The effect of environmentally relevant emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances on the growth and antioxidant response in marine Chlorella sp
Authors: Niu, Z; Na, J; Xu, W; Wu, N; Zhang, Y
Environmental Pollution 252:103-109.
HERO ID: 5381306
The 6:2 chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids (6:2 Cl-PFAES), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(1,1,2,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoic . . .
The 6:2 chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids (6:2 Cl-PFAES), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(1,1,2,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoic acid (HFPO-DA) and perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS) are emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) that are being applied to replace phased-out PFASs, which have high persistency, high bioaccumulation potential and high toxicity. Recently, these emerging PFASs were observed in estuary and marine areas with a pollution level of ng/L. In this study, three levels (10 ng L-1, 100 ng L-1 and 1000 ng L-1) for these PFASs were selected to investigate the response of marine Chlorella sp. to 14 days of exposure. The growth of Chlorella sp. was significantly inhibited by each PFAS over time. Treatments with 1000 ng/L exposure caused the most severe reduction in growth for each PFAS treatment. For the first half of the experimental period (from Day 0 to Day 6), the influence of each PFAS was not significant (p > 0.05). However, treatments with all concentrations of 6:2 Cl-PFAES, HFPO-DA and 1000 ng L-1 PFECHS significantly reduced the growth of Chlorella sp. from Day 8. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in Chlorella sp. were significantly increased (p < 0.05) when exposed to 6:2 Cl-PFAES, HFPO-DA and PFECHS. The catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities in Chlorella sp. were significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) by each PFAS. The glutathione (GSH) contents in Chlorella sp. were significantly increased by each PFAS. However, the increases in GSH concentration in Chlorella sp. were low. The inhibition of algal growth was primarily due to the reduction of the activities of CAT and POD. PFECHS had the lowest toxicity among the three PFASs, and it induced less oxidized damage to Chlorella sp. In conclusion, as alternatives to phased-out PFASs, the emerging PFASs are not safe in aquatic environment, and attention should be paid to the management and restriction of these emerging PFASs.