Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Dibutyl sebacate (109-43-3)


112 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Preparation of Deproteinized Natural Rubber Latex and Properties of Films Formed by Itself and Several Adhesive Polymer Blends

Authors: Pichayakorn, W; Suksaeree, J; Boonme, P; Taweepreda, W; Ritthidej, GC (2012) Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 51:13393-13404. HERO ID: 1341409

[Less] This work aimed first to prepare deproteinized natural rubber latex (DNRL) and investigate the properties . . . [More] This work aimed first to prepare deproteinized natural rubber latex (DNRL) and investigate the properties of films after it was blended with various adhesive polymers: hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), methyl cellulose (MC), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), poloxamer 407, and sodium alginate. The second aim was to identify the films that would be the best for medical and pharmaceutical applications. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate, dibutyl sebacate, triethyl citrate, and glycerin (GLY) were used as plasticizers to improve the elasticity and adhesiveness of the novel materials. DNRL was prepared by proteolytic alcalase enzyme treatment, followed by centrifugation. The DNRL was virtually free of protein, produced no significant reaction in the rabbit skin irritation test, and formed a good elastic film, but it had low skin adhesive properties. Blending DNRL with several polymers produced better films with different elastic and adhesive properties. Moisture uptake and swelling tests indicated that its films provided increasing hydrophilicity when blended with several polymers. SEM showed homogeneous films, and water hydraulic permeability tests indicated some porosity in matrix films. Blending DNRL with HPMC or PVA and DBP or GLY produced films with the best potential for novel materials. FT-IR, DSC, and XRD studies indicated the compatibility of the blended ingredients. In conclusion, DNRL blends could be used suitably for medical and pharmaceutical applications.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Esters of mono-, di-, and tricarboxylic acids

Authors: David, RM; Bachman, AN; Butala, JH; Piper, JT; Shelp, CJ (2012) In Bingham, E; Cohrssen, B (Eds.), Patty's Toxicology: Volume 4 (6th, pp. 147-352). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. HERO ID: 4860775

[Less] This chapter presents information on esters of mono‐, di‐, and tricarboxylic acids with monoalcohols . . . [More] This chapter presents information on esters of mono‐, di‐, and tricarboxylic acids with monoalcohols from 1 to over 10 carbons in either a straight chain or branched configuration. In general, the properties (chemical and functional) change with the carbon length of the alcohol. Properties shift from higher water solubility and lower boiling point to lower water solubility and higher boiling point for esters of a particular acid group. There is insufficient information to conclude that the carbon length of the acid group influences the properties significantly.

Also included are esters of the trialcohol, glycerol, with monocarboxylic acids. These substances are included for the sake of completeness.

All esters are subject to hydrolysis, especially enzymatic hydrolysis. Most esters in biotic systems hydrolyze primarily to the carboxylic acid and alcohol. There are some exceptions such as esters of phthalic acid that form relatively stable monoesters in biotic systems, which can be further oxidized. The uses of various esters are reviewed below and they vary with the acid.

The simple aliphatic esters of benzoic acid are liquids that are used as solvents, flavors, or perfumes. Benzyl benzoate is used as a miticide or as a plasticizer. In general, these compounds have a low order of toxicity. The primary effects expected from the ingestion of moderate amounts of benzoates are gastrointestinal (GI) irritation, gastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Available data indicate a low order of skin absorbability, and the undiluted materials may be either slight or moderate skin irritants. In rabbits, the degree of skin irritation caused by alkyl benzoates increases with an increase in molecular weight.

The salicylates are used as flavorants, perfumes, or analgesics. The most commonly used member of this class of compounds is methyl salicylate. Ingestion of relatively small quantities of methyl salicylate may cause severe, rapid‐onset salicylate poisoning.

The lower alkyl esters of p‐ or 4‐hydroxybenzoic acid (C1–C4), also named the methyl‐, ethyl‐, propyl‐, and butyl parabens, are high‐boiling liquids that decompose on heating. They are widely used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries as preservatives, bacteristats, and fungistats. Parabens also have been used therapeutically in the treatment of moniliasis, a Candida albicans infection. By the oral route, parabens are rapidly absorbed, metabolized, and excreted. The lower paraben homologues have low potential for acute or chronic systemic toxicity and are therefore approved as human food additives.

Cinnamates (phenyl acrylates and phenylpropenoic acid esters) are mainly used as fragrances in the perfume industry. Cinnamates appear to have low to moderate toxicity in mammals. In humans, dermal exposure to allyl cinnamate may cause skin irritation.

Some p‐aminobenzoic acid (PABA) esters occur naturally, because the free compound, PABA, that is utilized for their synthesis, is an intricate part of the vitamin B complex. PABA esters exhibit a low order of acute toxicity in experimental animals. In humans, cases of methemoglobinemia after topical benzocaine or procaine use have been reported. Sunscreen agents containing PABA esters may occasionally produce allergic photosensitization.

The o‐aminobenzoates (anthranilates) are less irritating and less likely to cause sensitization than do the p‐aminobenzoates, but have less therapeutic usefulness. They are used in some sunscreen lotions. Anthranilates have low toxicity potential.

Long‐chain fatty acids of glycerides may be replaced by one or more acetyl groups to produce mono‐, di‐, or triacetin. Acetins, propionates, and butyrates serve as food additives, solvents or plasticizers, and surface‐active agents. Available evidence indicates that these agents exhibit a low order of toxicity. Normally, no irritant effects occur upon inhalation or direct dermal contact. The higher glycerides of fatty acids with odd‐numbered carbon chains (C5–C11) are found naturally in very small quantities in diverse organisms, and the even‐numbered (C12–C24) esters are common nutritional constituents. They are used as emulsifiers for foods, industrial raw materials, or nonacid detergent components. Some toxicity data are available for the C5 and C8 compounds. The even‐numbered C12–C18 glycerides are nontoxic.

Little toxicological information is available about resorcinol ester compounds.

Gallates are chemically trihydroxybenzoic acid esters. They serve generally as antioxidants, and the propyl, octyl, and dodecyl gallates have been approved as food additives. The gallates exhibit low acute and chronic toxicity in experimental animals. The bulk of evidence suggests that they are not carcinogenic or teratogenic.

Oxalates, malonates, glutarates, and succinates are high‐flash, high‐boiling fluids. Oxalates and malonates are mainly used as solvents for resins or as chemical intermediates. The general industrial use of these materials has not been associated with any particular toxicity problem. Diethyl oxalate, which can exert typical local solvent and systemic effects, may present an exception. In humans, diethyl oxalate may cause irritation to skin and mucous membranes.

Chemical and physical data for alkyl and alkoxy adipates, azelates, and sebacates are summarized. These compounds are important chemical intermediates and are used extensively as plasticizers. Some of these agents are used in food packaging materials. They possess low acute toxicities, and their irritant effects on the skin and eyes are very slight. Available evidence suggests that the lower alkyl adipates (dimethyl, diethyl, and dibutyl) are reproductive and/or fetal toxicants.

Maleic acid esters (cis‐2‐butenoates), fumarates (trans‐2‐butenoates), and itaconates have been utilized as plasticizers, raw materials for chemical syntheses, or preservatives for fats and oils.

The esters of alkenyl dicarboxylic acids are of low acute toxicity. They have a tendency to cause skin or eye irritation in rabbits. Allergic dermatitis has occurred in humans exposed to dibutyl maleate. Chronic and subacute toxicity data for these compounds are limited.

The aromatic o‐dicarboxylic acid (phthalate) esters are among the most important industrial chemicals and perhaps the most studied esters of carboxylic acids. They are used as plasticizers for a variety of plastics; those of C8 and above are used to add flexibility to PVC. They are also used with vinyl and cellulose resins to lend toughness and flexibility. They are commonly used in wire and cable coverings, moldings, vinyl consumer products, and medical devices. Some low‐molecular‐weight phthalate esters (e.g., methyl, ethyl, and butyl) are used as industrial solvents rather than as plasticizers. Occasionally, these low‐molecular‐weight phthalates have applications for consumer products such as ink and lacquer. Physically, phthalates occur mainly in liquid form with high boiling ranges and very low vapor pressures, both of which contribute to the high stability of these materials. The biological responses to phthalate esters vary based on the alcohol side chain and the animal species tested. Generally, biological responses are greatest for butyl (C4) to hexyl (C6) alcohol esters, including branched hexyl alcohol esters. In general, all phthalate esters have low potential for acute toxicity following oral, dermal, or inhalation exposure. They are nonirritating or slightly irritating to the skin and eyes, and they are not sensitizers. Developmental and reproductive toxicity is most associated with the C4–C6 alcohol esters, and carcinogenesis in two species has been demonstrated for two esters. Rodents are most sensitive for these endpoints; primates appear to be insensitive.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Final Report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel on the Safety Assessment of Dicarboxylic Acids, Salts, and Esters

Authors: Fiume, MM; Eldreth, H; Bergfeld, WF; Belsito, DV; Hill, RA; Klaassen, CD; Liebler, D; Marks, JG, Jr; Shank, RC; Slaga, TJ; Snyder, PW; Andersen, FA (2012) International Journal of Toxicology 31:5S-76S. HERO ID: 2303428

[Less] The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of dicarboxylic acids and their salts and esters as used in . . . [More] The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of dicarboxylic acids and their salts and esters as used in cosmetics. Most dicarboxylic acids function in cosmetics as pH adjusters or fragrance ingredients, but the functions of most of the salts in cosmetics are not reported. Some of the esters function as skin conditioning or fragrance ingredients, plasticizers, solvents, or emollients. The Expert Panel noted gaps in the available safety data for some of the dicarboxylic acid and their salts and esters in this safety assessment. The available data on many of the ingredients are sufficient, however, and similar structural activity relationships, biologic functions, and cosmetic product usage suggest that the available data may be extrapolated to support the safety of the entire group. The Panel concluded that the ingredients named in this report are safe in the present practices of use and concentration.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparison of Chemical constituents and antibacterial activities and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from leaves and fruits of Bridelia retusa (L.) A. Juss

Authors: Sanseera, D; Niwatananun, W; Liawruangrath, S; Baramee, A; Khantawa, B; Pyne, SG; Liawruangrath, B (2012) HERO ID: 4829040

[Less] The essential oils from the leaves and fruits of Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss. were isolated by hydrodistillation. . . . [More] The essential oils from the leaves and fruits of Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss. were isolated by hydrodistillation. The essential oils were obtained in 0.0013% yield as a pale yellow liquid and 0.0026% yield as a violet-light brown liquid for the leaf oil and fruit oil respectively. The composition of each essential oil was analysed by means of GC-(FID) and GC-MS. Eleven constituents accounting for 48.77% of total leaves oil were identified. The most abundant compound was phytol (33.4%), followed by phthalic acid (5.2%), 6, 13-dimethoxy-2, 3, 9, 10-tetramethylpentacene-1, 4, 8, 11-tetrone (3.4%), heptacosane (2.3%) and nonacosane (1.2%). Sixteen constituents accounting for 51.8% of total fruits oil were identified. The major components were dibutyl sebacate (25.6%), phytol isomer (4.8%), diacetin (4.3%), tricosane (3.9%), isophytol (2.7%), erucylamide (2.5%), phthalic acid (1.9%), hexadecanoic acid (1.5%) and eicosane (1.2%). The essential oils exhibited strong antioxidant activities with the IC50 values of 1.12 +/- 0.0010 mg/mL and 1.79 +/- 0.0005 mg/mL for the leaf and fruit essential oils respectively, by using the ABTS radical cation scavenging assay. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils was performed by using the standard disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the leaf and fruit essential oils of B. retusa were active against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) between 20-50 mg/mL.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development of a gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric method for determination of phthalates in oily foods

Author: Sannino, A (2010) Journal of AOAC International 93:315-322. HERO ID: 1325374

[Less] A GC/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of 12 phthalates and four other plasticizers--acetyl . . . [More] A GC/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of 12 phthalates and four other plasticizers--acetyl tributyl citrate, di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, dibutyl sebacate, di-isononyl cyclohexane 1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH)--in vegetable oil, pesto, and tomato sauce. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned on a Florisil column. The final extract was analyzed by GC in combination with ion trap MS. The phthalates and di-isononyl cyclohexane 1,2-dicarboxylate were detected by MS/MS, while the other three plasticizers were monitored in the same GC run using full scan mode. The analytical process was validated in each matrix by the analysis of blank samples. Performance characteristics, such as linearity, LOQ, precision, and recoveries were studied. Studies at fortification levels of 0.25-200 mg/kg gave mean recoveries ranging from 71 to 106% and RSD values between 7 and 12% for all compounds. LOQs were 0.050-0.10 mg/kg for all the target compounds except di-isononyl phthalate, di-isodecyl phthalate, and DINCH (2.0 mg/kg).

Technical Report
Technical Report

Diesters category of the aliphatic esters chemicals (test plan and robust summaries of substances in the HPV test plan)

Author: U.S. EPA (2010) HERO ID: 4861503


Data/Software
Data/ Software

Substance Data: Endpoints: Biodegradation in water: screening tests: Dibutyl adipate. CAS 105-99-7

Author: NITE (2010) HERO ID: 5077968


Technical Report
Technical Report

Sebacic acid/dicarboxylic acids: CIR expert panel meeting

Author: CIR Expert Panel (2010) HERO ID: 5077955


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The use of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to evaluate plasticization of acrylic polymer films under simulated gastrointestinal conditions

Authors: Fadda, HM; Khanna, M; Santos, JC; Osman, D; Gaisford, S; Basit, AW (2010) European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 76:493-497. HERO ID: 1323131

[Less] PURPOSE: Glass transition temperature (T(g)) measurements of polymers are conventionally . . . [More] PURPOSE: Glass transition temperature (T(g)) measurements of polymers are conventionally conducted in the dry state with little attention to the environment they are designed to work in. Our aim was to develop the novel use of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to measure the T(g) of enteric polymethacrylic acid methylmethacrylate (Eudragit L and S) polymer films formulated with a range of plasticizers in the dry and wet (while immersed in simulated gastric media) states.

METHODS: Polymer films were fabricated with and without different plasticizers (triacetin, acetyl triethyl citrate, triethyl citrate, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dibutyl phthalate, dibutyl sebacate). T(g) was measured by a dynamic oscillating force with simultaneous heating at 1 °C/min. This was conducted on films in the dry state and while immersed in 0.1M HCl to simulate the pH environment in the stomach.

RESULTS: The T(g) of unplasticized Eudragit L and S films in the dry state was measured to be 150 and 120 °C, respectively. These values were drastically reduced in the wet state to 20 and 71 °C for Eudragit L and S films, respectively. The plasticized films showed similar falls in T(g) in the wet state. The fall in T(g) of Eudragit L films to below body temperature will have far-reaching implications on polymer functionality and drug release.

CONCLUSIONS: Immersion DMA provides a robust method for measuring T(g) of polymer films in the wet state. This allows better prediction of polymer behaviour in vivo.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development of an electrochemical sensor based on Schiff base for Cu(II) determination at nano level in river water and edible materials

Authors: Singh, AK; Jain, AK; Singh, J; Mehtab, S (2009) International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry 89:1081-1098. HERO ID: 1342303

[Less] Plasticised membranes using 2-[{(2-hydroxyphenyl)imino} methyl]-phenol (L1) and 2-[{(3-hydroxyphenyl)imino}methyl]-phenol . . . [More] Plasticised membranes using 2-[{(2-hydroxyphenyl)imino} methyl]-phenol (L1) and 2-[{(3-hydroxyphenyl)imino}methyl]-phenol (L2), have been prepared and investigated as Cu2+ ion-selective sensors. Effect of various plasticisers, namely, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dibutyl sebacate (DBS), benzyl acetate (BA), o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE) and anion excluders, oleic acid (OA) and sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was studied and improved performance was observed in several instances. Optimum performance was observed with membranes of (L1) having composition L1 : DBS : OA : PVC in the ratio of 6 : 54 : 10 : 30 (w/w, %). The sensor works satisfactorily in the concentration range 3.2 x 10-8-1.0 x 10-1 mol L-1 with a Nernstian slope of 29.5 +/- 0.5 mV decade-1 of acu2+. The detection limit of the proposed sensor is 2.0 x 10-8 mol L-1 (1.27 ng mL-1). Wide pH range (3.0-8.5), fast response time (7 s), sufficient (up to 25% v/v) non-aqueous tolerance and adequate shelf life (3 months) indicate the utility of the proposed sensor. The potentiometric selectivity coefficients as determined by matched potential method indicate selective response for Cu2+ ions over various interfering ions, and therefore could be successfully used for the determination of copper in edible oils, tomato plant material and river water.