PERFLUORINATED ALKYL SUBSTANCES, CHLOROPARAFFINS AND BFRs IN SOIL, SEDIMENTS AND TERRESTRIAL/MARINE BIOTA IN NORWAY AND THE ARCTIC
Authors: Harju, M; Herzke, D; Katsoyiannis, A; Borgen, A; Sagerup, K; Gabrielsen, GW
HERO ID: 3860083
A screening study was made on the occurrence of chloroparaffins and BFRs in soil, sediments and the . . .
A screening study was made on the occurrence of chloroparaffins and BFRs in soil, sediments and the terrestrial/marine biota in Northern Norway and The Arctic. The terrestrial environment was sampled for soil, sediments and biota such as moose, mouse, brown trout and perch at the freshwater lake in Dalsvatn, Telemark, Norway. The marine environment of Lofoten and Troms and Finnmark in Northern Norway was sampled for sediments and biota such as Common eider and Herring gull eggs, Cod liver, mussels and seal liver. Seven species from Svalbard was collected in 2007 to 2009; Blood from Polar bear, Ringed Seal and Glaucous gull, eggs from Common Eider and Black-legged Kittiwake and liver from Cod and whole Polar cod was sampled. Pentabromophenol was generally below the detection limits in terrestrial and marine samples in Norway and Arctic samples, while 2,4,6-tribromophenol was found in almost all samples. The relatively new BFRs, Decabromodiphenyl-ethane was detected in the majority of mainland marine samples in Norway and the Arctic while Bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate generally was below or close to the detection limits. The short chained (C10-13) and medium chained (C14-17) chlorinated paraffins on the other hand were only analyzed for in Arctic biota and were detected in the majority of samples. In order to distinguish between pollution levels caused by long-range transport and point sources, to establish a base line for time- and spatial trends and have a general knowledge about background levels in the Norwegian environment, samples representing all important ecosystems collected at remote locations were analyzed.
The reported levels are very valuable data on background levels for a variety of compounds. With this knowledge future changes can be assessed as well as the impact of point sources and new exposure routes. We managed to determine background levels for a number of pollutants of concern in the abiotic and biotic parts of the terrestrial and marine ecosystem representing the Norwegian mainland and the Arctic. Since most of the target compounds are potential substitutes for already regulated chemicals, the collected data can give information on whether they already pose a threat to the environment as well and to assess eventual future risks.
From the 17 analysed PFAS only 10 were detected. Lowest PFAS levels were found in abiota samples and highest PFAS levels were found in seal liver, plasma and eggs of marine birds and polar bear plasma. No considerable differences were found for sumPFAS levels collected at the Norwegian mainland and Svalbard with the exception of PFOS which contributes more to mainland samples. Perfluorinated carboxylacids are mostly contributing to terrestrial samples whilst perfluorinated sulfonates are more important in marine biota. Found PFAS levels are in good agreement with background data described in literature. However, since different time trends are observed for different PFAS, comparison of data is challenging. In general do PFCAs have a much more diverse use and emission pattern, making it more difficult to assess their sources and fate. The finding of dominating PFCAs in some cases is very interesting since it has been barely observed before and might be a sign of parallel decreasing PFOS- and increasing PFCA trends also in Norwegian background locations. The PFOS substitutes 6:2 FTS and PFDcS were only detected very occasionally and at levels very close to the quantification limit, mostly field mouse liver and soil. The rare findings indicate either only limited use of these chemicals or that they are not stable enough to reach remote locations. In contrast are FTOHs and FT(U)CAs widely used chemicals which seem to be either to volatile to be taken up by organisms or too chemical reactive to reach remote areas.
Of the 5 analysed BFR PBDE 47 and DBDPE were the most detected BFRs within this study, with DBDPE dominating over the PBDE 47 in a number of cases. This is indicating the continuation of the decreasing trend of PBDE 47 in Norwegian environment due to the ban of this chemical. TBP was detected in a broad range of samples as well opposite to PBP which was only detected very sparsely. Since TBP can be formed naturally in the marine environment as well conclusion of eventual sources are difficult. Both SCCPs and MCCPs were detected in the majority of the Arctic samples with the exception of only 10% detection of MCCPS in cod liver. SCCP > MCCP for polar bear and seal plasma, kittiwake eggs, cod liver and polar cod. The opposite is the case for glaucous gull plasma and eider duck eggs.