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PFDA (335-76-2)


850 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Contaminant levels and endocrine disruptive effects in Clarias gariepinus exposed to simulated leachate from a solid waste dumpsite in Calabar, Nigeria

Authors: Ibor, OR; Andem, AB; Eni, G; Arong, GA; Adeougn, AO; Arukwe, A (2020) Aquatic Toxicology 219:105375. HERO ID: 6311681

[Less] Solid waste dumpsites (SWDs) and landfills are significant sources of emerging contaminants to terrestrial . . . [More] Solid waste dumpsites (SWDs) and landfills are significant sources of emerging contaminants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We have studied the endocrine disruptive effects of simulated leachate from a solid waste dumpsite in Calabar, Nigeria. Juvenile C. gariepinus were exposed to simulated leachate, diluted to 0:0 (control), 1:10, 1:50, 1:100 for 3, 7 and 14 days. In addition, 17β-estradiol (E2: 100 μg/L)-exposed positive control group was included. Hepatic transcripts for the genes encoding vitellogenin (vtg), estrogen receptor-α (er-α), and aromatase (cyp19a1) were analyzed by real-time PCR. Protein expression for Vtg and Cyp19 were measured by immunoblotting and plasma steroid hormones (testosterone: T and E2) were measured using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Soil samples from the dumpsite were analyzed for selected group of contaminants showing that DEHP was the only detected phthalate ester (PE) at 1300 ± 400 ng/g. Further, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) such as PFBS, PFOS, PFHxA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA and PFDoDA were detected in the soil samples from the dumpsite. We observed significant and apparent concentration-dependent increases in mRNA (vtg, er-α, and cyp19a1) and their corresponding functional protein products, after exposure to the simulated leachates. Further, the simulated leachate produced concentration-specific changes in plasma E2 and T levels. In general, the estrogenic endocrine and reproductive alterations in the exposed fish may directly be attributed to the PFASs and DEHP detected at the dumpsites. However, in addition to PFASs and DEHP, there could be other estrogenic contaminants in the leachate. Given the rapid utilization, for residential purposes, and increases in human settlement in areas around the Lemna SWDs, this study provides a direct cause-and-effect evidence of the potential contaminants at the dumpsite with significant environmental and human health consequences.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in water and soil in wastewater-irrigated farmland in Jordan

Authors: Shigei, M; Ahrens, L; Hazaymeh, A; Dalahmeh, SS (2020) Science of the Total Environment 716:137057. HERO ID: 6315689

[Less] The Zarqa river (ZR) in Jordan receives >300,000 m3 day -1 of wastewater effluent from Assamra wastewater . . . [More] The Zarqa river (ZR) in Jordan receives >300,000 m3 day -1 of wastewater effluent from Assamra wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and is a major source of irrigation water for vegetable crops and fodder downstream. ZR water quality is therefore highly important and directly influences crop and soil quality in irrigated fields. This study investigated the occurrence and concentration of 20 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Assamra wastewater, ZR water, soils and crop plants (alfalfa (Medicago sativa), mint (Mentha spicata) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa)) along the ZR flow path between Assamra WWTP and Jerash spring. The combined PFAS concentration (∑PFASs) in Assamra WWTP effluent (14-24 ng L-1) was comparable to that in influent (10-15 ng L-1), indicating poor removal of PFASs. The dominant PFAS in influent was perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), while perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) dominated in effluent. ∑PFASs in an unaffected upstream tributary (Sukhna station) was 4.7-5.4 ng L-1. Farther downstream, ZR water contained 16-27 ng L-1, with PFPeA, PFOA and PFDA dominating, and these levels did not change along the flow path to Jerash spring. ∑PFASs in soil was generally low, 340 ± 150 pg g-1 dry weight (dw) in alfalfa soil (mainly PFOA and PFDA) and 710 ± 420 pg g-1 dw in mint soil and 970 ± 800 pg g-1 dw in lettuce soil (mainly linear perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS) in both cases). Soil-water partitioning coefficient (Kd) was generally low in all soils (range 24-62 L kg-1, 20-46 L kg-1 and 28 L kg-1 for PFOA, PFDA and L-PFHxS, respectively). No PFASs were detected in alfalfa and mint plants. Overall, this investigation demonstrated that PFAS contamination in wastewater, surface water and soil in the ZR basin is very low in a global comparison, and that there is no accumulation of PFASs in the food and feed crops studied.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Incidence of ocular conditions associated with perfluoroalkyl substances exposure: Isomers of C8 Health Project in China

Authors: Zeeshan, M; Yang, Y; Zhou, Y; Huang, W; Wang, Z; Zeng, XY; Liu, RQ; Yang, BY; Hu, LW; Zeng, XW; Sun, X; Yu, Y; Dong, GH (2020) Environment International 137:105555. HERO ID: 6315698

[Less] The detrimental effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on several physiological systems have been . . . [More] The detrimental effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on several physiological systems have been reported, but the association of PFASs with eye, one of the most sensitive and exposed organ, has never been explored. To investigate the association between eye diseases including visual impairment (VI) and PFASs isomers, a cross-sectional stratified study was conducted in 1202 Chinese population, aged 22-96 years, from Shenyang, China. A standard protocol including Snellen vision chart, slit-lamp microscopy and direct ophthalmoscopy was used to examine eye diseases/conditions relating to anterior and posterior segment of eyes. In addition, we measured the blood concentrations of 19 linear and branched PFASs at one-time point. Results indicated that blood levels of PFASs were significantly higher in eye disease group than normal group. PFASs exposure were positively associated with both combined eye diseases and individual eye diseases. Among other PFASs, linear perfluorooctane sulfonate (n-PFOS; odds ratio [OR] = 3.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.50, 4.56), branched perfluorooctane sulfonate (Br-PFOS; OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.72, 2.93) and linear perfluorooctanoic acid (n-PFOA; OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.37) significantly increases the odds of VI. Vitreous disorder was adversely associated with long-chain PFASs exposure. For example, perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA; OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.51, 2.29) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA; OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.36) showed the most significant association. In conclusion, this study suggests higher serum PFASs levels were associated with increase odds of VI and vitreous disorder in Chinese adults.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Variabilities in concentrations of selected perfluoroalkyl acids among normotensives and hypertensives across various stages of glomerular function

Author: Jain, RB (2020) Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health 1-11. HERO ID: 6311650

[Less] Data (N = 10643) from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for US adults aged > = 20 years . . . [More] Data (N = 10643) from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for US adults aged > = 20 years for 2003-2016 were analyzed to evaluate how concentrations of selected perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) vary among normotensives and hypertensives across various stages of glomerular function (GF) namely from stage 1 to stage 3B/4. Regression models stratified by GF stages and hypertension status were fitted for each of the five PFAAs, namely, PFOA, PFOS, PFDA, PFHxS, and PFNA. For the total population, hypertensives had higher adjusted levels than normotensives for GF-1, GF-2, and GF-3A with highest differences being at GF-3A for every PFAA. At GF-3B/4, hypertensives had lower adjusted geometric means (AGM) than normotensives. While AGMs for PFAA for hypertensives followed inverted U-shaped distributions with points of inflections at GF-3A, for normotensives the points of inflections were at GF-2 or GF-3A.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl substances, airways infections, allergy and asthma related health outcomes - Implications of gender, exposure period and study design

Authors: Kvalem, HE; Nygaard, UC; Lødrup Carlsen, KC; Carlsen, KH; Haug, LS; Granum, B (2020) Environment International 134:105259. HERO ID: 6316210

[Less] INTRODUCTION: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been inconsistently . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been inconsistently associated with asthma, allergic diseases and airways infections in early childhood. The aim of the study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of childhood exposure to PFASs on asthma and allergy related outcomes and on airways infections before and during puberty using the prospective birth cohort Environment and Childhood Asthma (ECA) Study. Aspects of gender, exposure period and study design (cross-sectional and longitudinal) were also taken into consideration.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Included in the study was 378 participants with PFAS measurements at age 10 years and follow-up data at ages 10 years (cross sectional data) and 16 years (longitudinal data). Eight PFASs with at least 70% of measurements above the limit of quantification (LOQ) in the child's serum were included in the present study: perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluourononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The PFAS levels were converted into interquartile range (IQR). In addition, perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) detected in 60% of the samples, was recoded into "not detected /detected". Binomial, multinomial and linear regression were used, followed by Bonferroni adjustment to correct for multiple comparisons. Sensitivity analyses evaluating the effect of extreme PFAS values and gender were performed.

RESULTS: In the cross sectional data at 10 years a positive statistically significant association was seen between PFHpA and asthma in girls. In the longitudinal data, PFNA, PFDA and PFUnDA were inversely associated with atopic dermatitis (AD) in girls and with PFHxS in all participants and in boys. Further, PFNA and PFHpS were positively associated with rhinitis in girls and with PFOA in all participants. There seems to be a suggestive pattern of increased risk of allergic sensitisation in all participants and a decreased risk in boys, but due to different results in main and sensitivity analyses these findings should be interpreted with caution. No associations were found between PFASs and lung function. For airways infections and longitudinal data, PFDA was inversely associated with common cold, while positive association was found for PFHpA, PFOA, PFHpS and PFOS and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI).

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our results lend further support for an immunosuppressive effect of PFASs on AD and LRTI. Gender seems to be important for some exposure-health associations. No clear pattern in exposure-health associations was observed with regard to exposure period or study design, with the exception of asthma where significant findings have mostly been reported in cross-sectional studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Associations between selected perfluoroalkyl acids in serum and hemoglobin in whole blood, a biomarker of anemia: Impact of deteriorating kidney function

Author: Jain, RB (2020) HERO ID: 6333438

[Less] Data (N = 11251) from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2003-2016 for US . . . [More] Data (N = 11251) from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2003-2016 for US adults aged ≥20 years were stratified by gender and anemia and analyzed to evaluate the associations between the concentrations of whole blood hemoglobin (WBHGB) and selected perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in serum by stages of glomerular filtration (GF). Investigated PFAAs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA). Females with whole blood hemoglobin concentrations <12 g/dL and males with whole blood hemoglobin concentrations <13 g/dL were classified as being anemic. Regression models with log10 transformed concentrations of whole blood hemoglobin as dependent variable and age, poverty income ratio, body mass index, serum cotinine, daily alcohol intake, survey year, and log10 concentrations of one of the PFAA as independent variables were fitted. For anemic females, association between WBHGB and PFAA concentrations were uniformly positive across worsening stages of renal failure and percent increases for 10% increases in PFAAs varied between 0.03% and 0.39%. For anemic males, association between WBHGB and PFAA concentrations were positive except at GF-3A (45 ≤ eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and percent increases for 10% increases in PFAAs varied between 0.02% and 0.53%. Thus, more often than not, presence of positive associations between WBHGB and PFAA among anemics imply elevated levels of PFAA are associated with higher levels of WBHGB. Similar results were observed for non-anemic males and females, however strengths of associations between whole blood hemoglobin and PFAAs were several fold higher among anemic compared to non-anemic participants. Hemoglobin is consistently associated with serum PFAAs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal exposure to perfluorodecanoic acid is associated with lower circulating concentration of adrenal steroid metabolites during mini puberty in human female infants. The odense child cohort

Authors: Jensen, RC; Glintborg, D; Gade Timmermann, CA; Nielsen, F; Kyhl, HB; Frederiksen, H; Andersson, AM; Juul, A; Sidelmann, JJ; Andersen, HR; Grandjean, P; Andersen, MS; Jensen, TK (2020) Environmental Research 182:109101. HERO ID: 6311643

[Less] BACKGROUND: Fetal programming of the endocrine system may be affected by exposure to . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Fetal programming of the endocrine system may be affected by exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAAs), as they easily cross the placental barrier. In vitro studies suggest that PFAAs may disrupt steroidogenesis. "Mini puberty" refers to a transient surge in circulating androgens, androgen precursors, and gonadotropins in infant girls and boys within the first postnatal months. We hypothesize that prenatal PFAA exposure may decrease the concentrations of androgens in mini puberty.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between maternal serum PFAA concentrations in early pregnancy and serum concentrations of androgens, their precursors, and gonadotropins during mini puberty in infancy.

METHODS: In the prospective Odense Child Cohort, maternal pregnancy serum concentrations of five PFAAs: Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were measured at median gestational week 12 (IQR: 10, 15) in 1628 women. Among these, offspring serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), testosterone, luteinizing (LH) and follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) were measured in 373 children (44% girls; 56% boys) at a mean age of 3.9 (±0.9 SD) months. Multivariate linear regression models were performed to estimate associations.

RESULTS: A two-fold increase in maternal PFDA concentration was associated with a reduction in DHEA concentration by -19.6% (95% CI: -32.9%, -3.8%) in girls. In girls, also, the androstenedione and DHEAS concentrations were decreased, albeit non-significantly (p < 0.11), with a two-fold increase in maternal PFDA concentration. In boys, no significant association was found between PFAAs and concentrations of androgens, their precursors, and gonadotropins during mini puberty.

CONCLUSION: Prenatal PFDA exposure was associated with significantly lower serum DHEA concentrations and possibly also with lower androstenedione and DHEAS concentrations in female infants at mini puberty. The clinical significance of these findings remains to be elucidated.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Elevated levels of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in Cape Fear River Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) are associated with biomarkers of altered immune and liver function

Authors: Guillette, TC; Mccord, J; Guillette, M; Polera, ME; Rachels, KT; Morgeson, C; Kotlarz, N; Knappe, DRU; Reading, BJ; Strynar, M; Belcher, SM (2020) Environment International 136:105358. HERO ID: 6302271

[Less] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are anthropogenic chemicals of concern that persist in the . . . [More] Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are anthropogenic chemicals of concern that persist in the environment. Environmental monitoring revealed high concentrations of hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) and other novel PFAS in the lower Cape Fear River; however, there is limited information on PFAS exposures and effects of this contamination on aquatic biota. Serum concentrations of 23 PFAS in Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) from the Cape Fear River (n = 58) and a reference population from an aquaculture laboratory on the Pamlico/Tar watershed (n = 29) were quantified using liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry, and correlations between PFAS concentrations and health-related serum biomarkers were evaluated. Perfluorooctane sulfonate, the predominant PFAS in Cape Fear River Striped Bass serum, was detectable in every sample with serum concentrations reaching 977 ng/mL. Perfluorononanoic and perfluorodecanoic acid were also detected in all samples, with perfluorohexanesulfonic acid present in >98% of the samples. HFPO-DA (range <0.24-5.85 ng/mL) and Nafion byproduct 2 (range <0.2-1.03 ng/mL) were detected in 48% and 78% of samples, respectively. The mean total PFAS concentration found in domestic Striped Bass raised in well-water under controlled aquaculture conditions was 40 times lower, with HPFO-DA detected in 10% of the samples, and Nafion byproduct 2 was not detected. The elevated PFAS concentrations found in the Cape Fear River Striped Bass were associated with biomarkers of alterations in the liver and immune system.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in lysimeter-grown rice in Japan using tap water and simulated contaminated water

Authors: Yamazaki, E; Taniyasu, S; Noborio, K; Eun, H; Thaker, P; Kumar, NJI; Wang, X; Yamashita, N (2019) Chemosphere 231:502-509. HERO ID: 5381561

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of contaminants of concern in agricultural crops, but . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of contaminants of concern in agricultural crops, but little is known of their accumulation or behavior in grains. We grew Japanese rice (Oryza sativa subsp. indica) in lysimeters irrigated with tap water or tap water plus simulated contaminated water for 2 years, then analyzed the roots, straw, unhulled rice, white rice, bran, soil, and water for PFASs residues. Total fluorine was measured by combustion ion chromatography. Estimated per-plant residue levels were 3.0 pg perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (bran: 0.5%, hull: 99.5%), 0.54 pg N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) (white rice: 67%, hull: 33%), 1.2 pg perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (white rice: 13%, bran: 7%, hull: 79%), 0.68 pg perfluoropentanoic acid (hull: 100%), 0.50 pg perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (white rice: 65%, bran: 16%, hull: 19%), 0.21 pg perfluoroheptanoic acid (hull: 100%), 0.25 pg perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (hull: 100%), and 0.12 pg perfluorodecanoic acid (PFNA) (white rice: 81%, bran: 19%). Estimated daily PFASs intakes were <1-3 ng perfluorooctanesulfonamide, <1-7 ng N-EtFOSA, 1-2 ng PFBA, <3-4 ng PFHxA, and 1-2 ng PFNA. Estimated PFOS, PFOA, and total PFASs in straw feed were 0.4, 0.1, and 2 kg yr-1 and 0.7, 0.4, and 8 kg yr-1 in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Estimated PFOS, PFOA, and total PFASs in straw fertilizer were 4, 1, and 23 kg yr-1 and 7, 4, and 86 kg yr-1 in 2015 and 2016, respectively. PFASs accumulation may cause longer residence time in agricultural systems owing to straw being used as animal feed and organic fertilizer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorinated Compounds (PFCs) in Soil of the Pearl River Delta, China: Spatial Distribution, Sources, and Ecological Risk Assessment

Authors: Liu, B; Zhang, H; Yu, Y; Xie, L; Li, J; Wang, X; Dong, W (2019) Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 78:182-189. HERO ID: 5918615

[Less] This study investigated the levels, spatial distribution, sources, and ecological risks of 16 perfluorinated . . . [More] This study investigated the levels, spatial distribution, sources, and ecological risks of 16 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in 68 surface soil samples (0-20 cm) from 7 cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. Sixteen target PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs, C5-C14, C16, and C18) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs, C4, C6, C8, and C10), were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). Concentrations of total PFCs (∑PFCs) ranged from 2.19 to 98.5 μg kg-1 (dry weight, dw), with an average of 5.97 μg kg-1 dw. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC, accounting for 23.9% of ∑PFCs. The highest ∑PFCs was found in the soil sample collected from Dongguan with a large number of manufacturing industries. There were no significant differences of ∑PFCs among unban, industrial, and agricultural soils, indicating similar pollution sources in soil of the PRD. More than 70% of ∑PFCs in soil of the PRD could be attributed to the four principal components, represented by PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA). Ecological risk assessment indicated that PFOA had low risk to soil plants and animals. However, the risk of PFOS to soil plants was relatively high in some studied regions.