Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Malonates (108-58-8 & 105-53-3)


220 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

Dimethyl malonate: acute toxicity: oral (registration dossier 8170)

Author: ECHA (1992) HERO ID: 4940413


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nasal lesion development and reversibility in rats exposed to aerosols of dibasic esters.

Authors: Lee, KP; Valentine, R, Bogdanffy, MS. (1992) Toxicologic Pathology 20:376-393. HERO ID: 5097590

[Less] This study was conducted to investigate the initial tissue damage, morphogenesis, and reversibility . . . [More] This study was conducted to investigate the initial tissue damage, morphogenesis, and reversibility of nasal lesions induced by the inhalation of dibasic esters (DBE). Young male rats were exposed, nose-only, to an aerosol/vapor mixture of DBE at a concentration of 5,900 mg/m3 for 4 hr and subsequently killed at 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 42 days after exposure. Nasal lesions were distributed along major inspiratory airflow routes. Widespread epithelial denudation occurred in the anterior nasal cavity, but the lesions were confined to the dorsal meatus, adjacent the nasal septum, and the lateral middle meatus in the mid-anterior nasal cavity. The lesions were markedly less severe in the posterior nasal cavity and sharply confined to the tips of dorsal ethmoturbinates and adjacent nasal septum. The damaged cuboidal/nonciliated and respiratory epithelium in the anterior nasal cavity regained a normal structure by 4 and 7 days postexposure, respectively. The regeneration of damaged olfactory epithelium was related to the severity of initial tissue damage. Slightly damaged epithelium regained a normal appearance within 1-2 weeks, but the extensively denuded epithelium of the dorsal meatus in the anterior nasal cavity failed to regain a normal structure by 6 weeks. The sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium appeared to be the initial site of DBE nasal injury. In the early stages of regeneration, the epithelium was repaired by proliferating stem cells derived from basal cells. Numerous mitotic figures and bromodeoxyuridine labeling were found in the regenerating basal cells, stem cells, and sustentacular cells at 4 and 7 days. As repair processes advanced, the numbers of olfactory neurons and vesicles were increased with a proportional decrease in stem cells.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

SYNTHESIS OF A NEW POTENTIALLY SEXIDENTATE PENDANT-ARM MACROCYCLIC POLYAMINO ACID AND COORDINATION TO COBALT(III)

Authors: Hambley, TW; Lawrance, GA; Maeder, M; Wilkes, EN (1992) HERO ID: 4935955

[Less] From reaction of bis(ethane-1,2-diamine)copper(II) with formaldehyde and diethyl malonate then formaldehyde . . . [More] From reaction of bis(ethane-1,2-diamine)copper(II) with formaldehyde and diethyl malonate then formaldehyde and nitroethane in turn the pendant-arm macrocyclic complexion (hydrogen 13-methyl-13-nitro-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-6-carboxylat e)copper(II) was prepared. Reduction with zinc in aqueous acid yields the free pendant-arm beta-polyamino acid macrocycle hydrogen 13-amino-13-methyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-6-carboxylate (L3) as the hydrochloride salt. Co-ordination to cobalt(III) was achieved following reaction with cobalt(II) ion and air, yielding the chloro(hydrogen 13-amino-13-methyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-6-carboxylat e)cobalt(III) ion, as well as its aqua analogue. The chlorocobalt(III) complex crystallized as the perchlorate salt in the space group Pbca, a = 10.256(4), b = 12.689(5), c = 3.08(2) angstrom, Z = 8, with the co-ordinated chloride in a cis disposition relative to the pendant amine, the four secondary amines co-ordinated in a folded geometry with uncommon RRRR stereochemistry, and the pendant carboxylic acid group not coordinated. Equilibration of the reaction mixture from this synthesis at pH 8 over activated carbon yielded almost exclusively the complex with the ligand bound as a sexidentate ligand where the pendant amine and carboxylate groups occupy trans sites. This complex crystallized as the perchlorate salt in the space group P2(1)/n with a = 10.939(2), b = 13,355(2), c = 14.596(2) angstrom, beta = 102.17(1)-degrees and Z = 4. Metal-donor distances [Co-O 1.899(2), Co N (pendant) 1.956(2), average Co-N (secondary) 1.95(1) angstrom] are at the short end of the range for saturated polydentate amino acid ligands, presumably influenced by the sterically efficient ligand.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

METAL-ION CAGES - CAPPING REACTIONS WITH BIFUNCTIONAL METHYLENE-COMPOUNDS AND FORMALDEHYDE

Authors: Geue, RJ; Petri, WR; Sargeson, AM; Snow, MR (1992) Australian Journal of Chemistry 45:1681-1703. HERO ID: 1949851

[Less] [(1,1,1-Tris(4-amino-2-azabutyl)ethane)cobalt(III)](3+) ([Co(sen)]3+) and [(tris(4-amino-2-azabutyl)amine)cobalt(III)](3+) . . . [More] [(1,1,1-Tris(4-amino-2-azabutyl)ethane)cobalt(III)](3+) ([Co(sen)]3+) and [(tris(4-amino-2-azabutyl)amine)cobalt(III)](3+) ([Co(azasen)]3+) react with formaldehyde and diethyl malonate or cyanoacetic acid ethyl ester in the presence of base to form macrobicyclic cages osarcophagine (oxosar) and oxoazasarcophagine (azaoxosar)] about the metal ion. The cage structure of the complexes has been established by an X-ray crystallographic analysis of [(1-carboxy-8-methyl-2-oxo-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]icosanato)cobalt(III)] diperchlorate [CO(Me,CO2H-oxosar-H)]2+ which crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn, with cell parameters a 33.61, b 10.42, c 13.743 angstrom, and V 4813 angstrom3, and Z 8. The chiral cobalt(III) complex is characteristically inert to substitution and racemization, but the cobalt(II) complex, obtained by reduction of the appropriate cobalt(III) compound, is surprisingly stable both to loss of Co2+ ion and to racemization at 25-degrees-C (pH 7.1, t1/2 4.5 days). The syntheses, spectroscopic and chemical properties are reported. The kinetics of the electron self exchange for the cage system [Co(Me,CO2Et-oxosar - H)]+/2+, and of H2O2 formation from [Co(II)(Me,CO2Et-oxosar - H)]+ and O2 are reported. Similar syntheses have been carried out to half-cap the [Co(en)3] 3+ ion (en = ethane-1,2-diamine). These and related reactions have allowed substituents such as COOR, COOH, CN, COCl, CONR2, NH2 and NO2 to be placed on the bridgehead carbon atoms, and have altered the redox potentials of the systems by at least 0 .3 V. The oxosar Co(II) ions are useful as powerful reducing agents [from c. -0.3 to -0.6 V (v. n.h.e.)], and the cages are capable of further derivatization to build larger macromolecules.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

INTRINSIC REACTIVITIES OF SOME CARBANIONS IN SIGMA-ADDUCT FORMING REACTIONS

Authors: Crampton, MR; Stevens, JA (1991) 1715-1720. HERO ID: 1181656

[Less] Kinetic and equilibrium data are reported for nucleophilic attack in methanol at unsubstituted ring-positions . . . [More] Kinetic and equilibrium data are reported for nucleophilic attack in methanol at unsubstituted ring-positions of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 1-chloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene by carbanions derived from dimethyl malonate, ethyl cyanoacetate and 4-nitro-, 4-cyano- and 2-cyanobenzyl cyanides. The results are used to determine intrinsic reactivities for the carbanions in these sigma-adduct forming reactions and are discussed in terms of the electronic and solvent reorganisation occurring during reaction.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[The effect of metabolites of the propionate pathway on the oxidative activity of liver mitochondria]

Authors: Fedotcheva, NI; Gessler, NN; BykhovskiÄ­, VIa; Kondrashova, MN (1991) Biokhimiya 56:426-433. HERO ID: 4923735

[Less] Methylmalonate and propionate, the major metabolites of the propionate pathway of fatty and amino acid . . . [More] Methylmalonate and propionate, the major metabolites of the propionate pathway of fatty and amino acid metabolism used at 1-4 mM cause selective inhibition of succinate and palmitoyl carnitine oxidation in liver mitochondria. Methylmalonate is more specific towards succinate, whereas propionate--towards palmitoyl carnitine oxidation. Methylmalonate is transported to mitochondria at a high rate with no effect on succinate transport. Being injected intramusculary methylmalonate has no inhibiting effect on the oxidative activity of mitochondria but is able to activate succinate and palmitoyl carnitine oxidation. The inhibiting effect of propionate on palmitoyl carnitine oxidation is a long-term one. Injections of these metabolites precursors, isoleucine, methionine and valine, produce an activating effect on succinate oxidation. Thus, propionate pathway metabolites may participate in the regulation of lipid-carbohydrate metabolism.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Maximum permissible levels of harmful substances in the air of the work area authorized by the USSR Ministry of Health 1990]

Authors: Sidorov, KK; Golubovich E, YA (1991) Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya (8):39-43. HERO ID: 4929196


Technical Report
Technical Report

Dimethyl succinate: toxicity to microorganisms: 001 key | experimental result

Author: ECHA (1991) HERO ID: 5097604


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

QSAR modelling of the ERL-D fathead minnow acute toxicity database

Authors: Nendza, M; Russom, CL (1991) Xenobiotica 21:147-170. HERO ID: 661835

[Less] BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. Regression analysis has been applied to examine the structure-activity relationships . . . [More] BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. Regression analysis has been applied to examine the structure-activity relationships regarding the acute fish toxicity (96 h LC50 fathead minnow) of organic chemicals. The log P dependent baseline toxicity model has been confirmed for a data set composed of 618 compounds from 24 chemical classes associated with a putative common mode of action. Covariance analysis of the discrete by class regression functions resulted in the combination of chemicals to subsets associated with their mode of action. Separate models were derived for nonpolar (Class I) and polar (Class II and III) compounds. Chemicals which are more toxic than estimated from the baseline model are identified.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

TOTAL SYNTHESIS OF SPATANE DITERPENES - THE TRICYCLIC NUCLEUS

Authors: Salomon, RG; Sachinvala, ND; Roy, S; Basu, B; Raychaudhuri, , SR; Miller, DB; Sharma, RB (1991) Journal of the American Chemical Society 113:3085-3095. HERO ID: 1954812

[Less] A convergent, stereocontrolled construction of the cis,anti,cis-tricyclo[5.3.0.0(2,6)]decane nucleus . . . [More] A convergent, stereocontrolled construction of the cis,anti,cis-tricyclo[5.3.0.0(2,6)]decane nucleus of spatane diterpenes was achieved by 2-pi + 2-pi photocycloaddition of 2-cyclopenten-1-one, as an A-ring precursor, with a carbonyl-masked derivative of 6-methylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-one as a temporarily bridged C-ring precursor. By design, the temporary bridge assures the correct stereochemical relationship between the B-ring stereocenters and the C-ring hydroxyl substituent that is present in latent form in the oxoethano bridge. Serendipitously, the bridge also fosters a favorable orientation of the photocycloaddition that contrasts with the nonselective 2-pi + 2-pi-photocycloadditions of unbridged 1-methylcyclopentenes with 2-cyclopenten-1-one. Wittig methylenation of the A-ring carbonyl in photoproduct 24 followed by hydrolysis to 25 and catalytic hydrogenation introduces a methyl group at position 1 with a 10:1 preference for the requisite stereochemistry in 26. Even higher stereoselectivity was achieved by SO2-promoted isomerization of the exocyclic C=C bond in 25 to an endocyclic disposition in 29 prior to catalytic hydrogenation. Johnson's sulfoximine method is especially effective for resolution of ketone 29. The oxoethano bridge in ketone 26n is oxidized rapidly but nonregioselectively by an H2SO4-catalyzed reaction with peracetic acid, producing a 57:43 mixture of 14 and 34. Regioselective generation of the desired lactone 14 could be accomplished by a much slower oxidation with peracetic acid and no added H2SO4. The necessary configuration at position 7 in 49 was generated stereoselectively by a novel homoallylic hydroxyl-directed, pseudointramolecular delivery of hydride to the methylenemalonic ester in the precursor 48. Conversion of the malonic ester moiety in 49 into an allylic alcohol was accomplished in 92% overall yield by monosaponification, decarboxylative condensation with formaldehyde and reduction of the resulting acrylic ester with i-Bu2AlH. Selective oxidation of the allylic hydroxyl followed by acetylation delivered acetate (+)-11a, which is identical with an oxidative degradation product from spatane diterpenes.