Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA-PM (2019)


14,251 References Were Found:

Journal Article
Journal Article

Evaluating the impact of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter on mortality among the elderly

Authors: Wu, X; Braun, D; Schwartz, J; Kioumourtzoglou, MA; Dominici, F (2020) Science Advances 6:eaba5692. HERO ID: 6671709

[Less] Many studies link long-term fine particle (PM2.5) exposure to mortality, even at levels below current . . . [More] Many studies link long-term fine particle (PM2.5) exposure to mortality, even at levels below current U.S. air quality standards (12 micrograms per cubic meter). These findings have been disputed with claims that the use of traditional statistical approaches does not guarantee causality. Leveraging 16 years of data—68.5 million Medicare enrollees—we provide strong evidence of the causal link between long-term PM2.5 exposure and mortality under a set of causal inference assumptions. Using five distinct approaches, we found that a decrease in PM2.5 (by 10 micrograms per cubic meter) leads to a statistically significant 6 to 7% decrease in mortality risk. Based on these models, lowering the air quality standard to 10 micrograms per cubic meter would save 143,257 lives (95% confidence interval, 115,581 to 170,645) in one decade. Our study provides the most comprehensive evidence to date of the link between long-term PM2.5 exposure and mortality, even at levels below current standards.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Power, proximity, and physiology: does income inequality and racial composition amplify the impacts of air pollution on life expectancy in the United States?

Authors: Jorgenson, AK; Hill, TD; Clark, B; Thombs, RP; Ore, P; Balistreri, KS; Givens, JE (2020) HERO ID: 6671655


Journal Article
Journal Article

Association of Air Pollution and Heat Exposure With Preterm Birth, Low Birth Weight, and Stillbirth in the US: A Systematic Review

Authors: Bekkar, B; Pacheco, S; Basu, R; Denicola, N (2020) HERO ID: 6679073

[Less] Importance: Knowledge of whether serious adverse pregnancy outcomes are associated . . . [More] Importance: Knowledge of whether serious adverse pregnancy outcomes are associated with increasingly widespread effects of climate change in the US would be crucial for the obstetrical medical community and for women and families across the country.

Objective: To investigate prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ozone, and heat, and the association of these factors with preterm birth, low birth weight, and stillbirth.

Evidence Review: This systematic review involved a comprehensive search for primary literature in Cochrane Library, Cochrane Collaboration Registry of Controlled Trials, PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov website, and MEDLINE. Qualifying primary research studies included human participants in US populations that were published in English between January 1, 2007, and April 30, 2019. Included articles analyzed the associations between air pollutants or heat and obstetrical outcomes. Comparative observational cohort studies and cross-sectional studies with comparators were included, without minimum sample size. Additional articles found through reference review were also considered. Articles analyzing other obstetrical outcomes, non-US populations, and reviews were excluded. Two reviewers independently determined study eligibility. The Arskey and O'Malley scoping review framework was used. Data extraction was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline.

Findings: Of the 1851 articles identified, 68 met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 32 798 152 births were analyzed, with a mean (SD) of 565 485 (783 278) births per study. A total of 57 studies (48 of 58 [84%] on air pollutants; 9 of 10 [90%] on heat) showed a significant association of air pollutant and heat exposure with birth outcomes. Positive associations were found across all US geographic regions. Exposure to PM2.5 or ozone was associated with increased risk of preterm birth in 19 of 24 studies (79%) and low birth weight in 25 of 29 studies (86%). The subpopulations at highest risk were persons with asthma and minority groups, especially black mothers. Accurate comparisons of risk were limited by differences in study design, exposure measurement, population demographics, and seasonality.

Conclusions and Relevance: This review suggests that increasingly common environmental exposures exacerbated by climate change are significantly associated with serious adverse pregnancy outcomes across the US.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Short-term effects of ambient PM1 and PM2.5 air pollution on hospital admission for respiratory diseases: Case-crossover evidence from Shenzhen, China

Authors: Zhang, Y; Ding, Z; Xiang, Q; Wang, W; Huang, L; Mao, F (2020) HERO ID: 6679074

[Less] BACKGROUND: Ambient PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤1 μm) is an . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Ambient PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤1 μm) is an important contribution of PM2.5 mass. However, little is known worldwide regarding the PM1-associated health effects due to a wide lack of ground-based PM1 measurements from air monitoring stations.

METHODS: We collected daily records of hospital admission for respiratory diseases and station-based measurements of air pollution and weather conditions in Shenzhen, China, 2015-2016. Time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models were adopted to estimate hospitalization risks associated with short-term exposures to PM1 and PM2.5.

RESULTS: PM1 and PM2.5 showed significant adverse effects on respiratory disease hospitalizations, while no evident associations with PM1-2.5 were identified. Admission risks for total respiratory diseases were 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.14) and 1.06 (1.02 to 1.10), corresponding to per 10 μg/m3 rise in exposure to PM1 and PM2.5 at lag 0-2 days, respectively. Both PM1 and PM2.5 were strongly associated with increased admission for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, but exhibited no effects on asthma and upper respiratory tract infection. Largely comparable risk estimates were observed between male and female patients. Groups aged 0-14 years and 45-74 years were significantly affected by PM1- and PM2.5-associated risks. PM-hospitalization associations exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with significantly larger risks in cold season than those in warm season among some subgroups.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that PM1 rather than PM1-2.5 contributed to PM2.5-induced risks of hospitalization for respiratory diseases and effects of PM1 and PM2.5 mainly occurred in cold season.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Environmental pollutants damage airway epithelial cell cilia: Implications for the prevention of obstructive lung diseases

Authors: Cao, Yu; Chen, M; Dong, Dan; Xie, S; Liu, Min (2020) HERO ID: 6679080


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effects of air pollution and meteorological factors on measles cases in Lanzhou, China

Authors: Peng, Lu; Zhao, X; Tao, Yan; Mi, S; Huang, Ju; Zhang, Q (2020) HERO ID: 6679082


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association between short-term exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 infection: Evidence from China

Authors: Zhu, Y; Xie, J; Huang, F; Cao, L (2020) HERO ID: 6679085

[Less] The novel coronavirus pneumonia, namely COVID-19, has become a global public health problem. Previous . . . [More] The novel coronavirus pneumonia, namely COVID-19, has become a global public health problem. Previous studies have found that air pollution is a risk factor for respiratory infection by carrying microorganisms and affecting body's immunity. This study aimed to explore the relationship between ambient air pollutants and the infection caused by the novel coronavirus. Daily confirmed cases, air pollution concentration and meteorological variables in 120 cities were obtained from January 23, 2020 to February 29, 2020 in China. We applied a generalized additive model to investigate the associations of six air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO2 and O3) with COVID-19 confirmed cases. We observed significantly positive associations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and O3 in the last two weeks with newly COVID-19 confirmed cases. A 10-μg/m3 increase (lag0-14) in PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and O3 was associated with a 2.24% (95% CI: 1.02 to 3.46), 1.76% (95% CI: 0.89 to 2.63), 6.94% (95% CI: 2.38 to 11.51), and 4.76% (95% CI: 1.99 to 7.52) increase in the daily counts of confirmed cases, respectively. However, a 10-μg/m3 increase (lag0-14) in SO2 was associated with a 7.79% decrease (95% CI: -14.57 to -1.01) in COVID-19 confirmed cases. Our results indicate that there is a significant relationship between air pollution and COVID-19 infection, which could partially explain the effect of national lockdown and provide implications for the control and prevention of this novel disease.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air quality impacts from the electrification of light-duty passenger vehicles in the United States (vol 208, pg 95, 2019)

Authors: Schnell, JL; Naik, V; Horowitz, LW; Paulot, F; Ginoux, P; Zhao, M; Horton, DE (2020) Atmospheric Environment 229. HERO ID: 6671436


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Associations Between Long-Term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Mortality in Heart Failure Patients

Authors: Ward-Caviness, CK; Weaver, AM; Buranosky, M; Pfaff, ER; Neas, LM; Devlin, RB; Schwartz, J; Di, Q; Cascio, WE; Diaz-Sanchez, D (2020) HERO ID: 6671784

[Less] Background Environmental health risks for individuals with heart failure (HF) have been inadequately . . . [More] Background Environmental health risks for individuals with heart failure (HF) have been inadequately studied, as these individuals are not well represented in traditional cohort studies. To address this we studied associations between long-term air pollution exposure and mortality in HF patients. Methods and Results The study population was a hospital-based cohort of individuals diagnosed with HF between July 1, 2004 and December 31, 2016 compiled using electronic health records. Individuals were followed from 1 year after initial diagnosis until death or the end of the observation period (December 31, 2016). We used Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association of annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure at the time of initial HF diagnosis with all-cause mortality, adjusted for age, race, sex, distance to the nearest air pollution monitor, and socioeconomic status indicators. Among 23 302 HF patients, a 1 μg/m3 increase in annual average PM2.5 was associated with an elevated risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.13; 95% CI, 1.10-1.15). As compared with people with exposures below the current national PM2.5 exposure standard (12 μg/m3), those with elevated exposures experienced 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73-0.95) years of life lost over a 5-year period, an observation that persisted even for those residing in areas with PM2.5 concentrations below current standards. Conclusions Residential exposure to elevated concentrations of PM2.5 is a significant mortality risk factor for HF patients. Elevated PM2.5 exposures result in substantial years of life lost even at concentrations below current national standards.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The contribution of improved air quality to reduced cardiovascular mortality: Declines in socioeconomic differences over time

Authors: Wyatt, LH; Peterson, GCL; Wade, TJ; Neas, LM; Rappold, AG (2020) HERO ID: 6671797

[Less] Major improvements in air quality since 1990, observed through reductions in fine particulate matter . . . [More] Major improvements in air quality since 1990, observed through reductions in fine particulate matter (PM2.5), have been associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality rates (CMR). However, it is not well understood whether the health benefit attributed to PM2.5 reductions has been similar across strata of socioeconomic deprivation (SED). Using mixed effect regression models, we estimated the PM2.5-related change in the CMR across 2,132 US counties in five SED strata between 1990 and 2010. The analysis included annual county CMR (deaths/100,000 person-year), annual county PM2.5 (μg/m3), and an index of county SED based on socioeconomic factors from the 1990 US Census. The contribution of PM2.5 reductions to decreased CMR varied by SED strata and over time. Yearly differences resulted from varying rates of PM2.5 reduction and because of the non-linear relationship between CMR and PM2.5 concentration. In early years, PM2.5-related CMR reductions were smallest in the most deprived counties compared to all other counties (range: 0.4-0.6 vs 0.7-1.6 fewer deaths/100,000 person-year), due to slower rates of PM2.5 reduction in these counties. However, in later years, PM2.5-related CMR reductions were highest counties with moderate to high deprivation, compared to counties with the least deprivation (range: 1.0-2.2 vs 0.5-0.9 fewer deaths/100,000 person-year) due to larger CMR reductions per decrease in PM2.5. We identified that CMR reductions related to air quality improvements have become more similar over time between socioeconomic strata.