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30 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The toxicology of perfluorooctanoate

Authors: Kennedy, GL; Jr; Butenhoff, JL; Olsen, GW; Connor, JCO; Seacat, AM; Perkins, RG; Biegel, LB; Murphy, , SR; Farrar, DG (2004) Critical Reviews in Toxicology 34:351-384. [Review] HERO ID: 724950

[Less] PFOA is a peroxisome proliferator (PPAR agonist) and exerts morphological and biochemical effects characteristic . . . [More] PFOA is a peroxisome proliferator (PPAR agonist) and exerts morphological and biochemical effects characteristic of PPAR agonists. These effects include increased beta-oxidation of fatty acids, increases in several cytochrome P-450 (CYP450)-mediated reactions, and inhibition of the secretion of very low-density lipoproteins and cholesterol from the liver. These effects on lipid metabolism and transport result in a reduction of cholesterol and triglycerides in serum and an accumulation of lipids in the liver. The triad of tumors observed (liver, Leydig cell, and pancreatic acinar-cell) is typical of many PPAR agonists and is believed to involve nongenotoxic mechanisms. The hepatocellular tumors observed in rats are likely to have been the result of the activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). The tumors observed in the testis (Leydig-cell) have been hypothesized to be associated with an increased level of serum estradiol in concert with testicular growth factors. The mechanism responsible for the acinar-cell tumors of the pancreas in rats remains the subject of active investigation. The mechanism resulting in the hepatocellular tumors in rats (PPARalpha activation) is not likely to be relevant to humans. Similarly, the proposed mechanism for Leydig-cell tumor formation is of questionable relevance to humans. Acinar tumors of the pancreas are rare in humans, and the relevance of the these tumors, as found in rats, to humans is uncertain. Epidemiological investigations and medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers have not found consistent associations between PFOA exposure and adverse health effects

Technical Report
Technical Report

Dermal sensitization test—Buehler method.

Author: Moore, GE (2001) HERO ID: 4467672


Technical Report
Technical Report

Acute dermal toxicity study of T-7485 applied to Sprague-Dawley rats

Author: 3M (2000) (Study number: 132-010). St. Paul, MN: 3M Corporate Toxicology. HERO ID: 4322450


Technical Report
Technical Report

Acute dermal irritation study of T-7485 applied to New Zealand white rabbits

Author: 3M (2000) (Study Number: 132-004). St. Paul, MN: 3M Corporate Toxicology. HERO ID: 4322452


Technical Report
Technical Report

Perfluorooctane sulfonate: Current summary of human sera, health and toxicology data

Author: 3M (1999) (129). HERO ID: 4452956


Technical Report
Technical Report

Acute dermal toxicity study of T-6342 in rabbits

Author: CHV (1995) HERO ID: 4467670


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Acute inhalation toxicity of ammonium perfluorononanoate

Authors: Kinney, LA; Chromey, NC; Kennedy, GL (1989) Food and Chemical Toxicology 27:465-468. HERO ID: 3858726

[Less] Ammonium perfluorononanoate (CAS Registry No. 4149-60-4) is a white powder that can become airborne. . . . [More] Ammonium perfluorononanoate (CAS Registry No. 4149-60-4) is a white powder that can become airborne. Its acute inhalation toxicity in male rats was studied. Male rats were exposed for single 4-hr periods to dust concentrations ranging from 67 to 4600 mg/m3. The LC50 was determined to be 820 mg/m3, with the lowest concentration causing death being 590 mg/m3. Ammonium perfluorononanoate was classified as moderately toxic by the acute inhalation route. Exposure to ammonium perfluorononanoate caused a pronounced increase in liver size. The acute toxicity of ammonium perfluorononanoate appears to be similar to that of its 8-carbon homologue, ammonium perfluorooctanoate, but considerably less than that of the 10-carbon homologue, perfluoro-n-decanoic acid.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inhalation toxicity of ammonium perfluorooctanoate

Authors: Kennedy, , Jr; Hall, GT; Brittelli, MR; Barnes, , JR; Chen, HC (1986) Food and Chemical Toxicology 24:1325-1329. HERO ID: 3749285

[Less] Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (CAS Registry No. 3825-26-1) is a fine white powder which can become airborne; . . . [More] Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (CAS Registry No. 3825-26-1) is a fine white powder which can become airborne; hence its inhalation toxicity was studied in the male rat. The compound was found to be moderately toxic following single 4-hr exposures, with an LC50 of 980 mg/m3. This concentration produced both an increase in liver size and corneal opacity. Both findings diminished with increasing time after exposure. Subchronic head-only inhalation exposures (6 hr/day on 5 days/wk for 2 wk to 0, 1, 8 or 84 mg/m3) suppressed body-weight gain at 84 mg/m3. Reversible liver-weight increases, reversible increases in serum enzyme activities, and microscopic liver pathology, including necrosis, occurred at exposure of 8 and 84 mg/m3. No ocular changes were produced. Concentrations of organofluoride in the blood showed a dose relationship with initial levels of 108 ppm in rats treated at 84 mg/m3 falling to 0.84 ppm after 84 days with a blood half-life of 5-7 days. The no-observed-effect level was 1 mg/m3 and a mean organofluoride blood level of 13 ppm was detected in rats immediately after the tenth exposure to an atmospheric level of 1 mg ammonium perfluorooctanoate/m3.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inhalation Toxicity of Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate

Authors: Kennedy GL Jr; Hall, GT; Brittelli, MR; Barnes, , JR; Chen, HC (1986) Food and Chemical Toxicology 24:1325-1329. HERO ID: 3797575

[Less] The inhalational toxicity of ammonium-perfluorooctanoate (3825261) was studied in male rats using both . . . [More] The inhalational toxicity of ammonium-perfluorooctanoate (3825261) was studied in male rats using both acute (single dose) and repeated (ten dose) treatment schedules. Single 4 hour exposures ranged from 380 to 5700mg/m3. In subchronic studies, 0, 1, 8, or 84mg/m3 were used for 6 hour exposure/day for 5 days, 2 rest days, and 5 more exposure days. After single exposures, 11 deaths occurred within 48 hours of exposure. At higher doses, corneal opacity and corrosion was confirmed by fluorescein staining. Livers appeared enlarged, although they returned to normal size by the end of the 42 day recovery period. Microscopy revealed acute pulmonary edema. In subchronic experiments, body weights of rats exposed to 84mg/m3 were lower during the exposure period but had recovered by day 16 after exposure. Corneal changes were not observed. Focal or multifocal hepatocellular necrosis was found in two rats exposed to the high dose, in three in the intermediate group and in one control rat. Immediately after exposure, serum alkaline-phosphatase was significantly elevated at the higher doses. At the higher doses, liver weights, both absolute and relative, were also elevated. In all test groups, blood fluoride was elevated throughout the experiments and measurable amounts were found in controls. The authors conclude that the chemical is moderately toxic, with a median lethal concentration of 980mg/m3. Hepatic changes were reversible.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dermal toxicity of ammonium perfluorooctanoate

Author: Kennedy, GL (1985) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 81:348-355. HERO ID: 3797585

[Less] Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (CAS Registry No. 3825-26-2) is used commercially in the aqueous polymerization . . . [More] Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (CAS Registry No. 3825-26-2) is used commercially in the aqueous polymerization of fluorinated monomers. Because the chemical exists as a fine white powder which can come in contact with skin, its dermal toxicology was studied in rabbits and rats. Dermal applications of 0.5 g for 24 hr produced mild irritation to rabbit skin. The dermal LD50 was 4300 mg/kg for rabbits, 7000 mg/kg for male rats, and greater than 7500 mg/kg for female rats. Rat skin showed less irritation than rabbit skin and the general effects were more pronounced for the male (compared to the female) rat. Subchronic dermal treatment (10 applications, 5 doses, 2 rest days, 5 doses) with either 0, 20, 200, or 2000 mg/kg resulted in no, no, mild, or marked decreases in body weights, respectively. Increases in serum enzyme activities indicating hepatic effects occurred in treated rats. Liver weights were increased and necrosis and enlargement of hepatocytes were microscopically observed. Rats in the 2000-mg/kg-dose group also had epidermal necrosis at the application site. Blood organofluorine amounts were increased in a dose-related manner. All of the treatment-related toxicity findings resolved during a 42-day recovery period although prior exposure was evident by the presence of organofluorine in the blood.