Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


6:2/8:2 diPAP (943913-15-3)


37 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Aerobic biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in soil

Authors: Liu, C; Liu, J (2016) Environmental Pollution 212:230-237. HERO ID: 3856871

[Less] Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) . . . [More] Microbial transformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) into perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) has recently been confirmed to occur in activated sludge and soil. However, there lacks quantitative information about the half-lives of the PAPs and their significance as the precursors to PFCAs. In the present study, the biotransformation of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAP in aerobic soil was investigated in semi-dynamics reactors using improved sample preparation methods. To develop an efficient extraction method for PAPs, six different extraction solvents were compared, and the phenomenon of solvent-enhanced hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that adding acetic acid could enhance the recoveries of the diPAPs and inhibit undesirable hydrolysis during solvent extraction of soil. However 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs, which are the first breakdown products from diPAPs, were found to be unstable in the six solvents tested and quickly hydrolyzed to form fluorotelomer alcohols. Therefore reliable measurement of the monoPAPs from a live soil was not achievable. The apparent DT50 values of 6:2 diPAP and 8:2 diPAP biotransformation were estimated to be 12 and > 1000 days, respectively, using a double first-order in parallel model. At the end of incubation of day 112, the major degradation products of 6:2 diPAP were 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (5:3 acid, 9.3% by mole), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA, 6.4%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 6.0%). The primary product of 8:2 diPAP was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 2.1%). The approximately linear relationship between the half-lives of eleven polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, including 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs) that biotransform in aerobic soils and their molecular weights suggested that the molecular weight is a good indicator of the general stability of low-molecular-weight PFAS-based compounds in aerobic soils.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) and Selected Precursors in the Baltic Sea Environment: Do Precursors Play a Role in Food Web Accumulation of PFAAs?

Authors: Gebbink, WA; Bignert, A; Berger, U (2016) Environmental Science and Technology 50:6354-6362. HERO ID: 3856868

[Less] The present study examined the presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected precursors in the . . . [More] The present study examined the presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected precursors in the Baltic Sea abiotic environment and guillemot food web, and investigated the relative importance of precursors in food web accumulation of PFAAs. Sediment, water, zooplankton, herring, sprat, and guillemot eggs were analyzed for perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4,6,8,10) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C6-15) along with six perfluoro-octane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors and 11 polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs). FOSA, FOSAA and its methyl and ethyl derivatives (Me- and EtFOSAA), and 6:2/6:2 diPAP were detected in sediment and water. While FOSA and the three FOSAAs were detected in all biota, a total of nine diPAPs were only detected in zooplankton. Concentrations of PFOS precursors and diPAPs exceeded PFOS and PFCA concentrations, respectively, in zooplankton, but not in fish and guillemot eggs. Although PFOS precursors were present at all trophic levels, they appear to play a minor role in food web accumulation of PFOS based on PFOS precursor/PFOS ratios and PFOS and FOSA isomer patterns. The PFCA pattern in fish could not be explained by the intake pattern based on PFCAs and analyzed precursors, that is, diPAPs. Exposure to additional precursors might therefore be a dominant exposure pathway compared to direct PFCA exposure for fish.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in indoor dust and food packaging materials in Egypt: Trends in developed and developing countries

Authors: Shoeib, T; Hassan, Y; Rauert, C; Harner, T (2016) Chemosphere 144:1573-1581. HERO ID: 3363752

[Less] PFASs concentrations in dust samples collected from three microenvironments in Cairo ranged from 1.3 . . . [More] PFASs concentrations in dust samples collected from three microenvironments in Cairo ranged from 1.3 to 69 ng g(-1) with FTOHs being dominant. The 8:2 FTOH was detected in all samples. Among the FOSAs and FOSEs the MeFOSE was dominant while among ionic PFASs, PFOS and PFOA were most prominent. The concentrations of PFASs were among the lowest worldwide. Correlations between worldwide concentrations of PFOS + PFOA and country development indexes highlight higher usage and human exposure in more developed countries. Food packaging was analyzed for PFSAs, PFCAs and PAPs. The 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs were found to be above the MDL in 18% of the samples. PFOA was detected in 79% of the samples with median concentration of 2.40 ng g(-1). PFOS was detected in 58% of the samples with median concentration of 0.29 ng g(-1) while PFHxS and PFDS were below detection limit. Different human exposure scenarios were estimated.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances precursors in human milk from 12 provinces of China]

Authors: Yang, L; Yu, X; Wang, M; Li, J; Wang, Y; Zhao, Y; Wu, Y (2015) Zhonghua Yufang Yixue Zazhi 49:529-533. HERO ID: 3860073

[Less] OBJECTIVE: To explore the level of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) precursors in . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: To explore the level of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) precursors in Chinese human milk samples.

METHODS: The human milk samples were collected during the performance of Stockholm convention on survey of human milk in China in 2007. Based on the geographical location and dietary habits, China was divided into the south area and north area which 6 provinces were chosen from each area and there were 12 provinces in all. In each province, one urban site and two rural sites were selected to collect 80-110 samples. Mothers were randomly selected in each site to collect their breast milk. There were 1 237 individual human milk samples in all. For each province, the individual samples from the urban areas and the rural areas were pooled separately resulting in 24 pooled human milk samples. 11 PFAS precursors were measured in pooled samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadruple mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The dietary exposure assessment of newborns was made.

RESULTS: Three PFAS precursors were found above the detection limits, namely, 6:2 FTS, FHUEA, and 6:2 diPAP. Their concentration ranges were < Limit of determination (LOD) -47.46 pg/ml, < LOD -70.68 pg/ml and < LOD -35.08 pg/ml, respectively. The highest total PFAS precursor concentration 77.70 pg/ml was found in urban area samples from Shannxi Province. Rural area samples from Hubei had the lowest total PFAS precursor concentration, which was below the LOD. There were significant differences between rural and urban areas in many provinces, such as Shannxi (rural: 1.51 pg/ml; urban: 77.70 pg/ml), Shanghai (rural: 1.13 pg/ml; urban: 71.88 pg/ml), Jiangxi (rural: 65.39 pg/ml; urban: 0.55 pg/ml) and so on. The ranges estimated daily intake of 6:2 FTS, FHUEA and 6:2 diPAP of the samples from 12 provinces were 0.05-4.51, 1.13-6.72 and 1.15-3.34 ng · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹.

CONCLUSION: The results suggested the human exposure of PFAS precursors in China and the potential health impact of postnatal exposure through breastfeeding to infants. The level of PFAS precursors showed differences in regions, rural and urban places.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Draft toxicological profile for perfluoroalkyls

Author: ATSDR (2015) HERO ID: 3859918


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances and their precursors in eighteen market milk]

Authors: Yang, L; Wang, M; Li, J; Wang, Y; Zhao, Y; Wu, Y (2015) Zhonghua Yufang Yixue Zazhi 49:524-528. HERO ID: 3860074

[Less] OBJECTIVE: To explore the level of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and their precursors . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: To explore the level of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and their precursors in 18 market milk samples of China.

METHOD: The 18 milk samples were selected in 8 provinces of China, including Ningxia, Neimeng, Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi, Chongqing, and Guangdong. 8 PFASs and 11 PFAS precursors were measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadruple mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The dietary exposure assessment was made.

RESULTS: Three PFASs were detected in milk samples which were PFOA, PFUdA, and PFOS. The numbers of detected samples were 5, 12, and 14, respectively. Their concentration ranges were < Limit of determination (LOD)-431.94 pg/ml, < LOD -15.95 pg/ml and < LOD -126.98 pg/ml, respectively. Three PFAS precursors were also found above the detection limits, namely, 4:2 FTS, 6:2 FTS, and 6:2 diPAP. Only one sample was detected 4:2 FTS at the concentration of 3.75 pg/ml. The detected samples of 6:2 FTS and 6:2 diPAP were 12 and 3. Their concentration ranges were < LOD -2.49 pg/ml and < LOD -24.56 pg/ml, respectively. The ranges estimated daily intake of PFOA and PFOS of the detected samples were 2.49 × 10⁻³-405.89 × 10⁻³ ng · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹ and 36.10 × 10⁻³-119.32 × 10⁻³ ng · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹.

CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that there were different contamination levels of PFASs and their precursors in the 18 market milk produced from different regions in china. The estimated daily intake of PFASs from the milk in our study were far below the tolerable daily intake set by European Union (PFOS: 150 ng · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹, PFOA: 1 500 ng · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in Swedish food: The relative importance of direct and indirect dietary exposure

Authors: Gebbink, WA; Glynn, A; Darnerud, PO; Berger, U (2015) Environmental Pollution 198:108-115. HERO ID: 2850058

[Less] We analyzed food market basket samples obtained in Sweden from 1999, 2005, and 2010 for perfluoroalkyl . . . [More] We analyzed food market basket samples obtained in Sweden from 1999, 2005, and 2010 for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and a range of precursor compounds. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors were detected in all food year pools with the highest concentrations in 1999. Six polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs, 4:2/6:2, 6:2/6:2, 6:2/8:2, 8:2/8:2, 6:2/10:2, and 10:2/10:2) were detected in the year pools with the highest ∑diPAP concentrations in 1999 and 2005. All precursors were predominantly found in meat, fish, and/or eggs based on analysis of individual food groups from 1999. Based on year pools, PFOS precursors contributed between 4 and 1% as an indirect source to total dietary PFOS intakes between 1999 and 2010. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) exposure originated entirely from diPAPs, whereas for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), diPAPs contributed between 1 and 19% to total exposure. The lowest precursor contributions were generally seen in food samples from 2010.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Temporal changes (1997-2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids and selected precursors (including isomers) in Swedish human serum

Authors: Gebbink, WA; Glynn, A; Berger, U (2015) Environmental Pollution 199:166-173. HERO ID: 2851000

[Less] Concentrations (including isomer patterns) and temporal changes (1997-2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids . . . [More] Concentrations (including isomer patterns) and temporal changes (1997-2012) of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) precursors were determined in serum samples from Swedish women. Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (FOSAA), as well as its N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives (MeFOSAA and EtFOSAA) were consistently detected. Highest PFOS precursor concentrations were found for EtFOSAA (before year 2000) or MeFOSAA and FOSAA (after 2000). Disappearance half-lives for all PFOS precursors were shorter compared to PFOS. 4:2/6:2 and 6:2/6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) were detected in <60% of the samples, whereas 6:2/8:2 and 8:2/8:2 diPAPs were detected in >60% of the samples, but showed no significant change in concentrations over time. Linear and sum-branched isomers were quantified separately for three PFAAs and three precursors. Significant changes between 1997 and 2012 in the % linear isomer were observed for PFOA and FOSA (increase) and PFOS (decrease).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Simultaneous determination of perfluorinated compounds and their potential precursors in mussel tissue and fish muscle tissue and liver samples by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry

Authors: Zabaleta, I; Bizkarguenaga, E; Prieto, A; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, M; Fernández, LA; Zuloaga, O (2015) Journal of Chromatography A 1387:13-23. HERO ID: 2851012

[Less] An analytical method for the simultaneous determination in fish liver and muscle tissue and mussel samples . . . [More] An analytical method for the simultaneous determination in fish liver and muscle tissue and mussel samples of 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including three perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFSAs), seven perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), three perfluorophosphonic acids (PFPAs) and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), and 10 potential precursors, including four polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (PAPs), four fluorotelomer saturated acids (FTCAs) and two fluorotelomer unsaturated acids (FTUCAs), was developed in the present work. Different clean-up strategies by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a mix-mode weak anion exchanger (WAX), reverse phase Envi-Carb or a combination of them was optimized and evaluated for the clean-up of focused ultrasonic solid-liquid (FUSLE) extracts before the analysis by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Mix-mode WAX coupled in-line to Envi-Carb was finally selected since it rendered the cleanest extracts and minimum matrix effect. The FUSLE-SPE-LC-MS/MS methodology was validated in terms of recovery, precision and method detection limits (MDLs). Apparent recovery values in the 65-116%, 59-119% and 67-126% range and MDLs in the 0.1-2.7 ng/g, 0.1-3.8 ng/g and 0.2-3.1ng/g range were obtained for liver, mussel and fish muscle tissue samples, respectively. The method developed was applied to the analysis of grey mullet liver (Chelon labrosus) and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) samples from the Basque Coast (North of Spain) and Yellowfin tuna muscle tissue (Thunnus albacares) samples from the Indian Ocean. To the best of our knowledge this is the first method that describes the simultaneous determination of 14 PFCs and 10 potential precursors in fish liver, fish muscle tissue and mussel samples. Besides, this is the first time that 8:2 monosubstituted polyfluorodecyl phosphate (8:2 monoPAP) and 8:2 disubstituted polyfluorodecyl phosphate (8:2 diPAP) were detected in mussel and tuna samples, respectively.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Protein binding associated with exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in rats

Authors: Rand, AA; Mabury, SA (2014) Environmental Science and Technology 48:2421-2429. HERO ID: 2850183

[Less] The biotransformation of fluorotelomer-based compounds such as fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and polyfluoroalkyl . . . [More] The biotransformation of fluorotelomer-based compounds such as fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) are sources of exposure to perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), leading in part to the observation of significant concentrations of PFCAs in human blood. The biotransformation of FTOHs and PAPs yield intermediate metabolites that have been observed to covalently modify proteins. In the current investigation, the extent of covalent protein binding in Sprague-Dawley rats upon exposure to 8:2 FTOH and the 6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diester (6:2 diPAP) was quantified. The animals were administered a single dose of 8:2 FTOH or 6:2 diPAP at 100 mg/kg by oral gavage to monitor biotransformation and extent of protein binding within the liver, kidney, and plasma. In the 8:2 FTOH-dosed animals, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was produced as the primary PFCA, at 623.13 ± 59.3, 459.5 ± 171.8, and 397.3 ± 133.0 ng/g in the plasma, liver, and kidney, respectively. For the animals exposed to 6:2 diPAPs, perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) was the primary PFCA produced, with maximum concentrations of 57.4 ± 6.5, 9.0 ± 1.2, and 25.3 ± 1.2 ng/g in the plasma, liver, and kidney, respectively. Protein binding was observed in the plasma, liver, and kidney after 8:2 FTOH and 6:2 diPAP exposure, with the most significant binding occurring in the liver (>100 nmol/g protein). This is the first study to link the exposure and in vivo biotransformation of fluorotelomer-based compounds to covalent protein binding.