Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA-PM (current)


14,006 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Socioeconomic position, population density and site-specific cancer mortality: A multilevel analysis of Belgian adults, 2001-2011

Authors: Hagedoorn, P; Vandenheede, H; Vanthomme, K; Gadeyne, S (2018) HERO ID: 4165308

[Less] Our study explores the association between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP) . . . [More] Our study explores the association between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and all-cancer and site-specific cancer mortality. Data on all Belgian residents are retrieved from a population-based dataset constructed from the 2001 census linked to register data on emigration and mortality for 2001-2011. The study population contains all men and women aged 40 years or older during follow-up. Individual SEP is measured using education, employment status and housing conditions. Neighborhood SEP is measured by a deprivation index (in quintiles). Directly age-standardized mortality rates and multilevel Poisson models are used to estimate the association between individual SEP and neighborhood deprivation and mortality from all-cancer and cancer of the lung, colon and rectum, pancreas, prostate and female breast. The potential confounding role of population density is assessed using multilevel models as well. Our findings show an increase in mortality from all-cancer and site-specific cancer by decreasing level of individual SEP for both men and women. In addition, individuals living in highly deprived neighborhoods experience significantly higher mortality from all-cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and female colorectal cancer after controlling for individual SEP. Male colorectal and prostate cancer and female breast cancer are not associated with neighborhood deprivation. Population density acts as a confounder for female lung cancer only. Our study indicates that deprivation at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with all-cancer mortality and mortality from several cancer sites. More research into the role of life-style related and clinical factors is necessary to gain more insight into causal pathway.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inhalation of fine particulate matter impairs endothelial progenitor cell function via pulmonary oxidative stress

Authors: Haberzettl, P; Conklin, DJ; Abplanalp, WT; Bhatnagar, A; O'Toole, TE (2018) Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 38:131-142. HERO ID: 4165772

[Less] OBJECTIVE: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution is associated . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution is associated with the depletion of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), as well as vascular injury and dysfunction. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether PM2.5 exposure leads to significant impairments in EPC function. Hence, we studied the effects of PM2.5 on EPC-mediated recovery of vascular perfusion after hindlimb ischemia and examined the mechanisms whereby PM2.5 exposure affects EPC abundance and function.

APPROACH AND RESULTS: In comparison with EPCs isolated from mice breathing filtered air, EPCs from mice exposed for 9 consecutive days (6 hours per day) to concentrated ambient PM2.5 (CAP) had defects in both proliferation and tube formation. However, CAP exposure of mice overexpressing extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD-Tg) in the lungs did not affect EPC tube formation. Exposure to CAP also suppressed circulating EPC levels, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)-stimulated aortic Akt phosphorylation, and plasma NO levels in wild-type but not in ecSOD-Tg mice. EPCs from CAP-exposed wild-type mice failed to augment basal recovery of hindlimb perfusion when injected into unexposed mice subjected to hindlimb ischemia; however, these deficits in recovery of hindlimb perfusion were absent when using EPCs derived from CAP-exposed ecSOD-Tg mice. The improved reparative function of EPCs from CAP-exposed ecSOD-Tg mice was also reflected by greater expression of Mmp-9 and Nos3 when compared with EPCs from CAP-exposed wild-type mice.

CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to PM2.5 impairs EPC abundance and function and prevents EPC-mediated vascular recovery after hindlimb ischemia. This defect is attributed, in part, to pulmonary oxidative stress and was associated with vascular VEGF resistance and a decrement in NO bioavailability.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Fine particulate matters: The impact of air quality standards on cardiovascular mortality

Authors: Corrigan, AE; Becker, MM; Neas, LM; Cascio, WE; Rappold, AG (2018) HERO ID: 4165868

[Less] BACKGROUND: In 1997 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency set the first annual National . . . [More] BACKGROUND: In 1997 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency set the first annual National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Although the weight of scientific evidence has determined that a causal relationship exists between PM2.5 exposures and cardiovascular effects, few studies have concluded whether NAAQS-related reductions in PM2.5 led to improvements in public health.

METHODS: We examined the change in cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate and the association between change in PM2.5 and change in CV-mortality rate before (2000-2004) and after implementation of the 1997 annual PM2.5 NAAQS (2005-2010) among U.S. counties. We further examined how the association varied with respect to two factors related to NAAQS compliance: attainment status and design values (DV). We used difference-in-differences and linear regression models, adjusted for sociodemographic confounders.

FINDINGS: Across 619 counties, there were 1.10 (95% CI: 0.37, 1.82) fewer CV-deaths per year per 100,000 people for each 1µg/m3 decrease in PM2.5. Nonattainment counties had a twofold larger reduction in mean annual PM2.5, 2.1µg/m3, compared to attainment counties, 0.97µg/m3. CV-mortality rate decreased by 0.59 (95% CI: -0.54, 1.71) in nonattainment and 1.96 (95% CI: 0.77, 3.15) deaths per 100,000 people for each 1µg/m3 decrease in PM2.5 in attainment counties. When stratifying counties by DV, results were similar: counties with DV greater than 15µg/m3 experienced the greatest decrease in mean annual PM2.5 (2.29µg/m3) but the smallest decrease in CV-mortality rate per unit decrease in PM2.5, 0.73 (95% CI: -0.57, 2.02).

INTERPRETATION: We report a significant association between the change in PM2.5 and the change in CV-mortality rate before and after the implementation of NAAQS and note that the health benefits per 1µg/m3 decrease in PM2.5 persist at levels below the current national standard.

FUNDING: US EPA intermural research.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Associations between mortality and prolonged exposure to elevated particulate matter concentrations in East Asia

Authors: Kim, SE; Bell, ML; Hashizume, M; Honda, Y; Kan, H; Kim, H (2018) Environment International 110:88-94. HERO ID: 4165913

[Less] Previous epidemiological studies regarding mortality and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter . . . [More] Previous epidemiological studies regarding mortality and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <10μm (PM10) have considered only absolute concentrations of PM10 as a risk factor. However, none have evaluated the durational effect of multi-day periods with high PM10 concentrations. To evaluate the durational effect (i.e., number of days) of high PM10 concentrations on mortality, we collected data regarding 3,662,749 deaths from 28 cities in Japan, South Korea, and China (1993-2009). Exposure was defined as consecutive days with daily PM10 concentrations ≥75μg/m3. A Poisson model was used with duration as the variable of interest, while controlling for daily PM10 concentrations, meteorological variables, seasonal trends, and day of the week. The increase in mortality risk for each additional consecutive day with PM10 concentrations ≥75μg/m3 was 0.68% in Japan (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.35-1.01%), 0.48% in South Korea (95% CI: 0.30-0.66%), and 0.24% in China (95% CI: 0.14-0.33%). The annual average maximum number of consecutive days with high PM10 in Japan (2.40days), South Korea (6.96days), and China (42.26days) was associated with non-accidental death increases of 1.64% (95% CI: 1.31-1.98%), 3.37% (95% CI: 3.19-3.56%), and 10.43% (95% CI: 10.33-10.54%), respectively. These findings may facilitate the planning of public health interventions to minimize the health burden of air pollution.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lifetime exposure to ambient air pollution and methylation of tumor suppressor genes in breast tumors

Authors: Callahan, CL; Bonner, MR; Nie, J; Han, D; Wang, Y; Tao, MH; Shields, PG; Marian, C; Eng, KH; Trevisan, M; Beyea, J; Freudenheim, JL (2018) Environmental Research 161:418-424. HERO ID: 4166118

[Less] BACKGROUND: We previously reported increased risk of breast cancer associated with . . . [More] BACKGROUND: We previously reported increased risk of breast cancer associated with early life exposure to two measures of air pollution exposure, total suspended particulates (TSP) and traffic emissions (TE), possible proxies for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure to PAHs has been shown to be associated with aberrant patterns of DNA methylation in peripheral blood of healthy individuals. Exposure to PAHs and methylation in breast tumor tissue has received little attention. We examined the association of early life exposure to TSP and TE with patterns of DNA methylation in breast tumors.

METHODS: We conducted a study of women enrolled in the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) Study. Methylation of nine genes (SFN, SCGB3A1, RARB, GSTP1, CDKN2A CCND2, BRCA1, FHIT, and SYK) was assessed using bisulfite-based pyrosequencing. TSP exposure at each woman's home address at birth, menarche, and when she had her first child was estimated. TE exposure was modeled for each woman's residence at menarche, her first birth, and twenty and ten years prior to diagnosis. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate odds ratios (OR) of having methylation greater than the median value, adjusting for age, secondhand smoke exposure before age 20, current smoking status, and estrogen receptor status.

RESULTS: Exposure to higher TSP at a woman's first birth was associated with lower methylation of SCGB3A1 (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.23-0.99) and higher methylation of SYK (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.03-3.35). TE at menarche was associated with increased methylation of SYK (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.05-5.33). TE at first birth and ten years prior to diagnosis was associated with decreased methylation of CCND2 (OR ten years prior to diagnosis=0.48, 95% CI: 0.26-0.89). Although these associations were nominally significant, none were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: We observed suggestive evidence that exposure to ambient air pollution throughout life, measured as TSP and TE, may be associated with DNA methylation of some tumor suppressor genes in breast tumor tissue. Future studies with a larger sample size that assess methylation of more sites are warranted.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A county-level estimate of PM2.5 related chronic mortality risk in China based on multi-model exposure data

Authors: Wang, Q; Wang, J; He, MZ; Kinney, PL; Li, T (2018) Environment International 110:105-112. HERO ID: 4166581

[Less] BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a serious . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is currently a serious environmental problem in China, but evidence of health effects with higher resolution and spatial coverage is insufficient.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide a better overall understanding of long-term mortality effects of PM2.5 pollution in China and a county-level spatial map for estimating PM2.5 related premature deaths of the entire country.

METHOD: Using four sets of satellite-derived PM2.5 concentration data and the integrated exposure-response model which has been employed by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) to estimate global mortality of ambient and household air pollution in 2010, we estimated PM2.5 related premature mortality for five endpoints across China in 2010.

RESULT: Premature deaths attributed to PM2.5 nationwide amounted to 1.27million in total, and 119,167, 83,976, 390,266, 670,906 for adult chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, respectively; 3995 deaths for acute lower respiratory infections were estimated in children under the age of 5. About half of the premature deaths were from counties with annual average PM2.5 concentrations above 63.61μg/m3, which cover 16.97% of the Chinese territory. These counties were largely located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the North China Plain. High population density and high pollution areas exhibited the highest health risks attributed to air pollution. On a per capita basis, the highest values were mostly located in heavily polluted industrial regions.

CONCLUSION: PM2.5-attributable health risk is closely associated with high population density and high levels of pollution in China. Further estimates using long-term historical exposure data and concentration-response (C-R) relationships should be completed in the future to investigate longer-term trends in the effects of PM2.5.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine aerosol particles

Authors: Fan, J; Rosenfeld, D; Zhang, Y; Giangrande, SE; Li, Z; Machado, LAT; Martin, ST; Yang, Y; Wang, J; Artaxo, P; Barbosa, HMJ; Braga, RC; Comstock, JM; Feng, Z; Gao, W; Gomes, HB; Mei, F; Pöhlker, C; Pöhlker, ML; Pöschl, U; de Souza, RAF (2018) HERO ID: 4240980

[Less] Aerosol-cloud interactions remain the largest uncertainty in climate projections. Ultrafine aerosol . . . [More] Aerosol-cloud interactions remain the largest uncertainty in climate projections. Ultrafine aerosol particles smaller than 50 nanometers (UAP<50) can be abundant in the troposphere but are conventionally considered too small to affect cloud formation. Observational evidence and numerical simulations of deep convective clouds (DCCs) over the Amazon show that DCCs forming in a low-aerosol environment can develop very large vapor supersaturation because fast droplet coalescence reduces integrated droplet surface area and subsequent condensation. UAP<50from pollution plumes that are ingested into such clouds can be activated to form additional cloud droplets on which excess supersaturation condenses and forms additional cloud water and latent heating, thus intensifying convective strength. This mechanism suggests a strong anthropogenic invigoration of DCCs in previously pristine regions of the world.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Variation in rising limb of Colorado River snowmelt runoff hydrograph controlled by dust radiative forcing in snow

Authors: Painter, TH; Skiles, SM; Deems, JS; Brandt, WT; Dozier, J (2018) Geophysical Research Letters 45:797-808. HERO ID: 4240981

[Less] Common practice and conventional wisdom hold that fluctuations in air temperature control interannual . . . [More] Common practice and conventional wisdom hold that fluctuations in air temperature control interannual variability in snowmelt and subsequent river runoff. However, recent observations in the Upper Colorado River Basin confirm that net solar radiation and by extension radiative forcing by dust deposited on snow cover exerts the primary forcing on snowmelt. We show that the variation in the shape of the rising limb of the annual hydrograph is controlled by variability in dust radiative forcing and surprisingly is independent of variations in winter and spring air temperatures. These observations suggest that hydroclimatic modeling must be improved to account for aerosol forcings of the water cycle. Anthropogenic climate change will likely reduce total snow accumulations and cause snowmelt runoff to occur earlier. However, dust radiative forcing of snowmelt is likely consuming important adaptive capacity that would allow human and natural systems to be more resilient to changing hydroclimatic conditions.



Plain Language Summary We address the question, do air temperatures or absorbed solar radiation explain the year-to-year variability of the rate of snowmelt and therefore the shape of the way the streamflow rises in the melt season? Our analysis shows that absorbed solar radiation, which varies with the amount of wind blown dust deposited into the snowpack, causes the streams to rise more quickly in years with more dust, whereas the rate at which the streams rise does not depend on air temperature. Forecasts of snowmelt runoff must account for the variability in dust deposition.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Disparities in distribution of particulate matter emission sources by race and poverty status

Authors: Mikati, I; Benson, AF; Luben, TJ; Sacks, JD; Richmond-Bryant, J (2018) American Journal of Public Health e1-e6. HERO ID: 4241015

[Less] OBJECTIVES: To quantify nationwide disparities in the location of particulate matter . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: To quantify nationwide disparities in the location of particulate matter (PM)-emitting facilities by the characteristics of the surrounding residential population and to illustrate various spatial scales at which to consider such disparities.

METHODS: We assigned facilities emitting PM in the 2011 National Emissions Inventory to nearby block groups across the 2009 to 2013 American Community Survey population. We calculated the burden from these emissions for racial/ethnic groups and by poverty status. We quantified disparities nationally and for each state and county in the country.

RESULTS: For PM of 2.5 micrometers in diameter or less, those in poverty had 1.35 times higher burden than did the overall population, and non-Whites had 1.28 times higher burden. Blacks, specifically, had 1.54 times higher burden than did the overall population. These patterns were relatively unaffected by sensitivity analyses, and disparities held not only nationally but within most states and counties as well.

CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in burden from PM-emitting facilities exist at multiple geographic scales. Disparities for Blacks are more pronounced than are disparities on the basis of poverty status. Strictly socioeconomic considerations may be insufficient to reduce PM burdens equitably across populations. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print February 22, 2018: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304297).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Supplement: Disparities in Distribution of Particulate Matter Emission Sources by Race and Poverty Status

Authors: Mikati, I; Benson, AF; Luben, TJ; Sacks, JD; Richmond-Bryant, J (2018) American Journal of Public Health 1:e1-e6. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 4241047

[Less] OBJECTIVES: To quantify nationwide disparities in the location of particulate matter . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: To quantify nationwide disparities in the location of particulate matter (PM)-emitting facilities by the characteristics of the surrounding residential population and to illustrate various spatial scales at which to consider such disparities.

METHODS: We assigned facilities emitting PM in the 2011 National Emissions Inventory to nearby block groups across the 2009 to 2013 American Community Survey population. We calculated the burden from these emissions for racial/ethnic groups and by poverty status. We quantified disparities nationally and for each state and county in the country.

RESULTS: For PM of 2.5 micrometers in diameter or less, those in poverty had 1.35 times higher burden than did the overall population, and non-Whites had 1.28 times higher burden. Blacks, specifically, had 1.54 times higher burden than did the overall population. These patterns were relatively unaffected by sensitivity analyses, and disparities held not only nationally but within most states and counties as well.

CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in burden from PM-emitting facilities exist at multiple geographic scales. Disparities for Blacks are more pronounced than are disparities on the basis of poverty status. Strictly socioeconomic considerations may be insufficient to reduce PM burdens equitably across populations. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print February 22, 2018: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304297).