Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


PFNA (375-95-1)


2,408 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorinated compounds in the Pearl River and Yangtze River of China

Authors: So, MK; Miyake, Y; Yeung, WY; Ho, YM; Taniyasu, S; Rostkowski, P; Yamashita, N; Zhou, BS; Shi, XJ; Wang, JX; Giesy, JP; Yu, H; Lam, PKS (2007) Chemosphere 68:2085-2095. HERO ID: 3856668

[Less] A total of 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were quantified in river water samples collected from . . . [More] A total of 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were quantified in river water samples collected from tributaries of the Pearl River (Guangzhou Province, south China) and the Yangtze River (central China). Among the PFCs analyzed, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the two compounds with the highest concentrations. PFOS concentrations ranged from 0.90 to 99 ng/l and <0.01-14 ng/l in samples from the Pearl River and Yangtze River, respectively; whereas those for PFOA ranged from 0.85 to 13 ng/l and 2.0-260 ng/l. Lower concentrations were measured for perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfoamide (PFOSA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorononaoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). Concentrations of several perfluorocarboxylic acids, including perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perfluorohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA) and perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFOcDA) were lower than the limits of quantification in all the samples analyzed. The highest concentrations of most PFCs were observed in water samples from the Yangtze River near Shanghai, the major industrial and financial centre in China. In addition, sampling locations in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River with a reduced flow rate might serve as a final sink for contaminants from the upstream river runoffs. Generally, PFOS was the dominant PFC found in samples from the Pearl River, while PFOA was the predominant PFC in water from the Yangtze River. Specifically, a considerable amount of PFBS (22.9-26.1% of total PFC analyzed) was measured in water collected near Nanjing, which indicates the presence of potential sources of PFBS in this part of China. Completely different PFC composition profiles were observed for samples from the Pearl River and the Yangtze River. This indicates the presence of dissimilar sources in these two regions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analysis of structure-cytotoxicity in vitro relationship (SAR) for perfluorinated carboxylic acids

Authors: Kleszczyński, K; Gardzielewski, P; Mulkiewicz, E; Stepnowski, P; Składanowski, AC (2007) Toxicology In Vitro 21:1206-1211. HERO ID: 3858637

[Less] Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFAs) represent derivatives of naturally occurring compounds and have . . . [More] Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFAs) represent derivatives of naturally occurring compounds and have been widely used in various industrial fields for decades. They are known to be environmentally persistent. Thus far numerous reports have been focused on reproductive toxicity of PFAs in animals but few studies have been carried out on toxicity towards human cells. Viability tests were performed here at varying time-exposures on C6-C18 PFAs with human colon carcinoma (HCT116) cells. These cells were found earlier as the most useful line for in vitro assays. A chain length-EC50 dependence has been clearly observed. Estimated values of EC50 decreased with elongation of fluorocarbon chain (PFHxA > PFHpA > PFOA > PFNA > PFDA > PFDoA > PFTeDA). Further elongation (C16 and C18) did not deepen the effect but even partially reversed it. The effect was intensified after longer exposure (72 h); at relatively low 40 microM PFTeDA, the viability decreased to approximately 50%. It seems that PFAs are not acutely toxic at the cellular level. Even so, however, they can trigger cell apoptosis, which is prominent in the case of myristic acid perfluorinated analogue.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of perfluorinated compounds in water samples by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

Authors: Zhang Ping; Shi Ya-Li; Cai Ya-Qi; Mon Shi-Fen (2007) Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry / Fen Xi Hua Xue 35:969-972. HERO ID: 3859022

[Less] A rapid and simple method was proposed for separation and determination of five perfluorinated compounds, . . . [More] A rapid and simple method was proposed for separation and determination of five perfluorinated compounds, perfluoroheptanic acid (PFHeA), perfluorooctanic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanic sucfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA) by using high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) with a C-18 reversed-phase column and CH3OH/NH4Ac eluent in 10 min. 500 mL sample liquor was concentrated by off-line RP cartridge, then washed with 2 mL methanol. The extractant solution was finally added with water to 5 mL before 50 mu L injection. Transitions of 363/319, 412. 9/368. 9, 498. 9/80, 462. 9/419 and 512. 8/469 were selected to qualification and quantification of PFHeA, PFOA, PFOS, PFNA and PFDeA. Linear calibrations were acquired in the range of 0. 5 - 20 ng/L with correlation coefficients more than 0. 9944. The detection limits (S/N = 3) for these five PFCs were 0. 10, 0. 15, 0. 11, 0. 11 and 0. 18 ng/L respectively. This method was applied to detect PFCs in environmental water samples. The recoveries were in the range of 52. 6% - 117. 5%.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of perfluorinated compounds in wastewater and river water samples by mixed hemimicelle-based solid-phase extraction before liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry detection

Authors: Zhao, X; Li, J; Shi, Y; Cai, Y; Mou, S; Jiang, G (2007) Journal of Chromatography A 1154:52-59. HERO ID: 3858309

[Less] A comparative study on the use of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-coated silica and sodium dodecyl . . . [More] A comparative study on the use of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-coated silica and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-coated alumina mixed hemimicelles-based solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the pre-concentration of six perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmental water samples was presented. The six analytes heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA), perfluoroheptanic acid (PFHeA), perfluorooctanic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanic sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanic acid (PFDeA) were quantitatively retained on both sorbent materials. The cationic surfactant (CTAB adsorbed onto silica) was more appropriate for SPE of PFCs. The main factors affecting adsolubilization of PFCs including the amount of surfactant, pH of solution, sample loading volume and desorption were investigated and optimized. Concentration factor of 500 were achieved by SPE of 500 mL of several environmental water samples. The method detection limits obtained for HFBA, PFHeA, PFOA, PFOS, PFNA and PFDeA were 0.10, 0.28, 0.07, 0.20, 0.10 and 0.05 ng/L, respectively. The relative standard deviation of recoveries ranged from 2 to 8%, which indicated good method precision.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Some properties of lysozyme--lithium perfluorononanoate complexes

Authors: Ciurleo, A; Cinelli, S; Guidi, M; Bonincontro, A; Onori, G; Mesa, CL (2007) Biomacromolecules 8:399-405. HERO ID: 3860127

[Less] Mixtures containing lysozyme, LYSO, and a fully fluorinated surfactant, lithium perfluorononanoate, . . . [More] Mixtures containing lysozyme, LYSO, and a fully fluorinated surfactant, lithium perfluorononanoate, LiPFN, were investigated in a wide range of concentrations and mole ratios. To ensure consistency to the data, a comparison was made, when possible, with the more conventional SDS as surfactant. Molecular solutions, precipitates, and micellar phases have been observed. The region of existence for each phase depends on the LiPFN/LYSO mole ratios, r, and was determined by different experimental methods. Optical absorbance, CD, 19F NMR, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric relaxation methods were used. Some methods give information on the protein conformation, others on the state of the surfactant or on the collective system properties, respectively. Addition of LiPFN gives rise to a solution, a poly phase dispersion (at low surfactant to protein ratios) and to a micelle-mediated redissolution of the precipitates. Concomitant to the above macroscopic properties, peculiar effects in the state of LYSO are observed. Low amounts of surfactant reduce significantly the amount of alpha-helix in favor of the beta-sheet conformation of the protein. The former is almost completely regained once micelle-assisted redissolution of the complex occurs. The tertiary structure of the protein, conversely, is lost at low surfactant content and never recovered. Such evidence suggests the occurrence of a molten globule conformation for LYSO in micellar media.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Analysis of perfluorinated carboxylic acids in soils: detection and quantitation issues at low concentrations

Authors: Washington, JW; Ellington, JJ; Jenkins, TM; Evans, JJ (2007) Journal of Chromatography A 1154:111-120. HERO ID: 3858638

[Less] Methods were developed for the extraction from soil, identification, confirmation and quantitation by . . . [More] Methods were developed for the extraction from soil, identification, confirmation and quantitation by LC/MS/MS of trace levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA). Whereas PFOA, PFNA and PFDA all can be quantitated using the method of standard additions, PFOA also can be quantitated less laboriously using 13C4-PFOA as a matrix internal standard. The impact of extract matrices on signal varied between soils and temporally during analytical runs rendering 13C4-PFOA unsuitable as a matrix internal standard for quantitating perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) other than PFOA, which co-elutes with 13C4-PFOA. In fact, for soil extracts, quantitation of PFCAs based on external calibrations proved about as accurate as use of matrix internal standards for target analytes that do not co-elute with the matrix internal standard. Also, 13C4-PFOA should be used carefully as a matrix internal standard for trace levels of PFOA because some 13C4-PFOA standards contain trace impurities of unlabelled PFOA. When the presence of PFCAs in soil extracts is being determined by LC/MS/MS, detection limits are best defined by statistical methods that quantify the significance of contrast between analytical signal and background noise using multiple analyses. Further, when developing a calibration of low concentrations using weighted regression, the central tendency of the calibration line is best fitted using graphical depictions of error. As the MDL for the transition-product quantitation ion is approached in LC/MS/MS, relatively weak signals of transition-product confirmation ions can be used as a rejection criterion by looking for anomalously high values of the ratio of the confirmation to the quantitation ion.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vitro metabolism of 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol: interspecies comparisons and metabolic pathway refinement

Authors: Nabb, DL; Szostek, B; Himmelstein, MW; Mawn, MP; Gargas, ML; Sweeney, LM; Stadler, JC; Buck, RC; Fasano, WJ (2007) Toxicological Sciences 100:333-344. HERO ID: 3857402

[Less] The detection of perfluorinated organic compounds in the environment has generated interest in their . . . [More] The detection of perfluorinated organic compounds in the environment has generated interest in their biological fate. 8-2 Fluorotelomer alcohol (8-2 FTOH, C(7)F(15)CF(2)CH(2)CH(2)OH), a raw material used in the manufacture of fluorotelomer-based products, has been identified in the environment and has been implicated as a potential source for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the environment. In this study, the in vitro metabolism of [3-(14)C] 8-2 FTOH and selected acid metabolites by rat, mouse, trout, and human hepatocytes and by rat, mouse, and human liver microsomes and cytosol were investigated. Clearance rates of 8-2 FTOH in hepatocytes indicated rat > mouse > human >/= trout. A number of metabolites not previously reported were identified, adding further understanding to the pathway for 8-2 FTOH metabolism. Neither perfluorooctanoate nor perfluorononanoate was detected from incubations with human microsomes. To further elucidate the steps in the metabolic pathway, hepatocytes were incubated with 8-2 fluorotelomer acid, 8-2 fluorotelomer unsaturated acid, 7-3 acid, 7-3 unsaturated acid, and 7-2 secondary fluorotelomer alcohol. Shorter chain perfluorinated acids were only observed in hepatocyte and microsome incubations of the 8-2 acids but not from the 7-3 acids. Overall, the results indicate that 8-2 FTOH is extensively metabolized in rats and mice and to a lesser extent in humans and trout. Metabolism of 8-2 FTOH to perfluorinated acids was extremely small and likely mediated by enzymes in the microsomal fraction. These results suggest that human exposure to 8-2 FTOH is not expected to be a significant source of PFOA or any other perfluorocarboxylic acids.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A study of the adsorption of ammonium perfluorononanoate at the air-liquid interface by vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy

Authors: Tyrode, E; Johnson, CM; Rutland, MW; Day, JPR; Bain, CD (2007) HERO ID: 3860150

[Less] Vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS) has been used to study the adsorption of ammonium perfluorononanoate . . . [More] Vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS) has been used to study the adsorption of ammonium perfluorononanoate (APFN) at the air-liquid interface, specifically targeting the C-F and carboxylate stretches. In the spectral region extending from 1050 to 1850 cm(-1), three major peaks situated at 1369, 1408, and similar to 1665 cm(-1) were detected under the polarization combinations ssp, ppp, and sps. The first of these peaks was assigned to CF3 stretching vibrations after a detailed comparison with other surfactant molecules with different degrees of fluorination, while the last two resonant features were assigned to symmetric and antisymmetric carboxylate stretching vibrations. From the combined analysis of the VSFS, ellipsometry, and previous FTIR measurements, a consistent physical model for the adsorption of APFN to the liquid surface is proposed. At low surface coverages the APFN molecules lie essentially flat on the surface. At concentrations from 1 mM to the critical micellar concentration (molecular areas < 70 angstrom(2)) the mean orientation of both the surfactant head group and terminal CF3 group remained constant. The formation of surface micelles at higher concentrations is consistent with the experimental data.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorononanoic acid in fetal and neonatal mice following in utero exposure to 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol

Authors: Henderson, WM; Smith, MA (2007) Toxicological Sciences 95:452-461. HERO ID: 3749129

[Less] 8-2 Fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) and its metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic . . . [More] 8-2 Fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) and its metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), are developmental toxicants but metabolism and distribution during pregnancy are not known. To examine this, timed-pregnant mice received a single gavage dose (30 mg 8-2 FTOH/kg body weight) on gestational day (GD) 8. Maternal and neonatal serum and liver as well as fetal and neonatal homogenate extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. During gestation (GD9 to GD18), maternal serum and liver concentrations of PFOA decreased from 789 +/- 41 to 668 +/- 23 ng/ml and from 673 +/- 23 to 587 +/- 55 ng/g, respectively. PFOA was transferred to the developing fetuses as early as 24-h posttreatment with concentrations increasing from 45 +/- 9 ng/g (GD10) to 140 +/- 32 ng/g (GD18), while PFNA was quantifiable only at GD18 (31 +/- 4 ng/g). Post-partum, maternal serum PFOA concentrations decreased from 451 +/- 21 ng/ml postnatal day (PND) 1 to 52 +/- 19 ng/ml (PND15) and PFNA concentrations, although fivefold less, exhibited a similar trend. Immediately after birth, pups were cross-fostered with dams that had been treated during gestation with 8-2 FTOH (T) or vehicle (C) resulting in four treatment groups in which the first letter represents in utero (fetal) exposure and the second represents lactational (neonatal) exposure: C/C, T/C, C/T, T/T. On PND1, neonatal whole-body homogenate concentrations of PFOA from T/T and T/C groups averaged 200 +/- 26 ng/g, decreased to 149 +/- 19 ng/g at PND3 and this decreasing trend was seen in both neonatal liver and serum from PND3 to PND15. Based on detectible amounts of PFOA in neonatal serum in the C/T group on PND3 (57 +/- 11 ng/ml) and on PND15 (58 +/- 3 ng/ml), we suggest that the neonates were exposed through lactation. In conclusion, exposure of neonates to PFOA and PFNA occurs both pre- and postnatally following maternal 8-2 FTOH exposure on GD8.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Micellization of lithium perfluoroheptanoate and its aggregation on poly(ethylene glycol) oligomers in water

Authors: Gianni, P; Bernazzani, L; Carosi, R; Mollica, V (2007) Langmuir 23:8752-8759. HERO ID: 3859620

[Less] The interaction of lithium perfluoroheptanoate (LiPFHep) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) of different . . . [More] The interaction of lithium perfluoroheptanoate (LiPFHep) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) of different molecular weights (300 < MW < 20 000 Da) was investigated in water at 298.15 and 308.15 K by the isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Density and sound velocity measurements were also performed at 288.15, 298.15, and 308.15 K, while viscosity and conductivity data were only collected at 298.15 K. The aggregation process of this surfactant on the PEG polymeric chain was found to be very similar to the process exhibited by the two homologous perfluorooctanoate and perfluorononanoate. Viscosity and ITC data indicated that the formation of polymer-surfactant complexes between PEG and LiPFHep also leads to a conformational change in the polymer. The aggregation of micelles of the lithium perfluoro surfactants on the PEG polymeric chain is characterized by a comparable thermodynamic stability, which results from a balance of enthalpy and entropy contributions, which both increase with the length of the surfactant hydrophobic chain.