Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Gluconates (527-07-1, 299-27-4, 526-95-4, 90-80-2, & 299-28-5)


293 References Were Found:

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Gluconic acid

Authors: Hustede, H; Haberstroh, HJ; Schinzig, E (2000) In Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VH Verlag GmbH & Co.. HERO ID: 4940068

[Less] d‐Gluconic acid [526‐95‐4], 1,2,3,4,5‐pentahydroxy pentane‐1‐carboxylic acid, C6H12O7, Mr 196.16, was . . . [More] d‐Gluconic acid [526‐95‐4], 1,2,3,4,5‐pentahydroxy pentane‐1‐carboxylic acid, C6H12O7, Mr 196.16, was discovered in 1870 by Hlasiwetz and Habermann during the oxidation of glucose with chlorine. The substance was isolated in the form of its barium and calcium salts. Several authors subsequently reported that gluconic acid could be obtained by treatment of various mono‐, di‐, and polysaccharides with oxidizing agents such as elemental halogen, copper(II) or hexacyanoferrate(III) salts, or mercury(II) oxide. Depending on the type of sugar and the oxidant employed, byproducts of the reaction include formic acid, glycolic acid, oxalic acid, and carbon dioxide.

As early as 1880 Boutroux recognized that gluconic acid was produced, together with acetic acid, by the oxidative action of Acetobacter aceti on glucose. This characteristic was also found to be associated with numerous other bacteria 1. Molliard was the first to report the presence of gluconic acid in cultures of Sterigmatocystis nigra, now known as Aspergillus niger 2. The currently preferred method for preparing gluconic acid and its derivatives with the aid of Aspergillus strains is based on the work of a number of authors 3. The catalytic activity of the enzyme glucose oxidase was first described by Müller 4.

During the 1930s anodic oxidation was suggested for the preparation of calcium gluconate 5; proposals for catalytic oxidation of glucose with the aid of air or oxygen followed somewhat later 6.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Polyethylene vials of calcium gluconate reduce aluminum contamination of TPN

Authors: Frey, OR; Maier, L (2000) Annals of Pharmacotherapy 34:811-812. [Letter] HERO ID: 1989218


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Substituent dependence of the diastereofacial selectivity in iodination and bromination of glycals and related cyclic enol ethers

Authors: Boschi, A; Chiappe, C; De Rubertis, A; Ruasse, MF (2000) Journal of Organic Chemistry 65:8470-8477. HERO ID: 1038153

[Less] The stereochemical course of the electrophilic iodination and bromination of tri-O-benzyl-D-glucal under . . . [More] The stereochemical course of the electrophilic iodination and bromination of tri-O-benzyl-D-glucal under various conditions has been compared to that of substituted dihydropyrans 2-5. IN(3) addition in acetonitrile affords trans-alpha-iodoazides (80-87%), besides small amounts of trans-beta-adducts, in the presence or the absence of benzyloxy substituents at C-3 or C-4, and in agreement with bridged iodonium ion intermediates. In contrast, the diastereofacial selectivity of bromine addition in dichloroethane going through open bromo oxocarbenium ions depends strongly on the substituents. Whereas the trans-alpha-dibromides are the main (85-95%) adducts in the absence of C-4 and C-5 substituents, in their presence a moderate to exclusive selectivity for cis-alpha-addition (60-99%) is observed. The predominance of trans-alpha-addition is again observed whatever the substituents when the bromination is carried out in the same solvent but with a tribromide ion salt, supporting a concerted addition of the two bromine atoms under these conditions. Finally, bromine addition in methanol exhibits a completely different behavior with the nonselective formation of trans-alpha- and trans-beta-methoxybromides and a small dependence on the substituents. In agreement with the absence of azide trapping of any cationic intermediate, it is concluded that these brominations which do not go through an ionic intermediate are concerted additions of bromine and methanol with very loose rate- and product-determining transition states. Finally, the substituent conformation at C-4 influences drastically the stereoselectivity in all these brominations. Evidence for alpha-anomeric control of the nucleophile approach at C-1 is given by the highly predominant formation of alpha-adducts, except in the methanolic bromination. The factors determining the versatile selectivity of the electrophile approach are discussed in terms of PPFMO theory and of the special mechanisms of glycal reactions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Iodine in carbohydrate chemistry

Authors: Vaino, AR; Szarek, WA (2000) Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry 56:9-63. [Review] HERO ID: 4941227


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Discontinuous automated calcium supplementation during thrombocytapheresis with the haemonetics MCS+ version C

Authors: Valbonesi, M; Bruni, R; Florio, G; Marghero, A; Telani, A; Varinelli, I (2000) Transfusion Science 23:165-166. [Letter] HERO ID: 4945641


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ion channel activity from the midgut brush-border membrane of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae

Authors: Peyronnet, O; Vachon, V; Schwartz, JL; Laprade, R (2000) Journal of Experimental Biology 203 Pt 12:1835-1844. HERO ID: 647923

[Less] Ion channels from the midgut apical membrane of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae were studied following . . . [More] Ion channels from the midgut apical membrane of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae were studied following mechanical fusion of brush-border membrane vesicles with planar phospholipid bilayer membranes. In symmetrical 300 mmol l(-)(1) KCl (pH 9.0), nine different channels with conductances ranging from 27 to 795 pS and linear current/voltage relationships were resolved. In the presence of a KCl gradient across the bilayer (450 mmol l(-)(1 )cis/150 mmol l(-)(1 )trans), 11 different conductance levels ranging from 16 to 850 pS were detected. The channels were slightly cationic: the zero-current reversal potential was shifted by -5 mV to -21 mV compared with symmetrical KCl conditions, corresponding to p(K)/p(Cl) permeability ratios of 1.5-8.0. Most channels were neither voltage-dependent nor Ca(2+)-sensitive and displayed complex gating kinetics. Addition of Ba(2+) or Cs(+) to both sides of the bilayer had little effect on channel activity, but fewer distinct channels were observed when KCl was replaced by potassium gluconate, suggesting an effect of Cl(-) on channel activity. A reduced number of channels was also detected when KCl was replaced by N-methyl- d-glucamine-HCl. Under asymmetrical N-methyl-d-glucamine-HCl conditions, only anionic channels were observed. They exhibited current rectification (35 pS at negative voltages and 81 pS at positive voltages) and were strongly voltage-dependent.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Effect of some superplasticizers on the properties of silica fume blended cement pastes

Authors: Heikal, M; El-Didamony, H (2000) HERO ID: 4948361

[Less] Blended cements were made with Portland cement and 10, 20 and 30 wt% condensed silica fume. Three different . . . [More] Blended cements were made with Portland cement and 10, 20 and 30 wt% condensed silica fume. Three different types of admixtures (mater soluble condensates) were used: superplasticizers BVF (sulphonate naphthalene formaldehyde condensate), BVD (sodium gluconate) and BVS (sulphonate naphthalene formaldehyde condensate and sodium gluconate). The cement pastes were mixed with adequate water of consistency and cured up to 360 days. Compressive strength and hydration kinetics were studied. The water demand and the setting time decrease with the dose of admixtures. On the other side, the compressive strength and bulk density increase, whereas the total porosity decreases. The combined water content increases with silica fume content. On the other hand, the free lime decreases up to one year. It was concluded that a very high strength concrete with low porosity can be produced by combination of condensed silica fume and superplasticizer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Structure and mechanism of soluble quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase

Authors: Oubrie, A; Rozeboom, HJ; Kalk, KH; Olsthoorn, AJJ; Duine, JA; Dijkstra, BW (1999) EMBO Journal 18:5187-5194. HERO ID: 1178025

[Less] Soluble glucose dehydrogenase (s-GDH; EC 1.1.99.17) is a classical quinoprotein which requires the cofactor . . . [More] Soluble glucose dehydrogenase (s-GDH; EC 1.1.99.17) is a classical quinoprotein which requires the cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) to oxidize glucose to gluconolactone. The reaction mechanism of PQQ-dependent enzymes has remained controversial due to the absence of comprehensive structural data. We have determined the X-ray structure of s-GDH with the cofactor at 2.2 A resolution, and of a complex with reduced PQQ and glucose at 1.9 A resolution. These structures reveal the active site of s-GDH, and show for the first time how a functionally bound substrate interacts with the cofactor in a PQQ-dependent enzyme. Twenty years after the discovery of PQQ, our results finally provide conclusive evidence for a reaction mechanism comprising general base-catalyzed hydride transfer, rather than the generally accepted covalent addition-elimination mechanism. Thus, PQQ-dependent enzymes use a mechanism similar to that of nicotinamide- and flavin-dependent oxidoreductases.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Trace element contamination of total parenteral nutrition. 1. Contribution of component solutions

Authors: Pluhator-Murton, MM; Fedorak, RN; Audette, RJ; Marriage, BJ; Yatscoff, RW; Gramlich, LM (1999) Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 23:222-227. HERO ID: 1019493

[Less] BACKGROUND: Trace elements have been shown to contaminate total parenteral nutrition . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Trace elements have been shown to contaminate total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions.

METHODS: This study used the multi-elemental technology of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to demonstrate the extent to which trace elements were present in amounts above (ie, as contaminants) or below expected levels in eight TPN component solutions.

RESULTS: Of the 66 trace elements scanned, there were 12 trace element contaminants in amounts >1 microg/L (zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, selenium, boron, aluminum, titanium, barium, vanadium, arsenic, and strontium) in the eight component solutions studied. Trace element contaminants were present in all solutions, and different trace elements contaminated the solutions at various concentrations. Component solutions of amino acid, potassium chloride, calcium gluconate, and sodium chloride contained the greatest numbers of trace element contaminants, whereas the lowest numbers were present in sterile water and magnesium sulfate. Interlot and intermanufacturer variations were apparent. Measured concentrations of trace elements in the multi-trace element additive solution also were higher than the labeled values. A comparison of the amounts of contaminated trace elements delivered by a typical TPN mixture relative to the amounts typically absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract indicates that the inadvertent delivery of trace elements from contaminated TPN solutions may be substantial.

CONCLUSIONS: All eight components tested were contaminated with trace elements not intended to be present in the product, and similarly, the multi-trace element component contained trace elements either above or below that which the label claimed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The interaction of D-galactonic acid with Cr-VI and Cr-III. Structure, stability and physical properties of Cr-III-aldonate complexes

Authors: Signorella, S; Santoro, M; Frutos, A; Escandar, G; Salas-Peregrin, JM; Moreno, V; Gonzalez-Sierra, M; Sala, LF (1999) HERO ID: 1577430

[Less] The redox reaction between D-galactonic acid and potassium chromate yields {((lyxonateH(-1)) (galactonateH(-1)) . . . [More] The redox reaction between D-galactonic acid and potassium chromate yields {((lyxonateH(-1)) (galactonateH(-1)) Cr(OH2))K . H2O}(n), with both aldonate molecules acting as bidentate ligands with the carboxylate and one alkoxo function as the donor sites. The shift of the CO2- stretching vibration towards lower frequencies upon coordination and the high value of av indicate that the carboxylate acts as a monodentate donor site. Magnetic susceptibility data for the compound in the temperature range 3-300 K exhibit a drop in the effective magnetic moment with temperature below 70 K, which is indicative of antiferromagnetic interactions between the Cr-III centres. The molar magnetic susceptibility versus temperature plot could be fitted with the Fisher Hamiltonian for the case of infinite chains, equation- modified for the presence of monomeric species. The EPR and W-Vis spectroscopic studies reveal that, in solution, the complex retains the distorted octahedral local coordination geometry. The {((lyxonateH(-1))(galactonateH(-1))Cr(OH2))K}(n) dissociates slowly in aqueous solution but faster at high [H+], because of the rapid protonation of the alkoxo bridges linking the monomeric units. The potentiometric evaluation of the closely related binary system Cr-III-D-galactonate shows that the (Cr(galactonateH(-n))(2))(1-2n) complexes are the major species in the 4-12 pH range, when a 1:2 Cr-III:ligand ratio is used. C-13 NMR reveals that the CO2- group is one of the coordination sites of the ligand. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.