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6:2/8:2 diPAP (943913-15-3)


37 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exploring indirect sources of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs): evaluating uptake, elimination, and biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in the rat

Authors: D'eon, JC; Mabury, SA (2011) Environmental Health Perspectives 119:344-350. HERO ID: 2580387

[Less] BACKGROUND: Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are ubiquitous in human sera worldwide. . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are ubiquitous in human sera worldwide. Biotransformation of the polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) is a possible source of PFCA exposure, because PAPs are used in food-contact paper packaging and have been observed in human sera.

OBJECTIVES: We determined pharmacokinetic parameters for the PAP monoesters (monoPAPs) and PAP diesters (diPAPs), as well as biotransformation yields to the PFCAs, using a rat model.

METHODS: The animals were dosed intravenously or by oral gavage with a mixture of 4:2, 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 monoPAP or diPAP chain lengths. Concentrations of the PAPs and PFCAs, as well as metabolic intermediates and phase II metabolites, were monitored over time in blood, urine, and feces.

RESULTS: The diPAPs were bioavailable, with bioavailability decreasing as the chain length increased from 4 to 10 perfluorinated carbons. The monoPAPs were not absorbed from the gut; however, we found evidence to suggest phosphate-ester cleavage within the gut contents. We observed biotransformation to the PFCAs for both monoPAP and diPAP congeners.

CONCLUSIONS: Using experimentally derived biotransformation yields, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) sera concentrations were predicted from the biotransformation of 8:2 diPAP at concentrations observed in human serum. Because of the long human serum half-life of PFOA, biotransformation of diPAP even with low-level exposure could over time result in significant exposure to PFOA. Although humans are exposed directly to PFCAs in food and dust, the pharmacokinetic parameters determined here suggest that PAP exposure should be considered a significant indirect source of human PFCA contamination.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A pilot survey of legacy and current commercial fluorinated chemicals in human sera from United States donors in 2009

Authors: Lee, H; Mabury, SA (2011) Environmental Science and Technology 45:8067-8074. HERO ID: 3875035

[Less] Human biomonitoring has traditionally focused on analyzing the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonates . . . [More] Human biomonitoring has traditionally focused on analyzing the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), although the presence of other unidentified fluorinated chemicals has been demonstrated through total organofluorine analysis. Exposure to legacy and current commercial fluorinated chemicals was investigated by analyzing fifty human sera samples collected in 2009 from the United States for forty fluorinated analytes that included the polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs), N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol-based polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diester (SAmPAP), one fluorotelomer mercaptoalkyl phosphate diester congener (FTMAP), fluorotelomer sulfonates (FTSs), perfluorophosphonates (PFPAs), and perfluorophosphinates (PFPiAs). DiPAP concentrations (0.035-0.136 μg/L) for the more dominant congeners (6:2, 6:2/8:2, 8:2) were lower than those reported in human sera samples collected in 2004, 2005, and 2008. The SAmPAP and 6:2 FTMAP were not detected, but exposure to SAmPAP was suggested based on the detection of one of its potential degradation intermediates, N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (N-EtFOSAA). PFPiAs were detected for the first time in human sera, with C6/C6 and C6/C8 PFPiAs as the dominant congeners, observed in >50% of the samples.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biodegradation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphates as a source of perfluorinated acids to the environment

Authors: Lee, H; D'eon, J; Mabury, SA (2010) Environmental Science and Technology 44:3305-3310. HERO ID: 1274414

[Less] Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been identified as a major source of perfluorocarboxylates . . . [More] Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been identified as a major source of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) to aqueous environments. The observed increase in PFCA mass flows from WWTP influent to effluent suggests the biodegradation of commercial fluorinated materials within the WWTP. Commercial fluorinated surfactants are used as greaseproofing agents in food-contact paper products as well as leveling and wetting agents. As WWTPs are likely the major fate of these surfactants, their biodegradation may be a source of PFCA production. One class of commercial surfactants, the polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (PAPs), have been observed in WWTP sludge. While PAPs have been shown to degrade into PFCAs in a rat model, the present study investigates their microbial fate to determine whether the biodegradation of PAPs within a WWTP-simulated system will contribute to the load of PFCAs released. PAPs are applied commercially in mixed formulations of different chain lengths and substitution at the phosphate center. The effect of chain length and phosphate substitution on the biodegradation of PAPs was investigated by incubating mixtures of 4:2, 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 monosubstituted PAPs (monoPAPs) in an aerobic microbial system and by separately incubating the 6:2 monoPAP and 6:2 disubstituted PAP (diPAP) for 92 days. Headspace sampling revealed production of the fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) from the hydrolysis of the PAP phosphate ester linkages. Analysis of the aqueous phase revealed microbial transformation of the PAPs to the final PFCA products was possible. The majority of the oxidation products observed were consistent with previous investigations that have suggested fluorotelomer precursor compounds degrade predominantly via a beta-oxidation-like mechanism. However, in this study, the detection of odd-chain PFCAs suggests that other pathways may be important. The present study demonstrated microbially mediated biodegradation of PAPs to PFCAs. This observation, together with the diPAP concentrations observed in WWTP sludge, suggest PAPs-containing commercial products may be a significant contributor to the increased PFCA mass flows observed in WWTP effluents.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Observation of a Commercial Fluorinated Material, the Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphoric Acid Diesters, in Human Sera, Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge, and Paper Fibers

Authors: D'Eon, JC; Crozier, PW; Furdui, VI; Reiner, EJ; Libelo, EL; Mabury, SA (2009) Environmental Science and Technology 43:4589-4594. HERO ID: 1291082

[Less] Sources of human exposure to perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are not well-characterized. Polyfluoroalkyl . . . [More] Sources of human exposure to perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are not well-characterized. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acids (PAPs) are fluorinated surfactants used in human food contact paper products. PAPs can migrate into food and food simulants, and their bioavailability and biotransformation into PFCAs has been demonstrated using a rat model. To characterize human exposure to PAP materials, we analyzed pooled human sera samples collected in 2004 and 2005 (n = 10) and 2008 (n = 10) from the midwestern United States for the 4:2 through 10:2 PAP diesters (diPAPs). The 2004 and 2005 sera samples contained 4.5 microg/L total diPAPs, with the 6:2 diPAP dominating the congener profile at 1.9 +/- 0.4 microg/L DiPAP concentrations observed in the 2004 and 2005 human sera samples were similar to those of the C8 to C11 PFCAs (0.13 +/- 0.01 to 4.2 +/- 0.3 microg/L) monitored in the same samples. 6:2 diPAP was also consistently observed in the 2008 human sera samples at a mean concentration of 0.63 +/- 0.13 microg/L As diPAPs have been shown to degrade to PFCAs in vivo, our observation of diPAPs in human sera may be a direct connection between the legacy of human PFCA contamination and PAPs commercial applications. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sludge and paper fibers were analyzed for diPAPs as a proxy for human use and potential exposure to diPAPs. DiPAPs were observed in WWTP sludge at concentrations ranging from 47 +/- 22 to 200 +/- 130 ng/g, a range similar to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) (100 +/- 70 ng/g) and greater than the C8 to C11 PFCAs (1.6 +/- 0.6 to 0.17 +/- 0.10 ng/g) observed in the same samples. DiPAPs were observed in paper fiber extracts at concentrations ranging from 34 +/- 30 to 2200 +/- 400 ng/g. The high diPAP concentrations in WWTP sludge suggest PAP materials may be prevalent in our daily lives.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Production of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) from the biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS): exploring routes of human contamination

Authors: D'Eon, JC; Mabury, SA (2007) Environmental Science and Technology 41:4799-4805. HERO ID: 3859267

[Less] Perfluorinated acids are detected in human blood world-wide, with increased levels observed in industrialized . . . [More] Perfluorinated acids are detected in human blood world-wide, with increased levels observed in industrialized areas. The origin of this contamination is not well understood. A possible route of exposure, which has received little attention experimentally, is indirect exposure to perfluorinated acids through ingestion of chemicals applied to food contact paper packaging. The current investigation quantified the load of perfluorinated acids to Sprague-Dawley rats upon exposure to polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS), nonpolymeric fluorinated surfactants approved for application to food contact paper products. The animals were administered a single dose at 200 mg/kg by oral gavage of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) mono-phosphate (8:2 monoPAPS), or the corresponding di-phosphate (8:2 diPAPS), with blood taken over 15 days post-dosing to monitor uptake, biotransformation, and elimination. Upon completion of the time-course study the animals were redosed using an identical dosing procedure, with sacrifice and necropsy 24 h after the second dosing. Increased levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), along with both 8:2 PAPS congeners, were observed in the blood of the dosed animals. In the 8:2 monoPAPS-dosed animals, 8:2 monoPAPS and PFOA blood concentrations peaked at 7900 +/- 1200 ng/g and 34 +/- 4 ng/g respectively. In the 8:2 diPAPS-dosed animals, 8:2 diPAPS peaked in concentration at 32 +/- 6 ng/g, and 8:2 monoPAPS and PFOA peaked at 900 +/- 200 ng/g and 3.8 +/- 0.3 ng/g, respectively. Several established polyfluorinated metabolites previously identified in 8:2 FTOH metabolism studies were also observed in the dosed animals. Consistent with other fluorinated contaminants, the tissue distributions showed increased levels of both PFOA and the 8:2 PAPS congeners in the liver relative to the other tissues measured. Previous investigations have found that PAPS can migrate into food from paper packaging. Here we link ingestion of PAPS with in vivo production of perfluorinated acids.

Technical Report
Technical Report

SYNTHESIS AND HERBICIDAL ACTIVITY OF N-SUBSTITUTED-2 6 POLYFLUOROMETHYLDIHYDROPYRIDINE-3 5-DICARBOXYLATES

Authors: Goure, WF; Leschinsky, KL; Wratten, SJ; Chupp, JP (1990) HERO ID: 3876115

Abstract: BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. RRM ABSTRACT AROMATIC HERBICIDES AMINO-SUBSTITUTED DIHYDROPYRIDINES

Technical Report
Technical Report

FLUORINATED STEROLS HORMONES AND PHEROMONES ENZYME-TREATED METABOLIC DISRUPTANTS IN INSECTS

Author: Prestwich, GD (1985) HERO ID: 3876113

[Less] BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. RRM ABSTRACT PHYTOSTEROLS JUVENILE HORMONE ESTERASE INHIBITORS FLUOROACETATE . . . [More] BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. RRM ABSTRACT PHYTOSTEROLS JUVENILE HORMONE ESTERASE INHIBITORS FLUOROACETATE INSECT GROWTH REGULATOR INSECTICIDE