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PFHxS (355-46-4)


950 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of Perfluorinated Compounds in Human Blood Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Pan Yuan-Yuan; Shi Ya-Li; Cai Ya-Qi (2008) Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry / Fen Xi Hua Xue 36:1321-1326. HERO ID: 3858848

[Less] A sensitive method was established for the separation and determination of nine perfluorinated compounds . . . [More] A sensitive method was established for the separation and determination of nine perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in blood samples. Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorohetanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonat (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecnaoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) and perflouorotetradodecanoic acid(PFTA) were detected by high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC ESI MS/MS) with C(18) reversed phase column in 15 min, using (13)C(4) labeled PFOS (MPFOS) as the internal standard. PFCs in the blood samples were further extracted with solid phase extraction cartridges after traditional MTBE extraction before injection. Four kinds of cartridges were tested, including RP, P, C(18) and HLB, then HLB cartridge was selected as the efficient adsorbent. A comparative study of two C(18) columns, Acclaim 120 (50 mm x 4.6 min, 3 mu m) and Acclaim 120 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 mu m) column, were also performed. Both columns provided similar sensitivities, with the detection limits of 0.03 -0.8 mu g/L for real blood samples. The relative standard deviation of recoveries ranged from 3% to 11%. Finally, Acclaim 120 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 mu m) column was chosen for its superiority of column capacity. With the optimal conditions, the recoveries of PFCs in blood samples ranged from 74.2% to 118.1%, with the exception of PFTA, which was only about 60%

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Potential effects of perfluorinated compounds in common cormorants from Lake Biwa, Japan: an implication from the hepatic gene expression profiles by microarray

Authors: Nakayama, K; Iwata, H; Tao, L; Kannan, K; Imoto, M; Kim, EY; Tashiro, K; Tanabe, S (2008) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27:2378-2386. HERO ID: 1073935

[Less] Contamination levels of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), . . . [More] Contamination levels of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), were determined in the livers of wild common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Lake Biwa, Japan. Potential effects of PFCs alone and combined effects by complex mixture of PFCs and dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) were also assessed by gene expression profiling using a cormorant oligo array. Perfluorooctanesulfonate, PFNA, and PFOSA were detected in almost all liver samples analyzed, while concentrations of PFHS and PFOA were below the limit of quantification. The microarray data analyses revealed that hepatic PFC levels were correlated with the expression of 74 genes. Real-time reverse-transcript polymerase chain reaction data demonstrated that PFOS concentration was positively correlated with mRNA levels of glutathione peroxidase 1 and glutathione S-transferase alpha 3 and negatively correlated with levels of heat shock 70-kDa protein 8 and tumor rejection antigen 1 mRNAs. These results suggest the induction of antioxidant enzymes in response to oxidative stress caused by PFCs and the suppression of molecular chaperones, leading to reduction in protein stability. Moreover, multiple regression analyses identified seven significant models in which certain genes showed expression levels altered by accumulation of PFCs and DRCs. The regression models explained associations with cytochrome P450 1A mRNA and protein expression levels, and its catalytic activity, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase of both PFNA and the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalent levels. Thus, the regression models suggested the potential of PFCs to enhance toxicities of DRCs. Since mixture toxicity is an urgent issue, further study is required to understand the effects of mixtures of PFCs and DRCs in wild cormorants.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Perfluorinated compounds in potable water]

Authors: Rostkowski, P; Taniyasu, S; Yamashita, N; Falandysz, J (2008) Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny 59:283-292. HERO ID: 1578509

[Less] In a pilot study perfluorinated compounds such as perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane . . . [More] In a pilot study perfluorinated compounds such as perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane suflonate (PFHS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA) and perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFOcDA) have been determined in the Japanese and Polish brands of bottled mineral water and in tap water. Bottled mineral water from both countries contained ultratrace amounts of some perfluorinated compounds, and higher degree of contamination showed tap water. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were much below threshold level for toxic effects, and Hazard Quotient (HQ) was much < 1.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Serum levels of perfluoroalkyl compounds in human maternal and umbilical cord blood samples

Authors: Monroy, R; Morrison, K; Teo, K; Atkinson, S; Kubwabo, C; Stewart, B; Foster, WG (2008) Environmental Research 108:56-62. HERO ID: 2349575

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are end-stage metabolic products from industrial flourochemicals used . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are end-stage metabolic products from industrial flourochemicals used in the manufacture of plastics, textiles, and electronics that are widely distributed in the environment. The objective of the present study was to quantify exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in serum samples collected from pregnant women and the umbilical cord at delivery. Pregnant women (n=101) presenting for second trimester ultrasound were recruited and PFC residue levels were quantified in maternal serum at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy, at delivery, and in umbilical cord blood (UCB; n=105) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Paired t-test and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine the relationship between the concentrations of each analyte at different sample collection time points. PFOA and PFOS were detectable in all serum samples analyzed including the UCB. PFOS serum levels (mean+/-S.D.) were significantly higher (p<0.001) in second trimester maternal serum (18.1+/-10.9 ng/mL) than maternal serum levels at delivery (16.2+/-10.4 ng/mL), which were higher than the levels found in UCB (7.3+/-5.8 ng/mL; p<0.001). PFHxS was quantifiable in 46/101 (45.5%) maternal and 21/105 (20%) UCB samples with a mean concentration of 4.05+/-12.3 and 5.05+/-12.9 ng/mL, respectively. There was no association between serum PFCs at any time point studied and birth weight. Taken together our data demonstrate that although there is widespread exposure to PFCs during development, these exposures do not affect birth weight.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Oil-in-oil microencapsulation technique with an external perfluorohexane phase

Authors: Mana, Z; Pellequer, Y; Lamprecht, A (2007) International Journal of Pharmaceutics 338:231-237. HERO ID: 4240400

[Less] Commonly, the microencapsulation of a lipophilic drug in a polymeric matrix via an ordinary oil/oil . . . [More] Commonly, the microencapsulation of a lipophilic drug in a polymeric matrix via an ordinary oil/oil emulsification allows entrapping limited drug amounts due to its loss into the external phase. In this present paper, a new microencapsultion method describes the use of perfluorohexane as an external oil phase in order to produce microparticles of polyvinylpyrrolidon/vinylacetate (copovidone) and Eudragit RS. Due to its highly non-solvent properties to most compounds, very limited miscibility with organic solvents, and very low toxicity, perfluorohexane (PFH) represents an excellent liquid for an external phase of the emulsion. Copovidone and Eudragit RS microparticles were prepared by an oil/PFH method trapping ibuprofen as a lipophilic model drug and compared to results from conventional methods (oil/water and oil/oil). Morphological analyses of the obtained particles underlined the general matrix structure. The particle size varied between 75microm (oil/oil) and 400microm (oil/PFH) largely influenced by the stirring speed. Although drug release kinetics were principally similar for all preparation methods, it was generally found that encapsulation rates of oil/water and oil/PFH systems (oil/water: 74+/-9%; oil/PFH: 86+/-10%) were superior to ordinary oil/oil emulsification (3+/-1%). The use of PFH was found to be a new promising tool for the preparation of microparticles. This modified emulsification method allowed the entrapment of lipophilic drugs into hydrophilic or lipophilic polymers in the absence of an aqueous phase.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorinated chemicals in blood of residents in Catalonia (Spain) in relation to age and gender: a pilot study

Authors: Ericson, I; Gómez, M; Nadal, M; van Bavel, B; Lindström, G; Domingo, JL (2007) Environment International 33:616-623. HERO ID: 3858652

[Less] Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) are a group of chemicals widely used as surfactants, lubricants, . . . [More] Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) are a group of chemicals widely used as surfactants, lubricants, polymers, and fire-fighting foams. Recent studies have shown the ubiquitous distribution of FOCs in the environment, wildlife, and humans. We here report the results of a pilot study conducted to provide preliminary data on the levels of 13 FOCs in the blood of 48 residents in Catalonia, Spain, in relation to gender and age (25+/-5 and 55+/-5 years). The highest mean concentration was obtained for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 7.64 ng/ml), followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 3.56 ng/ml) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.80 ng/ml). Four other FOCs showed mean levels between 0.30 and 0.44 ng/ml, whereas those of the remaining 6 compounds were below the detection limit. Regarding gender, the blood levels of PFHxS and PFOA were significantly higher (p<0.05) in men than in women, while differences according to age were only noted for PFHxS (p<0.05) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) (p<0.001), for which the levels were higher in the younger (25+/-5 years) group of subjects. A significant correlation between PFOS levels and those of the remaining detected FOCs (except PFDA) was found. In general terms, the current FOC concentrations were lower than those found in recent studies concerning levels of these chemicals in human blood and serum of subjects from different countries.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Simultaneous characterization of perfluoroalkyl carboxylate, sulfonate, and sulfonamide isomers by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Authors: Benskin, JP; Bataineh, M; Martin, JW (2007) Analytical Chemistry 79:6455-6464. HERO ID: 3859863

[Less] A comprehensive method was developed to simultaneously separate and detect perfluorinated acid (PFA) . . . [More] A comprehensive method was developed to simultaneously separate and detect perfluorinated acid (PFA) and PFA-precursor isomers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A linear perfluorooctyl stationary phase and acidified mobile phase increased separation efficiency, relative to alkyl stationary phases, for the many perfluoroalkyl carboxylate (PFCA), perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFSA), and perfluorooctyl sulfonamide (PFOSA) isomers and in combination with their distinct MS/MS transitions allowed full resolution of most isomers in standards. Utilizing the absence of the "9-series" and "0-series" product ions, several perfluorooctane sulfonate (C8F17SO3-, PFOS) isomers were structurally elucidated. In human serum, only perfluorooctane sulfonamide (C8F17SO2NH2, FOSA) and PFOS consisted of significant quantities of branched isomers, whereas PFCAs were predominantly linear. Interferences that coelute with the m/z 499 --> 80 transition of PFOS on alkyl stationary phases were simultaneously separated and identified as taurodeoxycholate isomers, removal of which permitted the use of the more sensitive m/z 80 product ion and a resulting 20-fold decrease in PFOS detection limits compared to the m/z 499 --> 99 transition (0.8 pg versus 20 pg using m/z 80 and 99, respectively). Interferences in human serum which caused a 10-20-fold over-reporting of perfluorohexane sulfonate (C6F13SO3-, PFHxS) concentrations on alkyl stationary phases were also simultaneously separated from linear PFHxS and identified as endogenous steroid sulfates. PFOSA isomers, generated with human microsomes, had different rates of metabolism, suggesting that the perfluoroalkyl branching pattern may affect the biological properties of individual isomers. This fact, and for reasons of improved accuracy and sensitivity, investigators are urged to utilize more efficient separation methods capable of isomer characterization in perfluoroalkyl research.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorohexanesulfonate and perfluorooctanesulfonate decrease plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in APOE*3Leiden transgenic mice. Indication for a PPAR alpha agonist mechanism

Authors: Pieterman, E; van Den Hoek, AM; Havekes, LM; Ehresman, DJ; Chang, S; Butenhoff, JL; Princen, HM; Cohen, LH (2007) Atherosclerosis. Supplement 8:41-41. [Abstract] HERO ID: 3859957


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorinated compounds in river water, river sediment, market fish, and wildlife samples from Japan

Authors: Senthilkumar, K; Ohi, E; Sajwan, K; Takasuga, T; Kannan, K (2007) Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 79:427-431. HERO ID: 1289793

[Less] Perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) such as PFOS, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFOSA and PFDoA were determined . . . [More] Perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) such as PFOS, PFOA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFOSA and PFDoA were determined in river water, river sediment, liver of market fish and liver of wildlife samples from Japan. Concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in water samples were 7.9-110 and <5.2-10 ng/L. Only PFOA were detected in sediment from Kyoto river at 1.3-3.9 ng/g dry wt. Among fish, only jack mackerel showed PFOA and PFOS at 10 and 1.6 ng/g wet wt. Wildlife liver contained PFOSA, PFOS, PFDoA, PFOA and PFHxS in the range of 0.31-362, 0.15-238, <0.03-28, >0.07-7.3 and <0.03-1.5, respectively, on ng/g wet wt. Cormorants showed maximum accumulation followed by eagle, raccoon dog and large-billed crow.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparison of human whole blood, plasma, and serum matrices for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other fluorochemicals

Authors: Ehresman, DJ; Froehlich, JW; Olsen, GW; Chang, SC; Butenhoff, JL (2007) Environmental Research 103:176-184. HERO ID: 1429928

[Less] Interest in human exposure to perfluorinated acids, including perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate . . . [More] Interest in human exposure to perfluorinated acids, including perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has led to their measurement in whole blood, plasma and serum. Comparison of measurements in these different blood-based matrices, however, has not been rigorously investigated to allow for across-matrix comparisons. This research evaluated concentrations of PFBS, PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA in whole blood collected in heparin (lithium) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), plasma samples collected in heparin and EDTA, and serum (from whole blood allowed to clot). Blood samples were collected from 18 voluntary participants employed at 3M Company. Solid phase extraction methods were used for all analytical sample preparations, and analyses were completed using high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. Serum concentrations ranged from: limit of quantitation (LOQ, 5 ng/mL) to 25 ng/mL for PFBS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 75 ng/mL for PFHS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 880 ng/mL for PFOS; and LOQ (5 or 10 ng/mL) to 7320 ng/mL for PFOA. Values less than the LOQ were not included in the statistical analyses of the mean of the ratios of individual values for the matrices. PFBS was not quantifiable in most samples. Serum to plasma ratios for PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA were 1:1 and this ratio was independent of the level of concentrations measured. Serum or plasma to whole blood ratios, regardless of the anticoagulant used, approximated 2:1. The difference between plasma and serum and whole blood corresponded to volume displacement by red blood cells, suggesting that the fluorochemicals are not found intracellularly or attached to the red blood cells.