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PFUnA (2058-94-8)


250 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula, China

Authors: Wan, Y; Wang, S; Cao, X; Cao, Y; Zhang, L; Wang, H; Liu, J (2017) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 189:100. HERO ID: 3859714

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been observed in various environmental matrices globally in recent . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been observed in various environmental matrices globally in recent years. In this study, the levels, spatial distribution tendencies, and partitioning characteristics of the target 12 PFAAs were investigated in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula in China, and two sediment core samples were also collected to study the vertical and historical variation of PFAAs. The ranges (means) of total PFAA concentrations were 23.69-148.48 ng/L (76.11 ng/L) in the water and 1.30-11.17 ng/g (5.93 ng/g) in the surface sediment, respectively. Among the target 12 PFAAs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant component in water, followed by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). PFOS, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and PFOA were the dominant components in sediment. For their spatial distribution, higher levels of PFAAs were found at the locations close to much developed cities. The PFAA concentrations showed an overall decreasing tendency with depth increase in the two sediment cores, which indicates that the extent of PFAAs pollution is aggravating trend in recent years. Results of the partition coefficient (K d ) show that the compounds with longer carbon chains (C ≥ 7) generally had higher K d values, which suggest that long-chain PFAAs are prone to be adsorbed by sediment. In addition, the Log K d of PFHxA, PFOA, and PFOS were significantly and positively correlated to the salinity of the water. The results of risk assessment suggest appreciable risk of PFAAs to the local ecosystem.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl substances and thyroid hormones in cord blood

Authors: Tsai, MS; Lin, CC; Chen, MH; Hsieh, WS; Chen, PC (2017) Environmental Pollution 222:543-548. HERO ID: 3860107

[Less] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are pollutants that tend to accumulate . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are pollutants that tend to accumulate in the environment and organisms. The animal and human studies to date have focused on thyroid function, but the results are inconsistent.

METHODS: A sample of 118 mother-infant pairs was obtained from the Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS). Cord blood PFASs levels were evaluated using the Waters ACQUITY UPLC system coupled with a Waters Quattro Premier XE triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, and cord blood thyroid hormones were assessed using a Roche Analytics E170 modular analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). PFASs concentrations were analysed in the final models to examine the associations between cord blood PFASs levels and thyroid hormone concentrations.

RESULTS: The cord blood perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentration was negatively associated with the cord blood thyroxine (T4) concentration [per ln unit: adjusted β (95% confidence interval, CI) = -0.458(-0.916, -0.001)]. Moreover, the level of cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was positively associated with the cord blood PFOS concentration [per ln unit: adjusted β (95% confidence interval, CI) = 0.346(0.101, 0.592)]. The sex stratified effects of PFOS on T4 were suggestive of differential effects in high-exposure groups compared with low-exposure group in boys.

CONCLUSIONS: We found that cord blood thyroid hormone levels are affected by PFASs, with a negative association between T4 and PFOS and a positive association between TSH and PFOS. The causal associations of thyroid hormones and PFASs require further exploration.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Uptake and metabolism of 10:2 fluorotelomer alcohol in soil-earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and soil-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) systems

Authors: Zhao, S; Zhu, L (2017) Environmental Pollution 220:124-131. HERO ID: 3858510

[Less] The behavior of 10:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (10:2 FTOH) in the systems of soil-earthworm (Eisenia fetida), . . . [More] The behavior of 10:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (10:2 FTOH) in the systems of soil-earthworm (Eisenia fetida), soil-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soil-earthworm-wheat, including degradation in soil, uptake and metabolism in wheat and earthworms were investigated. Several perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) as degradation products of 10:2 FTOH were identified in the soil, plant and earthworms. 10:2 FTOH could be biodegraded to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanate (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) in soil in the absence or presence of wheat/earthworms, and PFDA was the predominant metabolite. Accumulation of initial 10:2 FTOH and its metabolites were observed in the wheat and earthworms, suggesting that 10:2 FTOH could be bioaccumulated in wheat and earthworms and biotransformed to the highly stable PFCAs. Perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic (PFHxA) and PFDA were detected in wheat root, while PFDA and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were detected in shoot. PFNA and PFDA were determined in earthworms and the concentration of PFDA was much higher. The presence of earthworms and/or plant stimulated the microbial degradation of 10:2 FTOH in soil. The results supplied important evidence that degradation of 10:2 FTOH was an important potential source of PFCAs in the environment and in biota.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The impact of two fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities on downstream contamination of a river and drinking water resources with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances

Authors: Bach, C; Dauchy, X; Boiteux, V; Colin, A; Hemard, J; Sagres, V; Rosin, C; Munoz, JF (2017) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24:4916-4925. HERO ID: 3859724

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging contaminants that have been detected . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging contaminants that have been detected in the environment, biota, and humans. Drinking water is a route of exposure for populations consuming water contaminated by PFAS discharges. This research study reports environmental measurement concentrations, mass flows, and the fate of dozens of PFASs in a river receiving effluents from two fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities. In addition to quantified levels of PFASs using LC- and GC-MS analytical methods, the total amount of unidentified PFASs and precursors was assessed using two complementary analytical methods, absorbable organic fluorine (AOF) determination and oxidative conversion of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) precursors. Several dozen samples were collected in the river (water and sediment) during four sampling campaigns. In addition, samples were collected in two well fields and from the outlet of the drinking water treatment plants after chlorination. We estimated that 4295 kg PFHxA, 1487 kg 6:2FTSA, 965 kg PFNA, 307 kg PFUnDA, and 14 kg PFOA were discharged in the river by the two facilities in 2013. High concentrations (up to 176 ng/g dw) of odd long-chain PFASs (PFUnDA and PFTrDA) were found in sediment samples. PFASs were detected in all 15 wells, with concentrations varying based on the location of the well in the field. Additionally, the presence of previously discharged PFASs was still measurable. Significant discrepancies between PFAS concentration profiles in the wells and in the river suggest an accumulation and transformation of PFCA precursors in the aquifer. Chlorination had no removal efficiency and no unidentified PFASs were detected in the treated water with either complementary analytical method. Although the total PFAS concentrations were high in the treated water, ranging from 86 to 169 ng/L, they did not exceed the currently available guideline values.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Concentration of perfluorinated compounds and cotinine in human foetal organs, placenta, and maternal plasma

Authors: Mamsen, LS; Jönsson, BAG; Lindh, CH; Olesen, RH; Larsen, A; Ernst, E; Kelsey, TW; Andersen, CY (2017) Science of the Total Environment 596-597:97-105. HERO ID: 3858487

[Less] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are bio-accumulative pollutants, and . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are bio-accumulative pollutants, and prenatal exposure to PFASs is believed to impact human foetal development and may have long-term adverse health effects later in life. Additionally, maternal cigarette smoking may be associated with PFAS levels. Foetal exposure has previously been estimated from umbilical cord plasma, but the actual concentration in foetal organs has never been measured.

OBJECTIVES: The concentrations of 5 PFASs and cotinine - the primary metabolite of nicotine - were measured in human foetuses, placentas, and maternal plasma to evaluate to what extent these compounds were transferred from mother to foetus and to determine if the PFAS concentrations were associated with maternal cigarette smoking.

METHODS: Thirty-nine Danish women who underwent legal termination of pregnancy before gestational week 12 were included; 24 maternal blood samples were obtained together with 34 placental samples and 108 foetal organs. PFASs and cotinine were assayed by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: In foetal organs, the average concentrations of perfluorooctanesulphonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDa), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were 0.6ng/g, 0.2ng/g, 0.1ng/g, 0.1ng/g, and 0.1ng/g, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the exposure duration, defined as foetal age, and foetal to maternal ratio for all five PFASs and cotinine. Smokers presented 99ng/g cotinine in plasma, 108ng/g in placenta, and 61ng/g in foetal organs. No correlation between the maternal cotinine concentrations and PFAS concentrations was found.

CONCLUSIONS: PFASs were transferred from mother to foetus, however, with different efficiencies. The concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFUnDA, and PFDA in foetal organs were much lower than the maternal concentrations. Furthermore, a significant correlation between the exposure duration and all of the evaluated PFASs was found. The health-compromising concentrations of these substances during foetal development are unknown.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Circulating levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and carotid artery atherosclerosis

Authors: Lind, PM; Salihovic, S; van Bavel, B; Lind, L (2017) Environmental Research 152:157-164. HERO ID: 3858504

[Less] BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: During recent years, some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) . . . [More] BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: During recent years, some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been linked to atherosclerosis. One group of POPs, the poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have not been investigated with regard to atherosclerotic plaques.

METHODS: Carotid artery atherosclerosis was assessed by ultrasound in 1016 subjects aged 70 years in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Eight PFASs were detected in >75% of participants' plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).

RESULTS: No significant linear associations were observed between the PFASs and intima-media thickness (IMT), or the echogenicity in the intima-media complex (IM-GSM, a marker of lipid infiltration in the artery) when men and women were analyzed together. Neither was occurrence of carotid plaques related to PFASs levels. However, highly significant interactions were observed between some PFASs and sex regarding both IM-GSM and plaque prevalence. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), were all related to IM-GSM in a positive fashion in women (p=0.002-0.003), while these relationships were negative in men. The levels of PFUnDA were significantly related to carotid plaque in women (OR 1.59, 95%CI 1.03-2.43, p=0.03), but not in men (OR 0.93, 95%CI 0.62-1.42, p=0.75).

CONCLUSIONS: In this cross-sectional study, a pronounced gender difference was observed regarding associations between some PFASs, especially the long-chain PFUnDA, and markers of atherosclerosis, with more pronounced relationships found in women. These findings suggest a sex-specific role for PFASs in atherosclerosis.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Temporal trends of PFSAs, PFCAs and selected precursors in Australian serum from 2002 to 2013

Authors: Eriksson, U; Mueller, JF; Toms, LL; Hobson, P; Kärrman, A (2017) Environmental Pollution 220:168-177. HERO ID: 3858507

[Less] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a family of compounds that includes numerous compound . . . [More] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a family of compounds that includes numerous compound classes. To date, only a subset of these PFASs have been studied thoroughly in the general population. In this study, pooled serum samples from Australia collected in 2002-2013 were analyzed for PFASs according to gender and age (age categories of 0-4 years, 5-15 years, 16-30 years, 31-45 years, 46-60 years, and >60 years), in total 54 pooled samples and 4920 individuals. Compound classes included were perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs), and two groups of PFCA precursor compounds; polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs), and fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs). Several PFASs that were not reported in previous studies of Australian serum samples were found in this sample set including; diPAPs, FTSAs, perfluoropentane sulfonic acid (PFPeS), perfluoroheptane sulfonic acid (PFHpS), perfluoroheptane carboxylic acid (PFHpA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA). Various temporal trends were observed with a significant reduction (p < 0.05) between 2002 and 2013 for 8:2 FTSA, perflurohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), PFHpS, PFOS, and perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA). Levels of longer-chained PFDA and PFUnDA started to decrease more recently, between 2006 and 2013, while PFDoDA increased during the same time period. Higher levels in younger age groups (0-4 and 5-15 years) compared to adults (>15 years) were found for 8:2 FTSA and PFHpA, while levels of PFHpS, PFOS, PFUnDA, PFDoDA and PFTrDA were higher in adult age groups compared to younger age groups. Gender-specific patterns were seen for PFOA, PFHxS, PFHpS and PFOS, where levels were lower in women. Changes in manufacturing processes were reflected in the temporal time trends, and differences in bioaccumulation potential between homologues could be associated with age trends. Our results emphasize the importance of including emerging classes of PFASs in biomonitoring studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Variation in perfluoroalkyl acids in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

Authors: Bangma, JT; Reiner, JL; Jones, M; Lowers, RH; Nilsen, F; Rainwater, TR; Somerville, S; Guillette, LJ; Bowden, JA (2017) Chemosphere 166:72-79. HERO ID: 3858508

[Less] This study aimed to quantify concentrations of fifteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the plasma of . . . [More] This study aimed to quantify concentrations of fifteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the plasma of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting wetlands surrounding the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, USA located at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR). Approximately 10 male and 10 female alligators (ntotal = 229) were sampled each month during 2008 and 2009 to determine if seasonal or spatial trends existed with PFAA burden. PFOS represented the highest plasma burden (median 185 ng/g) and PFHxS the second highest (median 7.96 ng/g). While no significant seasonal trends were observed, unique spatial trends emerged. Many of the measured PFAAs co-varied strongly together and similar trends were observed for PFOS, PFDA, PFUnA, and PFDoA, as well as for PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFTriA, and PFTA, suggesting more than one source of PFAAs at MINWR. Higher concentrations of PFOS and the PFAAs that co-varied with PFOS were collected from animals around sites that included the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) fire house and the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout (O&C) retention pond, while higher concentrations of PFOA and the PFAA that co-varied with PFOA were sampled from animals near the gun range and the old fire training facility. Sex-based differences and snout-vent length (SVL) correlations with PFAA burden were also investigated.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl acids in groundwater, tile drainage, soil, and crop grain following a high application of municipal biosolids to a field

Authors: Gottschall, N; Topp, E; Edwards, M; Payne, M; Kleywegt, S; Lapen, DR (2017) Science of the Total Environment 574:1345-1359. HERO ID: 3858509

[Less] Dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) were applied at a rate of 22Mgdwha(-1) to an agricultural field . . . [More] Dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) were applied at a rate of 22Mgdwha(-1) to an agricultural field in fall 2008. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -197, -207, -209), other brominated flame retardants (BFRs; HBB, PBEB, DBDPE, BTBPE) and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs; PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS, PFOSA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTA) were monitored in tile drainage, groundwater (2m, 4m and 6m depth), soil cores (0-0.3m) pre- and post-application, DMB aggregates incorporated into the soil post-application, and in wheat (Triticum spp.) planted post-application. Several compounds were detected in soil and water pre-application and on a reference field plot. PBDEs, other BFRs and PFAAs were detected in tile drainage and 2m groundwater throughout the post-application study period; a few PBDEs were also detected sporadically at lower depths in groundwater. Some of these compounds had not been detected pre-application, while some exceeded reference field plot/pre-application levels (some significantly (p<0.05) in tile drainage); both cases indicating biosolid-based water contamination. In DMB aggregates, several PBDE congeners were found to have dissipated exponentially, with reductions >90% in many of them within 1year post-application. Exponential dissipation of other BFRs and PFAAs in DMB aggregates were not significant. No PBDEs, other BFRs, or PFAAs were detected in wheat grain.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Variation and accumulation patterns of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) across a gradient of pristine Swedish lakes

Authors: Åkerblom, S; Negm, N; Wu, P; Bishop, K; Ahrens, L (2017) Science of the Total Environment 599-600:1685-1692. HERO ID: 3858483

[Less] This study assessed variations in the concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in . . . [More] This study assessed variations in the concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Swedish lakes and the extent to which fish size, age and indicators of fish trophic ecology (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) correlate with the sum of individual PFAS concentrations (ΣPFAS). Fish muscle tissue samples (n=80) were taken from six lakes across Sweden and analysed using solid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). PFAS levels in the lakes were affected by atmospheric deposition in relatively pristine areas with no direct point source of PFAS in the catchment. PFTeDA, PFUnDA, PFTriDA, PFDoDA, PFDA, PFOS and 6:2 FTSA were detected with a frequency between 68% and 99% and were included in the statistical evaluation. ΣPFAS differed between lakes (ANOVA: F=50.6, p<0.0001): fish from lakes in southern Sweden (lake Gårdsjön, 58°03'N, 12°01'E) showed elevated levels of PFAS, with a maximum ΣPFAS of 3.4ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) (mean±SD: 0.99±0.63ng g(-1) ww), while the lowest levels were found in lake Björntjärn (0.31±0.08ng g(-1) ww) in northern Sweden (63°54'N, 18°51'E). PFOS was most abundant in perch from south-western Sweden, while other long-chain perfluorocarbons (>10 carbon atoms) were relatively more abundant in lakes in northern Sweden. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that concentrations of PFAS in perch did not show any relation to fish size or age and were negatively correlated with trophic position of the fish (δ(15)N). It was also found that ΣPFAS were negatively correlated with both latitude and altitude. The PFAS data in this study represent national background concentrations in freshwater fish across Swedish lakes.