Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFDoA (307-55-1)


194 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkylated acids in the eggs of great tits (Parus major) near a fluorochemical plant in Flanders, Belgium

Authors: Groffen, T; Lopez-Antia, A; D'Hollander, W; Prinsen, E; Eens, M; Bervoets, L (2017) Environmental Pollution 228:140-148. HERO ID: 3859504

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly persistent substances which have been detected in wildlife around . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly persistent substances which have been detected in wildlife around the world, including birds. Although bird eggs have often been used to determine and monitor PFAAs levels in the marine environment, this has rarely been done in the terrestrial environment. In the present study we examined the concentrations and composition profile of 12 PFAAs (4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and 8 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in the eggs of great tits (Parus major) collected at a fluorochemical plant and in three other areas, representing a gradient in distance from the pollution source (from 1 to 70 km), in Antwerp, Belgium. The PFSA concentrations measured at the site of the fluorochemical plant were among the highest ever reported in eggs with median concentrations of 10380 ng/g (extrapolated), 99.3 ng/g and 47.7 ng/g for PFOS, PFHxS and PFDS respectively. Furthermore, the median concentration of 19.8 ng/g for PFOA was also among the highest ever reported in bird eggs. Although these concentrations decreased sharply with distance from the fluorochemical plant, levels found in the adjacent sites were still high compared to what has been reported in literature. Moreover, based on what is known in literature, it is likely that these concentrations may cause toxicological effects. PFOS was the dominant contributor to the PFSA and PFAAs (63.4-97.6%) profile at each site, whereas for PFCAs this was PFOA at the plant site and the nearest locations (41.0-52.8%) but PFDoA (37.7%) at the farthest location. Although there is some evidence that PFAAs concentrations close to the plant site are decreasing in comparison with earlier measurements, which may be due to the phase out of PFOS, more research is necessary to understand the extent of the toxicological effects in the vicinity of this PFAAs hotspot.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The measurement of bisphenol A and its analogues, perfluorinated compounds in twenty species of freshwater and marine fishes, a time-trend comparison and human health based assessment

Authors: Wong, YM; Li, R; Lee, CKF; Wan, HT; Wong, CKC (2017) Marine Pollution Bulletin 124:743-752. HERO ID: 3858481

[Less] Our previous study in 2011 reported the detection of BPA and PFAAs in 20 species of marine and freshwater . . . [More] Our previous study in 2011 reported the detection of BPA and PFAAs in 20 species of marine and freshwater fishes. With an emerging evidence to suggest the metabolic-disrupting effects of BPA/PFAAs in animals, the present study was aimed to provide a time-trend analysis to determine the current concentrations of PFAAs and BPA in 20 commercially available Hong Kong species of fishes. Since the manufacture and use of BPA is being prohibited in most nations, the introduction of BPA alternatives has recently been incorporated in the markets. Therefore, the concentrations of BPB, BPF and BPS were determined. In the present study, all freshwater and seawater fish samples showed quantified concentrations [>Limit of Quantification (LOQ<0.5ng/g)] of BPA. BPF was detected in some marine (yellow seafin, bigeye, goldspotted rabbitfish, snubnose pompano, tongue sole, Bleeker's grouper and orange-spotted grouper) and freshwater fishes (mud carp, crucian carp, tilapia, catfish, mandarin fish, grass carp, grey mullet and spotted snakehead). Two of the compounds, BPS and BPB could only be identified in the marine fishes (snubnose pompano, yellow seafin). In PFAA analysis, PFOA, PFDA, PFOS, PFUdA and PFDoA were found in most of the marine and freshwater fishes. PFOS and PFOA were shown to be the two predominant PFAAs in fishes. On the basis of the measured concentrations of bisphenols, BPs (BPA, BPB, BPF, BPS) and PFAAs, the average daily intake for BPs (20.5-31.5ng/kgb.w./day) and PFAAs (1.17-1.83ng/kgb.w./day) were calculated and found to be lower than values of tolerable daily intake (TDI) established in Europe. However, as compared with our previous study in 2011, the present study revealed an approximate 10-fold increase in the concentrations of BPA in the fish samples. Although the hazard ratio of consuming fishes for BPA and PFAA exposure is expected to remain low, possible additive metabolic-disrupting effect of BPA and its analogues as well PFAAs should be taken into consideration for human health risk assessment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Variation and accumulation patterns of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) across a gradient of pristine Swedish lakes

Authors: Åkerblom, S; Negm, N; Wu, P; Bishop, K; Ahrens, L (2017) Science of the Total Environment 599-600:1685-1692. HERO ID: 3858483

[Less] This study assessed variations in the concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in . . . [More] This study assessed variations in the concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Swedish lakes and the extent to which fish size, age and indicators of fish trophic ecology (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) correlate with the sum of individual PFAS concentrations (ΣPFAS). Fish muscle tissue samples (n=80) were taken from six lakes across Sweden and analysed using solid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). PFAS levels in the lakes were affected by atmospheric deposition in relatively pristine areas with no direct point source of PFAS in the catchment. PFTeDA, PFUnDA, PFTriDA, PFDoDA, PFDA, PFOS and 6:2 FTSA were detected with a frequency between 68% and 99% and were included in the statistical evaluation. ΣPFAS differed between lakes (ANOVA: F=50.6, p<0.0001): fish from lakes in southern Sweden (lake Gårdsjön, 58°03'N, 12°01'E) showed elevated levels of PFAS, with a maximum ΣPFAS of 3.4ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) (mean±SD: 0.99±0.63ng g(-1) ww), while the lowest levels were found in lake Björntjärn (0.31±0.08ng g(-1) ww) in northern Sweden (63°54'N, 18°51'E). PFOS was most abundant in perch from south-western Sweden, while other long-chain perfluorocarbons (>10 carbon atoms) were relatively more abundant in lakes in northern Sweden. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that concentrations of PFAS in perch did not show any relation to fish size or age and were negatively correlated with trophic position of the fish (δ(15)N). It was also found that ΣPFAS were negatively correlated with both latitude and altitude. The PFAS data in this study represent national background concentrations in freshwater fish across Swedish lakes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorododecanoic acid induces cognitive deficit in adult rats

Authors: Kawabata, K; Matsuzaki, H; Nukui, S; Okazaki, M; Sakai, A; Kawashima, Y; Kudo, N (2017) Toxicological Sciences 157:421-428. HERO ID: 3858489

[Less] The brain level of perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) was compared with those of perfluorooctanoic acid . . . [More] The brain level of perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) was compared with those of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in rats 9 days after a single oral dose (50 mg/kg). The PFDoA level in the brain was 44.0 ± 2.0 µg/g, which was higher than that in the serum (24.4 ± 1.0 µg/ml). In contrast, the concentrations of PFOA and PFDA in the brain were low (<0.8 and 4.7 ± 0.4 µg/g, respectively), and less than one-tenth of those in the serum. Next, to investigate the effects on brain function, the cognitive function alterations of PFOA, PFDA, and PFDoA were estimated by the novel object recognition test 5-6 days after dosing. A significant decrease in the discrimination index was observed in PFDoA-treated rats while no significant alteration was observed in PFDA- and PFOA-treated rats. The effects of PFDoA were further assessed by other behavioral tests. PFDoA-associated alteration was observed in the elevated-plus maze test, but not in the Y-maze test, open-field test, and forced swim test. A decrease in the discrimination index of the novel object recognition test was dependent on the PFDoA dose and the PFDoA concentration in the brain. PFDoA concentration in the brain was 28.6 ± 2.6 µg/g 30 days after dosing, and a decrease in discrimination index was observed. Taken together, these results suggest that PFDoA distributes in the brain easier than PFOA and PFDA and causes cognitive deficit.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Removal efficiency of multiple poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water using granular activated carbon (GAC) and anion exchange (AE) column tests

Authors: Mccleaf, P; Englund, S; Östlund, A; Lindegren, K; Wiberg, K; Ahrens, L (2017) Water Research 120:77-87. HERO ID: 3856453

[Less] Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in drinking water at relatively high . . . [More] Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in drinking water at relatively high concentrations throughout the world which has led to implementation of regulatory guidelines for specific PFASs in drinking water in several European countries and in the U.S. The Swedish National Food Agency has determined that the drinking water of over one third of the country's municipal consumers is at risk or already affected by PFAS contamination. The present study investigated the effects of perfluorocarbon chain length, functional group and isomer structure (branched or linear) on removal of multiple PFASs using granular activated carbon (GAC, Filtrasorb(®) 400) and anion exchange (AE, Purolite(®) A600) column experiments. The removal of 14 different PFASs, i.e. the C3C11, C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTeDA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), and the C4, C6, C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS), was monitored for a 217 day period. The results indicate the selective nature of PFAS removal as the absorbents are loaded with PFASs and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A clear relationship between perfluorocarbon chain length and removal efficiency of PFASs using GAC and AE was found while PFASs with sulfonate functional groups displayed greater removal efficiency than those with carboxylate groups. Similarly, time to column breakthrough increased with increasing perfluorocarbon chain length and was greater for the PFSAs than the PFCAs for both GAC and AE. Shorter carbon chained PFASs such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA showed desorption behavior and long-chained PFASs showed increased removal towards the end of the experiment indicating agglomeration or micelle development. Linear isomers of PFOS, PFHxS, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) had greater column removal efficiencies using GAC (and also for AE at greater bed volume throughput) than the branched and this difference increased at greater bed volume throughputs. The GAC and AE columns showed a poor correlation between DOC and PFAS removal efficiency. The results indicate that designers and operators of AE and GAC treatment processes must take into consideration the selective nature of PFAS removal and associated desorption of short-chain PFCAs during co-removal of multiple PFASs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Characterization of occurrence, sources and sinks of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a tropical urban catchment

Authors: Chen, H; Reinhard, M; Nguyen, TV; You, L; He, Y; Gin, KY (2017) Environmental Pollution 227:397-405. HERO ID: 3856452

[Less] Understanding the sources, occurrence and sinks of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) . . . [More] Understanding the sources, occurrence and sinks of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the urban water cycle is important to protect and utilize local water resources. Concentrations of 22 target PFASs and general water quality parameters were determined monthly for a year in filtered water samples from five tributaries and three sampling stations of an urban water body. Of the 22 target PFASs, 17 PFASs were detected with a frequency >93% including PFCAs: C4-C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, C4, C6, C8, and C10 perfluoroalkane sulfonates, perfluorooctane sulfonamides and perfluorooctane sulfonamide substances (FOSAMs), C10 perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acid (C10 PFPA), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) and C8/C8 perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acid (C8/C8-PFPIA). The most abundant PFASs in water were PFBS (1.4-55 ng/L), PFBA (1.0-23 ng/L), PFOS (1.5-24 ng/L) and PFOA (2.0-21 ng/L). In the tributaries, PFNA concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 87.1 ng/L except in the May 2013 samples of two tributaries, which reached 520 and 260 ng/L. Total PFAS concentrations in the sediment samples ranged from 1.6 to 15 ng/g d.w. with EtFOSAA, PFDoA, PFOS and PFDA being the dominant species. Based on water and sediment data, two types of sources were inferred: one-time or intermittent point sources and continuous non-point sources. FOSAMs and PFOS released continually from non-point sources, C8/C8 PFPIA, PFDoA and PFUnA was released from point sources. The highly water soluble short-chain PFASs including PFBA, PFPeA and PFBS remained predominantly in the water column. The factors governing solution phase concentrations appear to be compound hydrophobicity and sorption to suspended particles. Correlation of the dissolved phase concentrations with precipitation data suggested stormwater was a significant source of PFBA, PFBS, PFUnA and PFDoA. Negative correlations with precipitation indicated sources feeding FOSAA and FOSA directly into the tributaries.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

First report of perfluoroalkyl substances in South African Odonata

Authors: Lesch, V; Bouwman, H; Kinoshita, A; Shibata, Y (2017) Chemosphere 175:153-160. HERO ID: 3858492

[Less] Perfluorinated substances are global and ubiquitous pollutants. However, very little is known about . . . [More] Perfluorinated substances are global and ubiquitous pollutants. However, very little is known about these substances in invertebrates, and even less in terrestrial invertebrates in particular. We analysed adult male dragonflies from six sites in South Africa for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluro-n-undecanoic acid (PFUnA), perfluoro-n-dodecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). PFOS was detected in all individuals, with less quantifiable occurrences of the other substances. The dragonflies from the three northern sites located in farming areas had significantly lower ΣPFASs concentrations than the southern sites located closer to industrial areas (median ΣPFASs of 0.32 ng/g wm (wet mass) for North, and 9.3 ng/g wm for South). All substances except PFOS occurred at similar concentrations at all six sites when quantifiable, but PFOS dominated in the Southern sites. The highest median concentration was from Bloemhof Dam (ΣPFASs = 21 ng/g wm), which is known to be polluted by PFOS. Perfluorinated substances are not known to be manufactured in South Africa, therefore the residues detected are likely to have been derived from imported products. Odonata play a significant role in freshwater ecology. Any impacts on these aquatic and aerial predators are likely to have effects on aquatic and associated ecosystems. Further studies are required over a much larger geographic region and to investigate sources.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorinated alkyl acids in plasma of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Florida and South Carolina

Authors: Bangma, JT; Bowden, JA; Brunell, AM; Christie, I; Finnell, B; Guillette, MP; Jones, M; Lowers, RH; Rainwater, TR; Reiner, JL; Wilkinson, PM; Guillette, LJ (2017) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36:917-925. HERO ID: 3858514

[Less] The present study aimed to quantitate 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in 125 adult American alligators . . . [More] The present study aimed to quantitate 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in 125 adult American alligators at 12 sites across the southeastern United States. Of those 15 PFAAs, 9 were detected in 65% to 100% of samples: perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), perfluorododecanoic acid, perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTriA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid, perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Males (across all sites) showed significantly higher concentrations of 4 PFAAs: PFOS (p = 0.01), PFDA (p = 0.0003), PFUnA (p = 0.021), and PFTriA (p = 0.021). Concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFDA in plasma were significantly different among the sites in each sex. Alligators at both Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (FL, USA) and Kiawah Nature Conservancy (SC, USA) exhibited some of the highest PFOS concentrations (medians of 99.5 ng/g and 55.8 ng/g, respectively) in plasma measured to date in a crocodilian species. A number of positive correlations between PFAAs and snout-vent length were observed in both sexes, suggesting that PFAA body burdens increase with increasing size. In addition, several significant correlations among PFAAs in alligator plasma may suggest conserved sources of PFAAs at each site throughout the greater study area. The present study is the first to report PFAAs in American alligators, to reveal potential PFAA hot spots in Florida and South Carolina, and to provide a contaminant of concern when assessing anthropogenic impacts on ecosystem health. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:917-925. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Investigation of the interaction between perfluorododecanoic acid and human serum albumin by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques

Authors: Hu, TY; Wang, YR; Zhou, SS; Liu, Y (2016) Guangpuxue yu Guangpu Fenxi / Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis 36:2330-2336. HERO ID: 3859546

[Less] Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) is the most toxic emerging environmental contaminant among the 8-12 . . . [More] Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) is the most toxic emerging environmental contaminant among the 8-12 carbon chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). A large amount of knowledge in the field of environmental PFAAs has been accumulated so far, while we are still just at the beginning of research into the interaction between PFDoA and human serum albumin (HSA). The goal of this study was to comprehensively determinate the binding mechanism of PFDoA with HSA by using fluorescence quenching technique in combination with molecular modeling and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy under the simulative physiological conditions. The quenching of HSA fluorescence by PFDoA was found to be a result of the combination of dynamic quenching and the formation of PFDoA-HSA complex. The calculated binding distance (r=3.65 nm) indicated that the non-radioactive energy transfer came into being in the interaction between PFDoA (acceptor) and HSA (donor). By performing displacement measurements, the specific binding of PFDoA in the vicinity of site I of HSA was clarified. Furthermore, the binding details between PFDoA and HSA were further confirmed by molecular docking studies, which revealed that PFDoA was bound at subdomain IIA by multiple interactions, such as the interaction between 01 of PFDoA with Arg 257 and Ser 287 predominately through polar force. And the best calculated docking energy is -25.87 kJ . mol(-1), this high negative value indicated that the PFDoA molecule exhibited large binding affinity towards HSA. The effects of PFDoA on the conformation of HSA were analyzed by synchronous fluorescence spectra and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, and the results exhibited that the hydrophobicity of the microenvironment around tryptophan residue was increased and the conformation of HSA was altered after binding PFDoA. The CD spectra quantitatively calculated the protein secondary structure, which suggested a loss of helical stability after the PFDoA-HSA complex formation. The binding research presented in this paper enriches our knowledge of the interaction dynamics of perfluoroalkyl acids to the HSA and reveals the chemical essence of the interaction between biomacromolecule and ligand.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Association of perfluoroalkyl substances exposure with reproductive hormone levels in adolescents: By sex status: Supplemental material

Authors: Zhou, Y; Hu, LW; Qian, ZM; Chang, JJ; King, C; Paul, G; Lin, S; Chen, PC; Lee, YL; Dong, GH (2016) Environment International 94. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 3981185

Abstract: Supplementary materials