Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA-PM (current)


14,193 References Were Found:

Journal Article
Journal Article

High prevalence of undiagnosed COPD among patients evaluated for suspected myocardial ischaemia

Authors: Jönsson, A; Fedorowski, A; Engström, G; Wollmer, P; Hamrefors, V (2018) HERO ID: 5433197

[Less] Objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and coronary artery disease . . . [More] Objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Despite the well-known comorbidity between COPD and CAD, the presence of COPD may be overlooked in patients undergoing coronary evaluation. We aimed to assess the prevalence of undiagnosed COPD among outpatients evaluated due to suspected myocardial ischemia.

Methods: Among 500 outpatients who were referred to myocardial perfusion imaging due to suspected stable myocardial ischaemia, 433 patients performed spirometry. Of these, a total of 400 subjects (age 66 years; 45% women) had no previous COPD diagnosis and were included in the current study. We compared the prevalence of previously undiagnosed COPD according to spirometry criteria from The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) or lower limit of normal (LLN) and reversible myocardial ischaemia according to symptoms and clinical factors.

Results: A total of 134 (GOLD criteria; 33.5 %) or 46 patients (LLN criteria; 11.5%) had previously undiagnosed COPD, whereas 55 patients (13.8 %) had reversible myocardial ischaemia. The presenting symptoms (chest discomfort, dyspnoea) did not differ between COPD, myocardial ischaemia and normal findings. Except for smoking, no clinical factors were consistently associated with previously undiagnosed COPD.

Conclusions: Among middle-aged outpatients evaluated due to suspected myocardial ischaemia, previously undiagnosed COPD is at least as common as reversible myocardial ischaemia and the presenting symptoms do not differentiate between these entities. Patients going through a coronary ischaemia evaluation should be additionally tested for COPD, especially if there is a positive history of smoking.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Probe and monitoring path siting criteria for ambient air quality monitoring

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) § 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix 58, 2018 (Goverment Publishing Office). HERO ID: 4445192

[Less] (a) This appendix contains specific location criteria applicable to SLAMS, NCore, and PAMS ambient air . . . [More] (a) This appendix contains specific location criteria applicable to SLAMS, NCore, and PAMS ambient air quality monitoring probes, inlets, and optical paths after the general location has been selected based on the monitoring objectives and spatial scale of representation discussed in appendix D to this part. Adherence to these siting criteria is necessary to ensure the uniform collection of compatible and comparable air quality data.

(b) The probe and monitoring path siting criteria discussed in this appendix must be followed to the maximum extent possible. It is recognized that there may be situations where some deviation from the siting criteria may be necessary. In any such case, the reasons must be thoroughly documented in a written request for a waiver that describes how and why the proposed siting deviates from the criteria. This documentation should help to avoid later questions about the validity of the resulting monitoring data. Conditions under which the EPA would consider an application for waiver from these siting criteria are discussed in section 10 of this appendix.

(c) The pollutant-specific probe and monitoring path siting criteria generally apply to all spatial scales except where noted otherwise. Specific siting criteria that are phrased with a “must” are defined as requirements and exceptions must be approved through the waiver provisions. However, siting criteria that are phrased with a “should” are defined as goals to meet for consistency but are not requirements.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Pilot study on coarse PM monitoring

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) HERO ID: 4445486

[Less] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted this field study in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate . . . [More] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted this field study in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate the challenges in sampling and analyzing coarse aerosol, the precision of coarse PM (PMc) mass species measurements using dichotomous (dichot) samplers, and mass balance of PMc. The study database is publicly available through the EPA Air Quality System (AQS) to EPA personnel, atmospheric scientists, and others concerned with the science of PM air pollution, related health effects, and human exposure to the coarse PM fraction of particulate matter. Additional samplers—including paired PM10 and PM2.5 Federal Reference Method (FRM) samplers to calculate PM10-2.5 mass and species concentrations by the difference method, and semi-continuous monitors—were operated to further characterize coarse PM and aid in the interpretation of any differences between dichot data and difference method data. The results of this study may be used to establish routine field operating procedures and laboratory standard operating procedures (SOPs) for use in PMc speciation monitoring.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Modeling NH4NO3 over the San Joaquin Valley during the 2013 DISCOVER‐AQ Campaign

Authors: Kelly, JT; Parworth, CL; Zhang, Q; Miller, DJ; Sun, K; Zondlo, MA; Baker, KR; Wisthaler, A; Nowak, JB; Pusede, SE; Cohen, RC; Weinheimer, AJ; Beyersdorf, AJ; Tonnesen, GS; Bash, JO; Valin, LC; Crawford, JH; Fried, A; Walega, JG (2018) Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123:4727-4745. HERO ID: 4449281

[Less] The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California experiences high concentrations of particulate matter NH4NO3 . . . [More] The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California experiences high concentrations of particulate matter NH4NO3 during episodes of meteorological stagnation in winter. A rich data set of observations related to NH4NO3 formation was acquired during multiple periods of elevated NH4NO3 during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER‐AQ) field campaign in SJV in January and February 2013. Here NH4NO3 is simulated during the SJV DISCOVER‐AQ study period with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, diagnostic model evaluation is performed using the DISCOVER‐AQ data set, and integrated reaction rate analysis is used to quantify HNO3 production rates. Simulated NO3− generally agrees well with routine monitoring of 24‐hr average NO3−, but comparisons with hourly average NO3− measurements in Fresno revealed differences at higher time resolution. Predictions of gas‐particle partitioning of total nitrate (HNO3 + NO3−) and NHx (NH3 + NH4+) generally agree well with measurements in Fresno, although partitioning of total nitrate to HNO3 is sometimes overestimated at low relative humidity in afternoon. Gas‐particle partitioning results indicate that NH4NO3 formation is limited by HNO3 availability in both the model and ambient. NH3 mixing ratios are underestimated, particularly in areas with large agricultural activity, and additional work on the spatial allocation of NH3 emissions is warranted. During a period of elevated NH4NO3, the model predicted that the OH + NO2 pathway contributed 46% to total HNO3 production in SJV and the N2O5 heterogeneous hydrolysis pathway contributed 54%. The relative importance of the OH + NO2 pathway for HNO3 production is predicted to increase as NOx emissions decrease.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Modeling NH4NO3 over the San Joaquin Valley during the 2013 DISCOVER‐AQ Campaign : Supplementary materials

Authors: Kelly, JT; Parworth, CL; Zhang, Q; Miller, DJ; Sun, K; Zondlo, MA; Baker, KR; Wisthaler, A; Nowak, JB; Pusede, SE; Cohen, RC; Weinheimer, AJ; Beyersdorf, AJ; Tonnesen, GS; Bash, JO; Valin, LC; Crawford, JH; Fried, A; Walega, JG (2018) 123. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 4449282

Abstract: Supplementary materials

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Associations between long-term PM2.5 and ozone exposure and mortality in the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CANCHEC), by spatial synoptic classification zone

Authors: Cakmak, S; Hebbern, C; Pinault, L; Lavigne, E; Vanos, J; Crouse, DL; Tjepkema, M (2018) Environment International 111:200-211. HERO ID: 4167344

[Less] Studies suggest that long-term chronic exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution can increase . . . [More] Studies suggest that long-term chronic exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution can increase lung cancer mortality. We analyzed the association between long term PM2.5 and ozone exposure and mortality due to lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, accounting for geographic location, socioeconomic status, and residential mobility. Subjects in the 1991 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC) were followed for 20years, and assigned to regions across Canada based on spatial synoptic classification weather types. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality, were related to PM2.5 and ozone using Cox proportional hazards survival models, adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics and individual confounders. An increase of 10μg/m3 in long term PM2.5 exposure resulted in an HR for lung cancer mortality of 1.26 (95% CI 1.04, 1.53); the inclusion in the model of SSC zone as a stratum increased the risk estimate to HR 1.29 (95% CI 1.06, 1.57). After adjusting for ozone, HRs increased to 1.49 (95% CI 1.23, 1.88), and HR 1.54 (95% CI 1.27, 1.87), with and without zone as a model stratum. HRs for ischemic heart disease fell from 1.25 (95% CI 1.21, 1.29) for exposure to PM2.5, to 1.13 (95% CI 1.08, 1.19) when PM2.5 was adjusted for ozone. For COPD, the 95% confidence limits included 1.0 when climate zone was included in the model. HRs for all causes of death showed spatial differences when compared to zone 3, the most populated climate zone. Exposure to PM2.5 was related to an increased risk of mortality from lung cancer, and both ozone and PM2.5 exposure were related to risk of mortality from ischemic heart disease, and the risk varied spatially by climate zone.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quantifying population exposure to air pollution using individual mobility patterns inferred from mobile phone data

Authors: Nyhan, MM; Kloog, I; Britter, R; Ratti, C; Koutrakis, P (2018) HERO ID: 4543561

[Less] A critical question in environmental epidemiology is whether air pollution exposures of large populations . . . [More] A critical question in environmental epidemiology is whether air pollution exposures of large populations can be refined using individual mobile-device-based mobility patterns. Cellular network data has become an essential tool for understanding the movements of human populations. As such, through inferring the daily home and work locations of 407,435 mobile phone users whose positions are determined, we assess exposure to PM2.5. Spatiotemporal PM2.5 concentrations are predicted using an Aerosol Optical Depth- and Land Use Regression-combined model. Air pollution exposures of subjects are assigned considering modeled PM2.5 levels at both their home and work locations. These exposures are then compared to residence-only exposure metric, which does not consider daily mobility. In our study, we demonstrate that individual air pollution exposures can be quantified using mobile device data, for populations of unprecedented size. In examining mean annual PM2.5 exposures determined, bias for the residence-based exposures was 0.91, relative to the exposure metric considering the work location. Thus, we find that ignoring daily mobility potentially contributes to misclassification in health effect estimates. Our framework for understanding population exposure to environmental pollution could play a key role in prospective environmental epidemiological studies.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Supplemental material: Chapter 5 (Respiratory Effects) Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

Author: U.S. EPA (2018) HERO ID: 4566668


Data/Software
Data/ Software

Tables of summary health statistics for U.S. adults: 2016 National health interview survey

Authors: Blackwell, DL; Villarroel, MA (2018) HERO ID: 4593252


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of air pollution exposure on glucose metabolism in Los Angeles minority children

Authors: Toledo-Corral, CM; Alderete, TL; Habre, R; Berhane, K; Lurmann, FW; Weigensberg, MJ; Goran, MI; Gilliland, FD (2018) Pediatric Obesity. HERO ID: 3455482

[Less] OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence indicates that ambient (AAP: NO2 , PM2.5 and O3 ) and . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence indicates that ambient (AAP: NO2 , PM2.5 and O3 ) and traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) contribute to metabolic disease risk in adults; however, few studies have examined these relationships in children.

METHODS: Metabolic profiling was performed in 429 overweight and obese African-American and Latino youth living in urban Los Angeles, California. This cross-sectional study estimated individual residential air pollution exposure and used linear regression to examine relationships between air pollution and metabolic outcomes.

RESULTS: AAP and TRAP exposure were associated with adverse effects on glucose metabolism independent of body fat percent. PM2.5 was associated with 25.0% higher fasting insulin (p < 0.001), 8.3% lower insulin sensitivity (p < 0.001), 14.7% higher acute insulin response to glucose (p = 0.001) and 1.7% higher fasting glucose (p < 0.001). Similar associations were observed for increased NO2 exposure. TRAP from non-freeway roads was associated with 12.1% higher insulin (p < 0.001), 6.9% lower insulin sensitivity (p = 0.02), 10.8% higher acute insulin response to glucose (p = 0.003) and 0.7% higher fasting glucose (p = 0.047).

CONCLUSIONS: Elevated air pollution exposure was associated with a metabolic profile that is characteristic of increased risk for type 2 diabetes. These results indicate that increased prior year exposure to air pollution may adversely affect type 2 diabetes-related pathophysiology in overweight and obese minority children.