Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFHpS (375-92-8)


27 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Halogenated organic contaminants and their correlations with circulating thyroid hormones in developing Arctic seabirds

Authors: Nøst, TH; Helgason, LB; Harju, M; Heimstad, ES; Gabrielsen, GW; Jenssen, BM (2012) Science of the Total Environment 414:248-256. HERO ID: 1276103

[Less] Thyroid hormones are essential for normal growth and development and disruption of thyroid homeostasis . . . [More] Thyroid hormones are essential for normal growth and development and disruption of thyroid homeostasis can be critical to young developing individuals. The aim of the present study was to assess plasma concentrations of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) in chicks of two seabird species and to investigate possible correlations of HOCs with circulating thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations. Plasma from black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) chicks were sampled in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard in 2006. The samples were analyzed for thyroid hormones and a wide range of HOCs (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated (OH-) and methylsulphoned (MeSO-) PCB metabolites, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs)). Concentrations of HOCs were generally low in kittiwake and fulmar chicks compared to previous reports. HOC concentrations were five times higher in fulmar chicks compared to in kittiwake chicks. PFCs dominated the summed HOCs concentrations in both species (77% in kittiwakes and 69% in fulmars). Positive associations between total thyroxin (TT4) and PFCs (PFHpS, PFOS, PFNA) were found in both species. Although correlations do not implicate causal relationships per se, the correlations are of concern as disruption of TH homeostasis may cause developmental effects in young birds.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The Development of Polymer-Based Flat Heat Pipes

Authors: Oshman, C; Shi, Bo; Li, C; Yang, R; Lee, YC; Peterson, GP; Bright, VM (2011) HERO ID: 3859916

[Less] In this paper, polymer-based flat heat pipes (PFHPs) with a thickness on the order of 1 mm have been . . . [More] In this paper, polymer-based flat heat pipes (PFHPs) with a thickness on the order of 1 mm have been successfully developed and tested. Liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) films with copper-filled thermal vias are employed as the case material. A copper micropillar/woven mesh hybrid wicking structure was designed and fabricated to promote evaporation/condensation heat transfer and the liquid supply to the evaporator of the PFHP. Water was selected as the working fluid because of its superior thermophysical properties. An experimental study was conducted to examine the PFHP performance. The test data demonstrated that the PFHP can operate with a heat flux of 11.94 W/cm(2) and results in effective thermal conductivity ranging from 650 to 830 W/m . K, with the value varying with the input heat flux and the tilt angle. With the employment of flexible LCP as casing material, the PFHP could potentially be directly integrated into a printed circuit board or flexible circuits for thermal management of heat-generating components. [2010-0280]

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and new approach to assess drinking water contamination by shorter-chained C4-C7 PFCs

Authors: Wilhelm, M; Bergmann, S; Dieter, HH (2010) International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 213:224-232. HERO ID: 2325430

[Less] After detection of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in drinking water at concentrations up to 0.64 microg/l . . . [More] After detection of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in drinking water at concentrations up to 0.64 microg/l in Arnsberg, Sauerland, Germany, the German Drinking Water Commission (TWK) assessed perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water and set for the first time worldwide in June 2006 a health-based guide value for safe lifelong exposure at 0.3 microg/l (sum of PFOA and perfluorooctanesulfonate, PFOS). PFOA and PFOS can be effectively removed from drinking water by percolation over granular activated carbon. Additionally, recent EU-regulations require phasing out use of PFOS and ask to voluntarily reduce the one of PFOA. New and shorter-chained PFCs (C4-C7) and their mixtures are being introduced as replacements. We assume that some of these "new" compounds could be main contributors to total PFC levels in drinking water in future, especially since short-chained PFCs are difficult to remove from drinking water by common treatment techniques and also by filtration over activated carbon. The aims of the study were to summarize the data from the regularly measured PFC levels in drinking water and in the drinking water resources in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) for the sampling period 2008-2009, to give an overview on the general approach to assess PFC mixtures and to assess short-chained PFCs by using toxicokinetic instead of (sub)chronic data. No general increase of substitutes for PFOS and PFOA in wastewater and surface water was detected. Present findings of short-chained PFC in drinking waters in NRW were due to extended analysis and caused by other impacts. Additionally, several PFC contamination incidents in drinking water resources (groundwater and rivers) have been reported in NRW. The new approach to assess short-chained PFCs is based on a ranking of their estimated half-lives for elimination from the human body. Accordingly, we consider the following provisional health-related indication values (HRIV) as safe in drinking water for lifelong exposure: perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) 7 microg/l, perfluoropentanoate (PFPA) 3 microg/l, perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) 1 microg/l, perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) 0.3 microg/l, perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) 3 microg/l, perfluoropentanesulfonate (PFPS) 1 microg/l, perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) 0.3 microg/l and perfluoroheptanesulfonate (PFHpS) 0.3 microg/l. For all PFCs the long-term lowest maximal quality goal (general precautionary value, PVg) in drinking water is set to -0.1 microg/l.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

First-flush loads of perfluorinated compounds in stormwater runoff from Hayabuchi River basin, Japan served by separated sewerage system

Authors: Zushi, Y; Masunaga, S (2009) Chemosphere 76:833-840. HERO ID: 3856553

[Less] Worldwide environmental pollution by perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) has been reported. PFCs have also . . . [More] Worldwide environmental pollution by perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) has been reported. PFCs have also been reported to have nonpoint sources (NPSs). A fixed-point hourly monitoring in the river was conducted during a storm event using an automatic sampler to estimate the impact of the first-flush of PFCs from NPS in this study. Perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) with different chain lengths were monitored. The concentrations of short- to medium-chain-length PFCAs such as PFHpA, PFOA and PFNA, and PFASs such as PFBS, PFPeS, PFHxS, PFHpS and PFOS showed no marked increase with the storm-runoff event. However, in contrast to this, concentrations of long-chain-length PFCAs such as PFDA and PFUnA increased markedly. The concentrations of PFDA and PFUnA increased 3.4 (1.5-5.0 ng L(-1))- and 2.0 (3.3-6.7 ng L(-1))-fold, respectively. This study demonstrates that large loads of long-chain-length PFCAs are discharged to the Hayabuchi River during the first-flush after the rain event.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dietary predictors and plasma concentrations of perfluorinated compounds in a coastal population from northern Norway

Authors: Rylander, C; Brustad, M; Falk, H; Sandanger, TM (2009) Journal of Environmental and Public Health 2009:268219. HERO ID: 2919305

[Less] Dietary intake, age, gender, and body mass index were investigated as possible predictors of perfluorinated . . . [More] Dietary intake, age, gender, and body mass index were investigated as possible predictors of perfluorinated compounds in a study population from northern Norway (44 women and 16 men). In addition to donating a blood sample, the participants answered a detailed questionnaire about diet and lifestyle. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (29 ng/mL), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (3.9 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (0.5 ng/mL), perfluorononanoate (PFNA) (0.8 ng/mL), and perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS) (1.1 ng/mL) were detected in more than 95% of all samples. Of the dietary items investigated, fruit and vegetables significantly reduced the concentrations of PFOS and PFHpS, whereas fatty fish to a smaller extent significantly increased the levels of the same compounds. Men had significantly higher concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFHpS than women. There were significant differences in PFOS isomer pattern between genders, with women having the largest proportion of linear PFOS. PFOS, PFHxS, and PFHpS concentrations also increased with age.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Acid dissociation versus molecular association of perfluoroalkyl oxoacids: Environmental implications

Authors: Cheng, Jie; Psillakis, E; Hoffmann, MR; Colussi, AJ (2009) Journal of Physical Chemistry A 113:8152-8156. [Letter] HERO ID: 2551847

[Less] Perfluorooctanoate (PFO) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) surfactant anions, once released, may rapidly . . . [More] Perfluorooctanoate (PFO) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) surfactant anions, once released, may rapidly reach remote regions. This phenomenon is puzzling because the water-bound anions of strong F-alkyl acids should be largely transported by slow oceanic currents. Herein, we investigate whether these hydrophobic F-alkyl oxoanions would behave anomalously under environmental conditions, as suggested elsewhere. Negative electrospray ionization mass spectra of micromolar aqueous PFO or PFOS solutions from pH 1.0 to 6.0 show (1) m/z = 499 (PFOS) signals that are independent of pH and (2) m/z = 413 (PFO) and 369 (PFO - CO(2)) signals, plus m/z = 213 (C(3)F(7)CO(2)(-)) and 169 (C(3)F(7)(-)) signals at higher collision energies, and, below pH similar to 4, m/z = 827 signals from a remarkably stable (PFO)(2)H(-) cluster that increase with decreasing pH. Since the SUM of the m/z = 369, 413, and 827 signal intensities is independent of pH, that is, effectively encompasses all major species, we infer that pK(a)(PFOSA) < 1.0 and pK(a)(PFOA) < 1.0. We also derive K(2) <= 4 x 10(7) M(-2) for the clustering equilibrium 2PFO + H(+) (sic) (PFO)(2)H. Thus, although (PFO)2H is held together by an exceptionally strong homonuclear covalent hydrogen bond, neither PFOS nor PFO will associate or protonate significantly at environmentally relevant subnanomolar concentrations above pH similar to 1.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Fluorine-containing polymers, perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids

Author: Savu, P (2000) In Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. HERO ID: 3980852

[Less] Perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids and their derivatives are of commercial significance because of their . . . [More] Perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids and their derivatives are of commercial significance because of their unusual acid strength, chemical stability, and the surface activity of the higher members of the series (eight carbons and larger). The best method of preparation is via the perfluorinated sulfonyl fluorides derived from electrochemical fluorination, although other methods including direct fluorination with fluorine gas are known. The first member of the series, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, is one of the strongest acids known. Alkyl esters of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid are among the best leaving groups known and are commonly used in that capacity in displacement reactions. Lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate solutions are very conductive and can find application as electrolytes in primary lithium batteries and as antistats for films.

Derivatives of the longer-chain perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids have a number of unique surface-active properties and have formed a basis for a number of commercial products. The longer-chain acids and their salts, particularly C8F17SO3H and higher, are surface-active agents in aqueous media. They reduce the surface tension of water to levels not possible with hydrocarbon surfactants. Preparation of difunctional perfluoroalkanesulfonates and their derivatives is discussed, including fluorosulfonylacetyl fluoride. Fluorosulfonyldifluoracetyl fluoride is an important industrial intermediate used in the production of Du Pont's Nafion ion-exchange membranes and in many other applications.