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Chloroform 2018 Update

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Journal Article
Journal Article

Glucose derivatives substitution and cyclic peptide diameter effects on the stability of the self-assembled cyclic peptide nanotubes; a joint QM/MD study

Authors: Khavani, M; Izadyar, M; Housaindokht, MR (2017) 71:28-39. HERO ID: 3719708

[Less] Dynamical behavior and the stability of eighteen nanostructures composed of cyclic peptide (CP) with . . . [More] Dynamical behavior and the stability of eighteen nanostructures composed of cyclic peptide (CP) with the general structure of the cyclo(CO(CH2)n=4, 6, 10COCyst), in the gas phase, water and chloroform were investigated during 50ns molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. CP dimers and cyclic peptide nanotubes (CPNTs) are more stable in chloroform than water and this stability is reversely correlated with the ring size of the CP units. Also the effect of glucose derivatives substitution, d-glucose (S1) and N-methyl-d-glucamine (S2), on the stability and other physicochemical properties of the CP dimers and CPNTs were evaluated. These substitutions increase the inner-subunits hydrogen bonds (H-bond) which in turn increase the stability of these structures. Moreover, the S2 substitution in comparison to the S1 makes dimers and CPNTs more stable. Gibbs free energy analysis based on the MM-PBSA and MM-GBSA calculations confirmed that substitutions affect the stability of the studied nanostructures, considerably and an increase in the length of the CPNT units reduces their stability. Quantum chemistry calculations on the dimer structures using the density functional theory (DFT) and DFT-D3 methods were performed. Based on the DFT-D3 calculations, it was revealed that the dispersion interactions play a key role in the dimerization process. The ring size increment, elevates the dispersion interaction energy which is accordance with the MD results. H-bond formation between the CO and NH groups of the CP units inside the dimers have been analyzed by using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules and natural bond orbital description. Finally, through these analyses, the electrostatic interaction between the mentioned groups have been evaluated.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vivo antimalarial activity of crude extracts and solvent fractions of leaves of Strychnos mitis in Plasmodium berghei infected mice

Authors: Fentahun, S; Makonnen, E; Awas, T; Giday, M (2017) HERO ID: 3719678

[Less] BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in the world which is responsible . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in the world which is responsible for death of millions particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Today, the control of malaria has become gradually more complex due to the spread of drug-resistant parasites. Medicinal plants are the unquestionable source of effective antimalarials. The present study aimed to evaluate antiplasmodial activity and acute toxicity of the plant Strychnos mitis in Plasmodium berghei infected mice.

METHODS: Standard procedures were employed to investigate acute toxicity and 4-day suppressive effect of crude aqueous and hydro-methanolic extracts of the leaves of Strychnos mitis against P. berghei in Swiss albino mice. Water, n-hexane and chloroform fractions, obtained from crude hydro-methanolic extract, were also tested for their suppressive effect against P. berghei.

RESULTS: All crude extracts revealed no obvious acute toxicity in mice up to the highest dose administered (2000 mg/kg). All crude and solvent fractions of the leaves of Strychnos mitis inhibited parasitaemia significantly (p < 0.01). At the highest dose of 600 mg/kg, both aqueous and hydro-methanolic extracts demonstrated higher performance with 95.5 and 93.97% parasitaemia suppression, respectively. All doses of crude extracts and fractions of leaves of Strychnos mitis prolonged survival time of infected mice dose dependently. The highest two doses of the crude aqueous and hydro-methanolic extracts, and chloroform and aqueous fractions prevented weight loss in a dose dependent manner. Whereas, all doses of n-hexane fraction prevented loss of body weight but not in a dose dependent manner. The crude aqueous extract at the doses of 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg and hydro-methanolic extract at all dose levels significantly (p < 0.01) prevented packed cell volume reduction. Crude aqueous extract at a dose of 600 mg/kg and hydro-methanolic extract at all dose levels significantly prevented temperature reduction. Phytochemical screening of the crude aqueous and hydro-methanolic extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, glycosides, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and phenols.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide support the traditional therapeutic use of Strychnos mitis for treatment of malaria. However, further in-depth study is needed to evaluate the potential of the plant towards the development of new antimalarial agent.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cholinesterase inhibitory, anti-amyloidogenic and neuroprotective effect of the medicinal plant Grewia tiliaefolia - An in vitro and in silico study

Authors: Sheeja Malar, D; Beema Shafreen, R; Karutha Pandian, S; Pandima Devi, K (2017) Pharmaceutical Biology 55:381-393. HERO ID: 3719963

[Less] CONTEXT: Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl. (Tiliaceae) is a sub-tropical plant used as an indigenous . . . [More] CONTEXT: Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl. (Tiliaceae) is a sub-tropical plant used as an indigenous medicine in India. However, its efficacy has not been evaluated against Alzheimer's disease.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to evaluate cholinesterase inhibitory, anti-aggregation and neuroprotective activity of G. tiliaefolia.

MATERIALS AND METHOD: Grewia tiliaefolia leaves were collected from Eastern Ghats region, India, and subjected to successive extraction (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water). The extracts were subjected to in vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and anti-aggregation assays. The active methanol extract (MEGT) was separated using column chromatography. LC-MS analysis was done and the obtained compounds were docked against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme to identify the active component.

RESULTS: Antioxidant assays demonstrated that the MEGT showed significant free radical scavenging activity at the IC50 value of 71.5 ± 1.12 μg/mL. MEGT also exhibited significant dual cholinesterase inhibition with IC50 value of 64.26 ± 2.56 and 54 ± 0.7 μg/mL for acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), respectively. Also, MEGT showed significant anti-aggregation activity by preventing the oligomerization of Aβ25-35. Further, MEGT increased the viability of Neuro2a cells up to 95% against Aβ25-35 neurotoxicity. LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 16 compounds including vitexin, ellagic acid, isovitexin, etc. In silico analysis revealed that vitexin binds effectively with AChE through strong hydrogen bonding. These results were further confirmed by evaluating the activity of vitexin in vitro, which showed dual cholinesterase inhibition with IC50 value of 15.21 ± 0.41 and 19.75 ± 0.16 μM for acetyl and butyrlcholinesterase, respectively.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Grewia tiliaefolia can be considered as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD.

Journal Article
Journal Article

(1) H qNMR Quantification of Annonaceous Acetogenins in Crude Extracts of Annona muricata L. Fruit Pulp

Authors: Bonneau, N; Cynober, T; Jullian, JC; Champy, P (2017) . HERO ID: 3719964

[Less] INTRODUCTION: Annonaceous acetogenins (AAGs) constitute a group of environmental neurotoxins, . . . [More] INTRODUCTION: Annonaceous acetogenins (AAGs) constitute a group of environmental neurotoxins, possibly implicated in sporadic atypical Parkinsonism/dementia complexes. The recent evidencing of complex mixtures of AAGs in edible fruits and derived food products requires efficient and practical analytical tools for an estimation of human exposure.

OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple method for the direct quantitation of the majority of AAGs (sub-types 1a and 1b) within crude extracts, using commonly available (1) H-NMR spectrometers, for food control.

METHODOLOGY: Method development was carried out on 400 MHz and 300 MHz spectrometers, for routine application on fruits crude extracts of Annona muricata L. The method was validated with annonacin and squamocin as reference compounds. Two internal standards (ISs), fumaric acid and dimethyl fumarate, were successfully used, in deuterated methanol (CD3 OD) and deuterated chloroform (CDCl3 ), respectively.

RESULTS: Quantitation was carried out using signals corresponding to the deshielded ethylenic protons characterising most AAGs, at δ 7.18 or δ 6.98 ppm in CDCl3 . The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 2.5 mM, with acceptable accuracy, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5 mM. The AAGs contents measured in seven distinct fruit samples of Annona muricata ranged from 14 μmol to 226 μmol of AAGs per 100 g fresh pulp (i.e. 0.14 mmol to 1.3 mmol of AAGs per fruit).

CONCLUSION: A simple, accurate and specific method for quantification of AAGs content was developed and validated for routine application to fruit pulp crude extracts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Activity of Pericampylus glaucus and periglaucine A in vitro against nasopharangeal carcinoma and anti-inflammatory activity

Authors: Shipton, FN; Khoo, TJ; Hossan, MS; Wiart, C (2017) Journal of Ethnopharmacology 198:91-97. HERO ID: 3720104

[Less] ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pericampylus glaucus is a climbing plant found across . . . [More] ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pericampylus glaucus is a climbing plant found across Asia and used in traditional medicine to treat a number of conditions including splenomegaly, fever, cough, laryngitis, pulmonary disease, asthma, headache, hair loss, snake bite, boar bite, factures, boils, tumours, tetanus, rheumatic pain, itches and eclampsia.

AIM OF THE STUDY: To test extracts of P. glaucus in a number of bioassays and determine the legitimacy of its traditional use.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The stems, leaves, roots and fruits of P. glaucus were collected and extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform and ethanol, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by testing the ability of the extracts to inhibit heat induced protein denaturation, stabilise human red blood cells under hypotonic stress and by testing the inhibitory activity of the extracts against cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Cytotoxicity was tested using the human lung epithelial cell line MRC-5 and nasopharangeal carcinoma cell line HK1 in the MTT assay.

RESULTS: Many of the samples showed an ability to prevent heat induced protein denaturation, as well as prevent lysis of red blood cells. Most of the extracts demonstrated inhibitory activity towards both of the COX enzymes. The ethanol extracts tended to demonstrate greater toxicity than other extracts, with some of the other extracts significantly enhancing growth and metabolism of the cells.

CONCLUSION: The benefit of P. glaucus for the treatment of diseases related to inflammation and cancer was supported by the in vitro assays adopted in this study.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

DNA extraction from benthic Cyanobacteria: comparative assessment and optimization

Authors: Gaget, V; Keulen, A; Lau, M; Monis, P; Brookes, JD (2017) HERO ID: 3719591

[Less] AIMS: Benthic Cyanobacteria produce toxic and odorous compounds similar to their planktonic . . . [More] AIMS: Benthic Cyanobacteria produce toxic and odorous compounds similar to their planktonic counterparts, challenging the quality of drinking water supplies. The biofilm that benthic algae and other micro-organisms produce is a complex and protective matrix. Monitoring to determine the abundance and identification of Cyanobacteria, therefore, relies on molecular techniques, with the choice of DNA isolation technique critical. This study investigated which DNA extraction method is optimal for DNA recovery in order to guarantee the best DNA yield for PCR-based analysis of benthic Cyanobacteria.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The conventional phenol-chloroform extraction method was compared with five commercial kits, with the addition of chemical and physical cell-lysis steps also trialled. The efficacy of the various methods was evaluated by measuring the quantity and quality of DNA by UV spectrophotometry and by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using Cyanobacteria-specific primers. The yield and quality of DNA retrieved with the commercial kits was significantly higher than that of DNA obtained with the phenol-chloroform protocol.

CONCLUSIONS: Kits including a physical cell-lysis step, such as the MO BIO Power Soil and Biofilm kits, were the most efficient for DNA isolation from benthic Cyanobacteria.

SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: These commercial kits allow greater recovery and the elimination of dangerous chemicals for DNA extraction, making them the method of choice for the isolation of DNA from benthic mats. They also facilitate the extraction of DNA from benthic Cyanobacteria, which can help to improve the characterization of Cyanobacteria in environmental studies using qPCRs or population composition analysis using next-generation sequencing.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Antioxidant and antiproliferative effects of different solvent fractions from Terminalia belerica Roxb. fruit on various cancer cells

Authors: Basu, T; Panja, S; Ghate, NB; Chaudhuri, D; Mandal, N (2017) Cytotechnology 69:201-216. HERO ID: 3719935

[Less] Terminalia belerica Roxb. fruits have been previously reported against diabetes, ulcer, microbial problems . . . [More] Terminalia belerica Roxb. fruits have been previously reported against diabetes, ulcer, microbial problems and hepatotoxicity. The present study was aimed to investigate antioxidant and anticancer potential of sequentially fractionated hexane (TBHE), chloroform (TBCE), ethyl acetate (TBEE), butanol (TBBE) and water (TBWE) extracts from the 70% methanolic extract of T. belerica fruits. TBCE, TBEE, TBBE and TBWE showed excellent ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) scavenging activities which was investigated using 11 different assays for various free radicals. Among 5 fractions, TBHE and TBCE remained nontoxic to any of the malignant cell lines including normal cells (WI-38). TBBE and TBWE inhibited the proliferation of breast (MCF-7), cervical (HeLa) and brain (U87) cancer cells by inducing G2/M arrest while TBEE caused apoptosis. However, these fractions did not inhibit the proliferation of lung (A549) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells. BrdU incorporation study also suggested the efficient anticancer potential of TBEE, TBBE and TBWE. Moreover, TBBE and TBWE treated MCF-7, HeLa and U87 cells showed upregulation of p53 and p21 proteins. Phytochemical analysis reflected the presence of adequate quantities of different phytochemicals. Moreover, HPLC analysis show peaks of purpurin, catechin, tannic acid, reserpine, ellagic acid, methyl gallate, aconitine and rutin in TBBE, TBWE and TBEE. Hence these polar extracts of T. belerica can be used to develop drug against different types of cancer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Formation of Haloacetonitriles, Haloacetamides, and Nitrogenous Heterocyclic Byproducts by Chloramination of Phenolic Compounds

Authors: Nihemaiti, M; Le Roux, J; Hoppe-Jones, C; Reckhow, DA; Croué, JP (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51:655-663. HERO ID: 3720181

[Less] The potential formation of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) was investigated from the chloramination . . . [More] The potential formation of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) was investigated from the chloramination of nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous aromatic compounds. All molecules led to the formation of known N-DBPs (e.g., dichloroacetonitrile, dichloroacetamide) with various production yields. Resorcinol, a major precursor of chloroform, also formed di/trichloroacetonitrile, di/trichloroacetamide, and haloacetic acids, indicating that it is a precursor of both N-DBPs and carbonaceous DBPs (C-DBPs) upon chloramination. More detailed experiments were conducted on resorcinol to understand N-DBPs formation mechanisms and to identify reaction intermediates. Based on the accurate mass from high resolution Quadrupole Time-of-Flight GC-MS (GC-QTOF) and fragmentation patterns from electronic impact and positive chemical ionization modes, several products were tentatively identified as nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (e.g., 3-chloro-5-hydroxy-1H-pyrrole-2-one with dichloromethyl group, 3-chloro-2,5-pyrroledione). These products were structurally similar to the heterocyclic compounds formed during chlorination, such as the highly mutagenic MX (3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone) or halogenated pyrroles. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the formation of halogenated nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds is reported from chloramination process. The formation of these nitrogenous byproducts during chloramination might be of concern considering their potential toxicity.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Azithromycin assay in drug formulations: Validation of a HPTLC method with a quadratic polynomial calibration model using the accuracy profile approach

Authors: Bouklouze, A; Kharbach, M; Cherrah, Y; Vander Heyden, Y (2017) HERO ID: 3720106

[Less] Many different assaying high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) methods have been developed . . . [More] Many different assaying high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) methods have been developed and validated in order to be used in routine analysis in different analytical fields. Validation often starts by the evaluation of the linearity of the calibration curve. Frequently, if the correlation coefficient is close to one, the linear calibration curve model is considered to be proper to predict the unknown concentration in the sample. But is this simple model effective to assess the behavior of the response of an HPTLC method as a function of concentration. To answer this question, a method for the determination of azithromycin by HPTLC has been developed and validated following both the classical approach and that based on the accuracy profile. Silica gel plates with fluorescence indicator F254 and chloroform - ethanol - 25% ammonia 6:14:0.2 (v/v/v) as mobile phase were used. Analysis was carried out in reflectance mode at 483nm. The RF of azithromycin was 0.53. The validation based on the classical approach, shows that the behavior is not linear, even though r(2)=0.999 because the lack of fit test is significant (P<0.05). Validation based on the accuracy profile approach considering both the straight line and the quadratic regression model, show that the former results is a β-expectation tolerance interval outside the acceptance limits, while with the latter, this interval is within the limits of ±5% acceptability for a range which extends from 0.2 to 1.0μg/zone. With the quadratic model, the method showed to be precise and accurate.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

New xanthones and cytotoxic constituents from Garcinia mangostana fruit hulls against human hepatocellular, breast, and colorectal cancer cell lines

Authors: Mohamed, GA; Al-Abd, AM; El-Halawany, AM; Abdallah, HM; Ibrahim, SR (2017) HERO ID: 3719802

[Less] ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cancer has proceeded to surpass one of the most chronic . . . [More] ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cancer has proceeded to surpass one of the most chronic illnesses to be the major cause of mortality in both the developing and developed world. Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen, family Guttiferae) known as the queen of fruits, is one of the most popular tropical fruits. It is cultivated in Southeast Asian countries: Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, and Philippines. Traditionally, numerous parts of G. mangostana have been utilized to treat various ailments such as abdominal pain, haemorrhoids, food allergies, arthritis, leucorrhoea, gonorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, wound infection, suppuration, and chronic ulcer.

AIM OF STUDY: Although anticancer activity has been reported for the plant, the goal of the study was designed to isolate and characterize the active metabolites from G. mangostana and measure their cytotoxic properties. In this research, the mechanism of antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects of the tested compounds was investigated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CHCl3 fraction of the air-dried fruit hulls was repeatedly chromatographed on SiO2, RP18, Diaion HP-20, and polyamide columns to furnish fourteen compounds. The structures of these metabolites were proven by UV, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR measurements and HRESIMS. Additionally, the cytotoxic potential of all compounds was assessed against MCF-7, HCT-116, and HepG2 cell lines using SRB-U assay. Antiproliferative and cell cycle interference effects of potentially potent compounds were tested using DNA content flow cytometry. The mechanism of cell death induction was also studied using annexin-V/PI differential staining coupled with flow cytometry.

RESULTS: The CHCl3 soluble fraction afforded two new xanthones: mangostanaxanthones V (1) and VI (2), along with twelve known compounds: mangostanaxanthone IV (3), β-mangostin (4), garcinone E (5), α-mangostin (6), nor-mangostin (7), garcimangosone D (8), aromadendrin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene (10), 2,4,3`-trihydroxybenzophenone-6-O-β-glucopyranoside (11), maclurin-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (rhodanthenone) (12), epicatechin (13), and 2,4,6,3`,5`-pentahydroxybenzophenone (14). Only compound 5 showed considerable antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects with IC50's ranging from 15.8 to 16.7µM. Compounds 3, 4, and 6 showed moderate to weak cytotoxic effects (IC50's ranged from 45.7 to 116.4µM). Using DNA content flow cytometry, it was found that only 5 induced significant cell cycle arrest at G0/G1-phase which is indicative of its antiproliferative properties. Additionally, by using annexin V-FITC/PI differential staining, 5 induced cells killing effect via the induction of apoptosis and necrosis in both HepG2 and HCT116 cells. Compound 3 produce necrosis and apoptosis only in HCT116 cells. On contrary, 6 induced apoptosis and necrosis in HepG2 cells and moderate necrosis in HCT116 cells.

CONCLUSION: Fourteen compounds were isolated from chloroform fraction of G. mangostana fruit hulls. Cytotoxic properties exhibited by the isolated xanthones from G. mangostana reinforce the avail of it as a natural cytotoxic agent against various cancers. These evidences could provide relevant bases for the scientific rationale of using G. mangostana in anti-cancer treatment.