Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFBA (375-22-4)


798 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorinated alkyl substances in snow as an atmospheric tracer for tracking the interactions between westerly winds and the Indian Monsoon over western China

Authors: Wang, X; Chen, M; Gong, P; Wang, C (2019) HERO ID: 5098202

[Less] Snow is an efficient scavenger for the deposition of contaminants. Atmospheric transport and snow deposition . . . [More] Snow is an efficient scavenger for the deposition of contaminants. Atmospheric transport and snow deposition jointly control the distribution of pollutants in remote mountain/polar regions. But can the contaminants contained within snow be used to reflect the interactions of air circulation patterns? The physicochemical properties of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are unique because of their high water solubilities. Taking advantage of this, 15 surface-snow and 3 snow-pit samples were collected across a vast area of western China (spanning 20° of latitude and 25° of longitude), to investigate the concentrations, composition profiles (fingerprints), and deposition fluxes of PFASs. Both a high concentration (3974 pg/L) and deposition flux (4.0 μg/m2/yr) for a total of 16 PFASs were found in the snow at Yulong, the most southern sample site, possibly because of its close proximity to source regions of pollutants in South Asia and high rate of snow deposition. Perfluorobutanoic acid was the most commonly found chemical in snow, but in general the PFAS composition in the snow of western China showed large spatial differences, with long-chain (C > 10) PFASs being relatively dominant in the north and west of the region and short-chain (C < 6) PFASs in the south and east. On the basis of the different compositions of PFASs in the snow of western China and the previously reported features of pollutant sources in Europe and India, we found that PFASs in snow can be used as an atmospheric tracer for tracking the interactions between westerly winds and the Indian Monsoon. The belt along 33°N is a key location where both the Indian Monsoon and westerly winds can arrive/interact; however, the contribution of the monsoon was found to be above 70%, while that of the westerly winds can be lower than 30%. The western part of the 33°N belt was found to be more vulnerable to the Indian Monsoon, and could be grouped into the monsoon domain, while the influence of the westerly winds increased from west to east along the belt. This finding is opposite to previous results, which reported that the western part of the 33°N belt was mainly under the influence of the westerly winds, and for the first time quantifies the relative contribution of westerly winds and the Indian Monsoon to the atmospheric transport of chemicals.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Multi-residues UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of 53 antibacterial compounds in poultry feathers as an analytical tool in food safety assurance

Authors: Gajda, A; Nowacka-Kozak, E; Gbylik-Sikorska, M; Posyniak, A (2019) Journal of Chromatography B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 1104:182-189. HERO ID: 5098208

[Less] Under the EU official monitoring programs, the antibiotics are controlled in tissues of food producing . . . [More] Under the EU official monitoring programs, the antibiotics are controlled in tissues of food producing animals. However, regarding the overuse of medicines in veterinary practice, there is a strong need to find an alternative to post-mortem analysis of antibiotics. The use of feathers, as an unconventional matrix, enable to control of birds treatment during breeding. Thus, a novel ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of 53 compounds from 11 groups of antibacterials, including penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones, sulfonamides, aminoglycosides, pleuromutilins, diaminopirymidynes, diaminopirymidynes derivatives and lincosamides in chicken feathers has been developed. The isolation of analytes by solvent extraction method with oxalic acid, Na2EDTA and acetonitrile was performed. The extracts were cleaned by filtration with OASIS HLB cartridges. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax SB-C18 analytical column using mobile phase consisting of 0.025% heptafluorobutyric acid and acetonitrile. All compounds were successfully validated, with good sensitivity, accuracy and precision. The developed method gives an opportunity to effective monitoring, whether chickens have been given antibiotics, as well as let to identify the medicines that were used.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Identification of a novel advanced glycation end product derived from lactaldehyde

Authors: Fujimoto, S; Murakami, Y; Miyake, H; Hayase, F; Watanabe, H (2019) Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 1-10. HERO ID: 5098204

[Less] Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are implicated in the development of diabetic complications via . . . [More] Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are implicated in the development of diabetic complications via the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). We have reported that the 3-hydroxypyridinium (3HP)-containing AGEs derived from α-hydroxyaldehydes physically interact with RAGE and show cytotoxicity. Lactaldehyde (LA) is formed from a reaction between threonine and myeloperoxidase, but no LA-derived AGEs have been characterized. Here, we identify the structure and physiological effects of an AGE derived from LA. We isolated a novel 3HP derivative, 2-acetamido-6-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-pyridin-1-ium-1-yl)hexanoate, named as N-acetyl-LAPL (lactaldehyde-derived pyridinium-type lysine adduct), from a mixture of LA with Nα-acetyl-L-lysine. LAPL was also detected in the LA-modified protein. LAPL elicited toxicity in PC12 neuronal cells, but the effect was suppressed by the soluble form of RAGE as a decoy receptor. Moreover, surface plasmon resonance-based analysis revealed that LAPL specifically binds to recombinant RAGE. These results indicate that LA generates an AGE containing the 3HP moiety and contributes to RAGE-dependent cytotoxicity. Abbreviations: AGEs: advanced glycation end products; RAGE: receptor for advanced glycation end products; 3HP: 3-hydroxypyridinium; LA: lactaldehyde; LAPL: lactaldehyde-derived pyridinium-type lysine adduct; BSA: bovine serum albumin; GLAP: glyceraldehyde-derived pyridinium; MPO: myeloperoxidase; HFBA: heptafluorobutyric acid; TFA: trifluoroacetic acid; HPLC: high performance liquid chromatography; LC-ESI-QTOF-MS: liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; LA-BSA: lactaldehyde-modified bovine serum albumin; PBS: phosphate buffered saline, GST, glutathione S-transferase; SPR: surface plasmon resonance; OP-lysine: 2-ammonio-6-(3-oxidopyridinium-1-yl)hexanoate; GLO1: glyoxalase 1; MG, methylglyoxal.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Variation in microbial community structure in surface seawater from Pearl River Delta: Discerning the influencing factors

Authors: Chen, L; Tsui, MMP; Lam, JCW; Hu, C; Wang, Q; Zhou, B; Lam, PKS (2019) Science of the Total Environment 660:136-144. HERO ID: 5024203

[Less] Contamination of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is ubiquitously detected in various environments. However, . . . [More] Contamination of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is ubiquitously detected in various environments. However, their potential effects on microbial communities remain largely unknown. In this study, surface seawater of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is sampled to measure PFAA concentrations and profile the structure of free-living microbial community. Total PFAAs concentrations range from 131 to 1563 pg L-1 in surface seawater. PFOS (16-470 pg L-1), PFOA (27-272 pg L-1), PFHpA (18-201 pg L-1) and PFBA (25-152 pg L-1) are the major homologues, indicating continued industrial application or release of PFOS and a gradual shift towards using shorter-chain PFAAs. Concentrations of PFAAs from this recent cruise are much lower than previous reports, which may be due to the effective management of PFAA usage around PRD region. In addition, the microbial community in PRD surface seawater is predominantly colonized by the Proteobacteria phylum (27.2 to 61.5%) and the Synechococcus genus (5.6 to 38.6%). The structure of the microbial communities varies among stations, mainly resulting from different abundances of Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus and Nitrosopumilus. Geochemical parameters (e.g., nutrients and salinity) and phytoplankton are significantly associated with the microbial community dynamics in surface seawater. In the interactive network of microbiota, a subset of bacteria (i.e., Fluviicola, Nitrosopumilus, Limnohabitans, Sediminibacterium, C39 and Polynucleobacter) shows significantly positive correlations with PFAAs (R > 0.6; P < 0.001). Overall, this study gives a timely monitoring of PFAA pollution around PRD area. Shift in environmental microbiota by geochemical factors and phytoplankton is also observed, which may affect biogeochemical cycling.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluoroalkyl substances in groundwater and home-produced vegetables and eggs around a fluorochemical industrial park in China

Authors: Bao, J; Yu, WJ; Liu, Y; Wang, X; Jin, YH; Dong, GH (2019) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 171:199-205. HERO ID: 5080600

[Less] High-level contaminations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in both surface water . . . [More] High-level contaminations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in both surface water and groundwater around a fluorochemical industrial park (FIP) in Fuxin, China, over the past few years. Yet little is known about whether groundwater PFAS contaminations in Fuxin could be introduced into home-produced vegetables and eggs in local residences via the application of groundwater for the irrigation or feeding purposes. In the present study, ten PFAS analytes were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to investigate the extent of PFAS contaminations in the groundwater, soil, and home-produced vegetable and egg samples derived from Fuxin. As the predominant PFAS contaminants, perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were observed in groundwater beneath the Fuxin FIP with the maximum concentrations of 21.2 and 2.51 µg/L, respectively, which were 24-fold and 5-fold higher individually compared to those reported previously. Both of them were also higher than the updated health advisories for PFBS and PFOA in drinking water issued by the Minnesota Department of Health and the US Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, short-chain PFASs involving perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and PFBS were found to be the major contaminants in both home-produced vegetables and eggs from the residential gardens around the FIP. Statistically significant relationships were determined between the levels of PFBA, PFOA, and PFBS in local groundwater and those observed in home-produced vegetables (p = 0.003, p = 0.025, and p < 0.001), suggesting potential entry of those PFAS contaminants into home-produced vegetables via irrigation with groundwater beneath the FIP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Renal function and isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS): Isomers of C8 Health Project in China

Authors: Wang, J; Zeng, XW; Bloom, MS; Qian, Z; Hinyard, LJ; Belue, R; Lin, S; Wang, SQ; Tian, YP; Yang, M; Chu, C; Gurram, N; Hu, LW; Liu, KK; Yang, BY; Feng, D; Liu, RQ; Dong, GH (2019) Chemosphere 218:1042-1049. HERO ID: 5080583

[Less] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widely-utilized synthetic chemicals commonly found in industrial . . . [More] Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widely-utilized synthetic chemicals commonly found in industrial and consumer products. Previous studies have examined associations between PFASs and renal function, yet the results are mixed. Moreover, evidence on the associations of isomers of PFASs with renal function in population from high polluted areas is scant. To help to address this data gap, we used high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure serum isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and other PFASs from 1612 adults residing in Shenyang, China, and characterized their associations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Results showed that after adjusted for multiple confounding factors, most of the higher fluorinated PFASs, except for PFOA and PFDA, were negatively associated with eGFR and positively associated with CKD. Compared with linear PFOS (n-PFOS), branched PFOS isomers (Br-PFOS) were more strongly associated with eGFR (Br-PFOS; β = -1.22, 95%CI: 2.02, -0.42; p = 0.003 vs. n-PFOS; β = -0.16, 95%CI: 0.98, 0.65; p = 0.691) and CKD (Br-PFOS; OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.58; p = 0.037 vs. n-PFOS; OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.20; p = 0.834). In conclusion, branched PFOS isomers were negatively associated with renal function whereas their linear counterparts were not. Given widespread exposure to PFASs, potential nephrotoxic effects are of great public health concern, Furthermore, longitudinal research on the potential nephrotoxic effects of PFASs isomers will be necessary to more definitively assess the risk.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Leaching and bioavailability of selected perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from soil contaminated by firefighting activities

Authors: Bräunig, J; Baduel, C; Barnes, CM; Mueller, JF (2019) Science of the Total Environment 646:471-479. HERO ID: 5079692

[Less] Historical usage of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) at firefighting training grounds (FTGs) is a potential . . . [More] Historical usage of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) at firefighting training grounds (FTGs) is a potential source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to the surrounding environment. In this study the leaching of PFAAs from field contaminated soil and their uptake into biota was investigated. Soil was sampled from FTGs at two airports and the total as well as the leachable concentration of 12 PFAAs was determined. A greenhouse study was carried out to investigate the uptake of PFAAs from soils into earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and wheat grass (Elymus scaber). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were the most dominant PFAAs in all soils samples, with concentrations of PFOS reaching 13,400 ng/g. Leachable concentrations of PFOS and PFHxS reached up to 550 μg/L and 22 μg/L, respectively. In earthworms concentrations of PFOS reached 65,100 ng/g after a 28-day exposure period, while in wheat grass the highest concentration was measured for uptake of PFHxS (2,800 ng/g) after a 10-week growth-period. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for earthworms ranged from 0.1 for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) to 23 for perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) and initially showed a decreasing trend with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length, followed by an increase with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length for perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). In wheat grass the highest BAF was found for perfluorobutanoic acid (BAF = 70), while the lowest was observed for perfluorononanoic acid (BAF = 0.06). BAFs in wheat grass decreased with increasing perfluoroalkyl chain length for both PFCAs and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs). The results show that PFAAs readily leach from impacted soils and are bioaccumulated into earthworms and plants in an analyte dependent way. This shows considerable potential for PFAAs to move away from the original source either by leaching or uptake into ecological receptors, which may be a potential entry route into the terrestrial foodweb.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Elucidation of contamination sources for poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic)

Authors: Skaar, JS; Ræder, EM; Lyche, JL; Ahrens, L; Kallenborn, R (2019) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26:7356-7363. HERO ID: 5080339

[Less] A combination of local (i.e. firefighting training facilities) and remote sources (i.e. long-range transport) . . . [More] A combination of local (i.e. firefighting training facilities) and remote sources (i.e. long-range transport) is assumed to be responsible for the occurrence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic). However, no systematic elucidation of local PFASs sources has been conducted yet. Therefore, a survey was performed aiming at identifying local PFAS pollution sources on the island of Spitsbergen (Svalbard, Norway). Soil, freshwater (lake, draining rivers), seawater, meltwater run-off, surface snow and coastal sediment samples were collected from Longyearbyen (Norwegian mining town), Ny-Ålesund (research facility) and the Lake Linnévatnet area (background site) during several campaigns (2014-2016) and analysed for 14 individual target PFASs. For background site (Linnévatnet area, sampling during April to June 2015), ΣPFAS levels ranged from 0.4 to 4 ng/L in surface lake water (n = 20). PFAS in meltwater from the contributing glaciers showed similar concentrations (~ 4 ng/L, n = 2). The short-chain perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) was predominant in lake water (60-80% of the ΣPFASs), meltwater (20-30%) and run-off water (40%). Long-range transport is assumed to be the major PFAS source. In Longyearbyen, five water samples (i.e. 2 seawater, 3 run-off) were collected near the local firefighting training site (FFTS) in November 2014 and June 2015, respectively. The highest PFAS levels were found in FFTS meltwater run-off (118 ng/L). Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the most abundant compound in the FFTS meltwater run-off (53-58% PFASs). At the research station Ny-Ålesund, seawater (n = 6), soil (n = 9) and freshwater (n = 10) were collected in June 2016. Low ΣPFAS concentrations were determined for seawater (5-6 ng/L), whereas high ΣPFAS concentrations were found in run-off water (113-119 ng/L) and soil (211-800 ng/g dry weight (dw)) collected close to the local FFTS. In addition, high ΣPFAS levels (127 ng/L) were also found in freshwater from lake Solvatnet close to former sewage treatment facility. Overall, at both FFTS-affected sites (soil, water), PFOS was the most abundant compound (60-69% of ΣPFASs). FFTS and landfill locations were identified as major PFAS sources for Svalbard settlements.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Stabilization and solidification remediation of soil contaminated with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)

Authors: Sörengård, M; Kleja, DB; Ahrens, L (2019) HERO ID: 5079966

[Less] Remediation methods for soils contaminated with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are urgently . . . [More] Remediation methods for soils contaminated with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are urgently needed to protect the surrounding environment and drinking water source areas from pollution. In this study, the stabilization and solidification (S/S) technique was tested on aged PFAS-contaminated soil that were artificially spiked with 14 PFAS. To further reduce leaching of PFASs in S/S-treated soil, seven different additives were tested at 2% concentration: powdered activated carbon (PAC), Rembind®, pulverized zeolite, chitosan, hydrotalcite, bentonite, and calcium chloride. Standardized leaching tests on S/S-treated soil revealed that leaching of 13 out of 14 target PFASs (excluding perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBA)) was reduced by, on average, 70% and 94% by adding PAC and Rembind®. Longer-chained PFASs such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which is considered persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic, were stabilized by 99.9% in all S/S treatments when PAC or Rembind® was used as an additive. The S/S stabilization efficiency depended on PFAS perfluorocarbon chain length and functional group, e.g., it increased on average by 11-15 % per CF3-moeity and was on average 49% higher for the perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs) than the perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs). Overall, the S/S treatment with active carbon-based additives showed excellent performance in reducing leaching of PFASs, without marked loss of physical matrix stability.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Spatial distribution, seasonal variation and risks of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in urban surface water in Beijing, China

Authors: Wang, Y; Shi, Y; Cai, Y (2019) Science of the Total Environment 673:177-183. HERO ID: 5098206

[Less] In the current study, we investigated the occurrence, spatial distribution and seasonal variation of . . . [More] In the current study, we investigated the occurrence, spatial distribution and seasonal variation of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including one group of emerging PFASs, the chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs), in urban surface water (river and lake) samples from October 2013 to September 2014 (except during the frozen period) in Beijing, China. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) were the dominant compounds, with average concentrations of 12.79 and 9.90 ng/L, respectively. For Cl-PFESAs, only C8 Cl-PFESA could be detected, and its concentration ranged from