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8:2 diPAP (678-41-1)


34 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in target food samples and packaging--method development and screening

Authors: Gebbink, WA; Ullah, S; Sandblom, O; Berger, U (2013) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 20:7949-7958. HERO ID: 3875034

[Less] Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate mono-, di-, and tri-esters (mono-, di-, and triPAPs) are used to water- and . . . [More] Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate mono-, di-, and tri-esters (mono-, di-, and triPAPs) are used to water- and grease-proof food packaging materials, and these chemicals are known precursors to perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Existing analytical methods for PAPs lack sample clean-up steps in the sample preparation. In the present study, a method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) was developed and optimized for the analysis of mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including a clean-up step for the raw extracts. The method was applied to food samples and their PAP-containing packaging materials. The optimized UPLC/MS/MS method enabled the separation and identification of a total of 4 monoPAPs, 16 diPAPs, and 7 triPAPs in the technical mixture Zonyl®-RP. For sample clean-up, weak anion exchange solid phase extraction columns were tested. PAPs standard solutions spiked onto the columns were separated into a fraction containing neutral compounds (triPAPs) and a fraction with ionic compounds (mono- and diPAPs) with recoveries between 72-110%. Method limits of quantification for food samples were in the sub to low picogram per gram range. For quantitative analysis of PAPs, compound-specific labeled internal standards showed to be essential as sorption and matrix effects were observed. Mono-, di-, and/or triPAPs were detected in all food packaging materials obtained from the Swedish market. Up to nine diPAPs were detected in the food samples, with the 6:2/6:2 and 6:2/8:2 diPAPs as the dominant compounds. DiPAP concentrations in the food samples ranged from 0.9 to 36 pg/g, which was comparable to individual PFCA concentrations in the same samples. Consumption of food packed in PAP-containing materials could be an indirect source of human exposure to PFCAs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in personal care products and compounding agents

Authors: Fujii, Y; Harada, KH; Koizumi, A (2013) Chemosphere 93:538-544. HERO ID: 2668947

[Less] Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are persistent organic . . . [More] Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are persistent organic pollutants that pose human health risks. However, sources of contamination and exposure pathways of PFCAs have not been explored. In this study, PFCA concentrations were quantified in personal care products. Among 24 samples that listed fluorinated compounds, such as polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs), in their international nomenclature of cosmetic ingredients (INCI) labels, 21 contained PFCAs (13 of 15 cosmetic samples, and 8 of 9 sunscreen samples). The concentrations of total PFCAs ranged from not detected to 5.9 mu g g(-1) for cosmetics and from not detected to 19 mu g g(-1) for sunscreens. We also investigated components of PFCAs in cosmetics and sunscreens. Commercially available compounding agents, mica and talc, which were treated with PAPs were analyzed and high concentrations of PFCAs were detected (total PFCAs 2.5 mu g g(-1) for talc treated with PAPs, 35.0 mu g g(-1) for mica treated with PAPs). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on contamination of end consumer products containing PAPs with high concentrations of PFCAs. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of selected perfluorinated compounds and polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants in human milk

Authors: Kubwabo, C; Kosarac, I; Lalonde, K (2013) Chemosphere 91:771-777. HERO ID: 3856869

[Less] Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are used on food contact paper to impart oil/grease resistance . . . [More] Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are used on food contact paper to impart oil/grease resistance and have been shown to be able to migrate into food. The biotransformation of the congeners belonging to this class of compounds is considered to be a potential source of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). In this study, two methods were developed for the determination of seven perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and eight polyfluorinated disubstituted phosphate surfactants (diPAPS) in human milk. PFCs were extracted from milk using an ion-pairing technique; while the diPAPs extraction involved a sample clean up using solid phase extraction. Analyses of all compounds in this study were performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Of the seven PFCs analyzed in human milk, only perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was detected in eleven out of thirteen (85%) individual human milk samples analyzed, with a concentration range of <0.072 to 0.52 ng mL(-1). Four diPAPS were detected and quantified in human milk samples. Eight out of thirteen samples contained 4:2 diPAP with a concentration range of <0.01-0.26 ng mL(-1); 6:2 diPAP was detected in five samples with a concentration range of <0.01-0.14 ng mL(-1); 8:2 diPAP was detected in only three samples with concentrations of 0.21, 0.27, and 0.30 ng mL(-1). The 10:2 diPAP was quantified in seven milk samples, with concentration range of <0.01-0.83 ng mL(-1). No correlation was established between PFCAs and PAPS levels in this small sample size. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to report the presence of PAPS in human milk.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

Authors: Rosenmai, AK; Nielsen, FK; Pedersen, M; Hadrup, N; Trier, X; Christensen, JH; Vinggaard, AM (2013) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 266:132-142. HERO ID: 2919164

[Less] Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper . . . [More] Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17β-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Part I. A temporal study of PFCAs and their precursors in human plasma from two German cities 1982-2009

Authors: Yeung, LW; Robinson, SJ; Koschorreck, J; Mabury, SA (2013) Environmental Science and Technology 47:3865-3874. HERO ID: 3858611

[Less] A total of 420 human plasma samples from two cities (Halle and Münster, Germany), collected between . . . [More] A total of 420 human plasma samples from two cities (Halle and Münster, Germany), collected between 1982 and 2009, were analyzed for a suite of PFCAs (C6-C12) and selected PFCA precursors (4:2-, 4:2/6:2-, 6:2-, 6:2/8:2-, 8:2-, 8:2/10:2-, and 10:2-diPAPs). PFCAs (C7-C11 and C13) were detected in over 80% of the samples (<0.005-39.4 ng/mL), while C12 PFCA was detected in fewer than 10% of the samples. In a range of 10-46% of the samples, 4:2-, 4:2/6:2-, 6:2, and 8:2-diPAPs were identified at concentrations of <0.0002-0.687 ng/mL; fewer than 10% of the samples had detectable 10:2-diPAP. Temporal trends (2000-2009) showed increasing concentrations of PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA, whereas PFOA concentrations were decreasing. Calculated population halving time for PFOA varied between 8.2-14.5 years, which contrasts to the generally accepted value of 3.8 years. This suggests an ongoing or additional exposure to PFOA or one of its precursor compounds. DiPAPs, known to metabolize rapidly to PFCAs, were detected in a significant number of samples and at concentrations that have not declined significantly over the past half-decade. The evidence suggests they have contributed to the continued presence of the longer chain PFCAs and perhaps contribute to the slow decline of PFOA.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Simultaneous determination of mono- and disubstituted polyfluoroalkyl phosphates in drinking water by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

Authors: Ding, H; Peng, H; Yang, M; Hu, J (2012) Journal of Chromatography A 1227:245-252. HERO ID: 1038497

[Less] A sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method was established for the . . . [More] A sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method was established for the simultaneous determination of five monosubstituted polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (monoPAPs) and eight disubstituted polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (diPAPs) in drinking water. Complete separation and good retention for 13 polyfluoroalkyls phosphates (PAPs) were achieved with a Waters ACUITY UPLC BEH C8 column using a mixture of methanol/water containing 0.1% NH₄OH as the mobile phases. Extraction of drinking water samples was performed on weak anion exchange (WAX) cartridges, and the recoveries of target compounds were from 65 to 110%. The limits of quantization (LOQs) for 13 analytes were in the range of 0.4-40 ng/L. This method was applied to analyze the PAPs in drinking water samples from three cities in China. Of the 13 PAPs, six PAPs including 6:2 monoPAP (13.0 ng/L), 8:2 monoPAP (3.6 ng/L), 10:1 monoPAP (4.3-70.3 ng/L), 10:2 monoPAP (1.4-5.6 ng/L), 8:2 diPAP (0.10 ng/L), and 10:1 diPAP (0.8-3.8 ng/L) were detected.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phosphorus-containing fluorinated organics: polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs), perfluorophosphonates (PFPAs), and perfluorophosphinates (PFPIAs) in residential indoor dust

Authors: De Silva, AO; Allard, CN; Spencer, C; Webster, GM; Shoeib, M (2012) Environmental Science and Technology 46:12575-12582. HERO ID: 2558521

[Less] Indoor dust is thought to be a source of human exposure to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonates . . . [More] Indoor dust is thought to be a source of human exposure to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), but exposures to emerging organofluorine compounds, including precursors to PFCAs and PFSAs via indoor dust, remain unknown. We report an analytical method for measuring several groups of emerging phosphorus-containing fluorinated compounds, including polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAP), perfluorophosphonates (PFPA), and perfluorophosphinates (PFPIA), as well as perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS) in indoor dust. This method was used to analyze diPAP, PFPA, and PFPIA levels in 102 residential dust samples collected in 2007-2008 from Vancouver, Canada. The results indicated a predominant and ubiquitous presence of diPAPs (frequency of detection 100%, mean and median ΣdiPAPs 7637 and 2215 ng/g). Previously measured median concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) in the same samples were 14-74 times lower than ΣdiPAP levels, i.e. 71 ng/g PFOS, 30 ng/g PFOA, and 152 ng/g ΣFTOHs. PFPAs and PFPIAs were detected in 62% and 85% of samples, respectively, at concentrations nearly 3 orders of magnitude lower than diPAPs (median 2.3 ng/g ΣPFPAs and 2.3 ng/g ΣPFPIAs). PFECHS was detected in only 8% of dust samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of these compounds in indoor dust. In this study, diPAP concentrations represented 98% ± 7% of the total measured analytes in the dust samples. Detection of diPAPs at such high concentrations in indoor dust may represent an important and as-yet unrecognized indirect source of PFCA exposure in humans, given the identified biotransformation pathways. Identifying the sources of diPAPs to the indoor environment is a priority for future research to improve air quality in households.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Exploring indirect sources of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs): evaluating uptake, elimination, and biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in the rat

Authors: D'eon, JC; Mabury, SA (2011) Environmental Health Perspectives 119:344-350. HERO ID: 2580387

[Less] BACKGROUND: Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are ubiquitous in human sera worldwide. . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are ubiquitous in human sera worldwide. Biotransformation of the polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) is a possible source of PFCA exposure, because PAPs are used in food-contact paper packaging and have been observed in human sera.

OBJECTIVES: We determined pharmacokinetic parameters for the PAP monoesters (monoPAPs) and PAP diesters (diPAPs), as well as biotransformation yields to the PFCAs, using a rat model.

METHODS: The animals were dosed intravenously or by oral gavage with a mixture of 4:2, 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 monoPAP or diPAP chain lengths. Concentrations of the PAPs and PFCAs, as well as metabolic intermediates and phase II metabolites, were monitored over time in blood, urine, and feces.

RESULTS: The diPAPs were bioavailable, with bioavailability decreasing as the chain length increased from 4 to 10 perfluorinated carbons. The monoPAPs were not absorbed from the gut; however, we found evidence to suggest phosphate-ester cleavage within the gut contents. We observed biotransformation to the PFCAs for both monoPAP and diPAP congeners.

CONCLUSIONS: Using experimentally derived biotransformation yields, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) sera concentrations were predicted from the biotransformation of 8:2 diPAP at concentrations observed in human serum. Because of the long human serum half-life of PFOA, biotransformation of diPAP even with low-level exposure could over time result in significant exposure to PFOA. Although humans are exposed directly to PFCAs in food and dust, the pharmacokinetic parameters determined here suggest that PAP exposure should be considered a significant indirect source of human PFCA contamination.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A pilot survey of legacy and current commercial fluorinated chemicals in human sera from United States donors in 2009

Authors: Lee, H; Mabury, SA (2011) Environmental Science and Technology 45:8067-8074. HERO ID: 3875035

[Less] Human biomonitoring has traditionally focused on analyzing the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonates . . . [More] Human biomonitoring has traditionally focused on analyzing the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), although the presence of other unidentified fluorinated chemicals has been demonstrated through total organofluorine analysis. Exposure to legacy and current commercial fluorinated chemicals was investigated by analyzing fifty human sera samples collected in 2009 from the United States for forty fluorinated analytes that included the polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs), N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol-based polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diester (SAmPAP), one fluorotelomer mercaptoalkyl phosphate diester congener (FTMAP), fluorotelomer sulfonates (FTSs), perfluorophosphonates (PFPAs), and perfluorophosphinates (PFPiAs). DiPAP concentrations (0.035-0.136 μg/L) for the more dominant congeners (6:2, 6:2/8:2, 8:2) were lower than those reported in human sera samples collected in 2004, 2005, and 2008. The SAmPAP and 6:2 FTMAP were not detected, but exposure to SAmPAP was suggested based on the detection of one of its potential degradation intermediates, N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (N-EtFOSAA). PFPiAs were detected for the first time in human sera, with C6/C6 and C6/C8 PFPiAs as the dominant congeners, observed in >50% of the samples.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biodegradation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphates as a source of perfluorinated acids to the environment

Authors: Lee, H; D'eon, J; Mabury, SA (2010) Environmental Science and Technology 44:3305-3310. HERO ID: 1274414

[Less] Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been identified as a major source of perfluorocarboxylates . . . [More] Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been identified as a major source of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) to aqueous environments. The observed increase in PFCA mass flows from WWTP influent to effluent suggests the biodegradation of commercial fluorinated materials within the WWTP. Commercial fluorinated surfactants are used as greaseproofing agents in food-contact paper products as well as leveling and wetting agents. As WWTPs are likely the major fate of these surfactants, their biodegradation may be a source of PFCA production. One class of commercial surfactants, the polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (PAPs), have been observed in WWTP sludge. While PAPs have been shown to degrade into PFCAs in a rat model, the present study investigates their microbial fate to determine whether the biodegradation of PAPs within a WWTP-simulated system will contribute to the load of PFCAs released. PAPs are applied commercially in mixed formulations of different chain lengths and substitution at the phosphate center. The effect of chain length and phosphate substitution on the biodegradation of PAPs was investigated by incubating mixtures of 4:2, 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 monosubstituted PAPs (monoPAPs) in an aerobic microbial system and by separately incubating the 6:2 monoPAP and 6:2 disubstituted PAP (diPAP) for 92 days. Headspace sampling revealed production of the fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) from the hydrolysis of the PAP phosphate ester linkages. Analysis of the aqueous phase revealed microbial transformation of the PAPs to the final PFCA products was possible. The majority of the oxidation products observed were consistent with previous investigations that have suggested fluorotelomer precursor compounds degrade predominantly via a beta-oxidation-like mechanism. However, in this study, the detection of odd-chain PFCAs suggests that other pathways may be important. The present study demonstrated microbially mediated biodegradation of PAPs to PFCAs. This observation, together with the diPAP concentrations observed in WWTP sludge, suggest PAPs-containing commercial products may be a significant contributor to the increased PFCA mass flows observed in WWTP effluents.