of the respiratory membrane engulf dust particles and then immigrate into the parenchyma. This opinion is recorded by most authors of standard textbooks. The contrary opinion, that dust particles per se penetrate the pulmonary parenchyma and are carried by tissue fluid and lymph to their destination, finds support in but a few texts."' Several authors adopt a "middle of the road" opinion and state that both mechanisms are operative.

Some of the earlier writers who argued for direct penetration of dust particles into lung tissue were Slavjansky' (I869), Ruppert" (1878), and Arnold" (1885). In more recent times Drinker' (922) maintained that certain silicates may penetrate directly into the pulmonary parenchyma. Cameron and Lang' (1933) denied that emigrating macrophages immigrated back into the lung tissue, while Robson, Irwin, and King (1934) held that silica particles penetrated the lung substance without the aid of phagocytic cells.

The theory of the "emigrating-immigrating" macrophage was supported by v. Ins' (I878), Schottelius (I878), and Shingu (1910). In I9I4 Klotz26 stated, "It would appear, however, with the more recent studies that the migration of the dust particles from the air sacs occurs only through the agency of certain wandering cells." Permar mn 1920, gave this concept the much needed and widely quoted experimental support. Other supporters of this vew include Haynes (1931), Gardner' (1932), and Belt (I934).

A number of writers espoused both concepts. They are Knauff (1867), Slavjansky (i869), Ruppert (I878), Lemon and Higgins (1932), Robertson (1941), and Drinker (1952).

During microscopic studies of the lungs of animals subjected to experimental pneumoconioses by inhalation as well as by intratracheal injection, large numbers of extracellular particles were noted in interstitial positions. The existence of the extracellular particles in such sites was difficult to explain on the basis of the prevailing concept. Furthermore, it was recalled that in many sections of lungs from human necropsy material the arrangement of interstitial anthracotic pigment deposits suggested that the material was extracellular. It was noted frequently that assumptions of an intracellular position of the pigment were arbitrary and rested on very tenuous grounds.

The theory that particles per se may penetrate the lung substance seemed intriguing and appeared to have support in past experimental observations. The following experiments were designed to test this possibility.

Journal Article
Journal Article

The Reduction of Apparent Contrast by the Atmosphere

Author: Duntley, SQ (1948) HERO ID: 3121739