Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Glycols (25265-71-8, 110-98-5, & 24800-44-0)


192 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

754 exposures to reed diffusers reported to the United Kingdom National Poisons Information Service 2010-2014

Authors: Panchal, B; Eddleston, M; Thomas, SH; Thompson, JP; Vale, JA (2016) Clinical Toxicology 54:333-338. HERO ID: 3114932

[Less] OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to review the reported toxicity of reed diffuser . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to review the reported toxicity of reed diffuser fragrance liquid which, in addition to essential oils, commonly contains glycol ethers but other ingredients and/or alternatives are 3-methoxy-3-methyl-1-butanol, petroleum distillates, ethanol and isopropanol.

METHODS: We analysed retrospectively enquiries to the United Kingdom National Poisons Information Service between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014.

RESULTS: 754 patients were exposed to reed diffusers; the majority (n = 712) were children < 5 years. Ingestion was the most common route of exposure (706 of 754 patients) and involved the liquid alone (n = 570), water beads alone (n = 84), sucking on the reeds (n = 31) or ingesting the liquid and water beads (n = 21). The reported amount of fragrance liquid ingested was known in only 76 of 591 cases (12.9%), with a median (IQR) volume of 20.0 (IQR = 10-40) mL. The WHO/IPCS/EC/EAPCCT Poisoning Severity Score (PSS) was known in 702 of 706 sole ingestions: in 574 (81.3%), the PSS was 0 (asymptomatic); in 117 (16.6%) patients, the PSS was 1 (minor toxicity); in 11 (1.6%), the PSS was 2 (moderate toxicity); there were no patients with features graded PSS 3 (severe toxicity). Significantly (p = 0.008) more patients became symptomatic (PSS 1 and PSS 2) following the ingestion of a reed diffuser containing 3-methoxy-3-methyl-1-butanol than propylene glycol monobutyl ether, though there was no significant difference when compared with those containing dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (p = 0.181). The most common features following ingestion of fragrance liquid were nausea and vomiting (n = 53), coughing (n = 17) and CNS depression (n = 9). Seven patients suffered eye exposure alone: two developed eye pain and four conjunctivitis. Dermal exposure alone was reported in six patients, two of whom developed skin irritation.

CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients in our study developed no features or only minor symptoms following ingestion of reed diffuser fragrance liquid.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

One-pot preparation of a novel monolith for high performance liquid chromatography applications

Authors: Jiao, X; Shen, S; Shi, T (2015) Journal of Chromatography B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 1007:100-109. HERO ID: 4276472

[Less] Various novel porous organic-based monoliths with the mode of hydrophobicity were synthesized by in . . . [More] Various novel porous organic-based monoliths with the mode of hydrophobicity were synthesized by in situ free-radical crosslinking copolymerization and optimized for the separations of small molecules and high-performance reversed-phase chromatography (RP-chromatography). These monoliths contained co-polymers based on glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA)/tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA) or EDMA/TPGDA. A mixture of cetanol, methanol and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) was used as the porogen, with the ratio of these solvents being varied along with the polymerization temperature to generate a library of monoliths. The conditions were optimized and the resulting poly (GMA-co-TPGDA-co-EDMA) monolith was investigated by infrared spectrometer (IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. The column performance was assessed by the separation of a series of neutral solutes of benzene derivatives. The result demonstrated that the prepared monolith exhibited an RP-chromatographic behavior and relatively homogeneous structure, good permeability and separation performance. Moreover, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the retention factor values for benzene derivatives were less than 1.5% (n=7, column-to-column). The approach used in this study was extended to the separation of anilines.

Archival Material
Archival Material

HSDB: Dipropylene glycol

Author: NLM (2015) Available online at http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search2/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+2658. (Nov 2, 2018). [Website] HERO ID: 4940366

[Less] Identification and Use: Dipropylene Glycol is used as medication, as an antifreeze agent, in air sanitation, . . . [More] Identification and Use: Dipropylene Glycol is used as medication, as an antifreeze agent, in air sanitation, and as a stabilizer in cosmetic preparations. It is also used as an intermediate for polyester resins, solvent extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons, steam set printing inks, stabilizer in cosmetics. As an inert ingredient, dipropylene glycol facilitates delivery of formulated pesticide chemical products that are used as herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, growth regulators and attractants on various commodities. It is also used in targeting odor-causing bacteria, animal pathogenic bacteria (G- and G+ vegetative), and animal viruses. Human Toxicity Studies: Repeated application of a shaving preparation containing 7.2% dipropylene glycol did not induce sensitization in 50 subjects when applied in 24/48 hr (presumably covered) patches, 3 days/wk for 3 weeks, followed by a challenge patch after a 2 wk rest period. Covered 48 hr application of a 50% solution of dipropylene glycol (DiPG; unspecified solvent) caused irritation in 14 of 34 persons and was equivocally irritant in a further 17. No local effects were induced when 20% DiPG in petrolatum was in 48 hr covered contact with the skin of an unspecified number of volunteers. Similarly, no effects were observed in 59 subjects exposed to a shaving preparation containing 7.2% DiPG in a 4 wk controlled use test or in 101 subjects following 48 hr uncovered contact, repeated after 2 wk in conjunction with exposure to UV light. However, the same shaving preparation in 48 hr covered contact with the skin, caused mild irritation in 6 of 101 subjects, with an additional two subjects also giving mild reactions when the patch was applied 2 wk later. It is more acutely depressant to CNS than ethylene, diethylene or propylene glycol. A case of a 32-year-old man who ingested more than 500 mL of dipropylene glycol-containing Fantasia fog solution (High Energy Lighting, Houston, TX) and subsequently developed acute renal failure, polyneuropathy, and myopathy. The toxicological profiles of monopropylene glycol (MPG), dipropylene glycol (DPG), tripropylene glycol (TPG) and polypropylene glycols (PPG; including tetra-rich oligomers) are collectively reviewed, and assessed considering regulatory toxicology endpoints. None of the glycols reviewed presented evidence of carcinogenic, mutagenic or reproductive/developmental toxicity potential to humans. Animal Toxicity Studies: Undiluted /dipropylene glycol/ caused mild irritation when 500 mg was applied to rabbit skin for 24 hours. When dipropylene glycol was applied repeatedly for prolonged periods (10 applications in 12 days) to skin of rabbits it had negligible irritating action and there was no indication that toxic quantities were absorbed through intact skin. Rabbits /were given/ 2-4 g/kg bw administered iv for 1-21 days. Two animals died at the fourth day with lesions in the kidneys. The remaining 8 were killed during the following 21 days. The kidneys of 3 animals exhibited similar lesions and one of these also had involvement of the liver. /New Zealand white/... rabbits (24/group) were artificially inseminated /and given 200, 400, 800, 1200 mg/kg bw/day by gavage on days 6-19 of gestation/. Animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity. Mean food and body weights were calculated for each group on gestation days (GD) 0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 25, and 30. All animals were killed on GD 30 and examined for maternal body and organ weights, implant status, fetal weight, sex and morphological development. No maternal lethality occurred in the study. Pregnancy rates were 95%, 83%, 91%, and 82% in the control to high dose dipropylene glycol (DPG) groups, respectively. No effect that could be attributed to exposure to DPG was noted on maternal body weight, food consumption, or clinical signs. Necropsy of the maternal animals revealed no effects on kidney and liver weights. In utero DPG exposure did not affect the frequency of post-implantation loss, mean fetal body weight per litter, or external, visceral, or skeletal malformation. NOEL >1200 mg/kg/day. /Tested externally on eyes, rated numerically on scale of 1 to 10 according to degree of injury observed after 24 hr, paying particular attention to condition of cornea. Most severe injuries have been rated 10/. Rats received 12% /dipropylene glycol/ in the diet for 15 weeks. The treatment resulted in depression of running activity. Moderate degenerative changes in kidneys were found. ...The concentration of 10% /dipropylene glycol/ in drinking water caused death in some animals. Histology examination revealed hydropic degeneration of kidney tubular epithelium and liver parenchyma. Rats were not affected by 5% dipropylene glycol in their drinking water for 77 days. ...Administration level of 10%, some died with hydropic degeneration of kidney tubular epithelium and liver parenchyma. ...Effects were similar to those of diethylene glycol but less severe and less uniformly produced. Time-mated /Sprague-Dawley/ rats were dosed with /800, 2000, or 5000 mg/kg/day dipropylene glycol/ (DiPG) or the distilled deionized water vehicle /by gavage/. Animals were observed daily beginning on gestation day (GD) 6 for clinical signs of toxicity. All sperm-positive rats were killed on GD20. The maternal body, liver and intact uterus were weighed and corpora lutea were counted. The fetuses were examined in detail. Maternal toxicity and lethality were observed at 2000 and 5000 mg/kg/day (mortality rate: 4% and 9%), establishing the maternal NOAEL as 800 mg/kg/day. There were no significant differences between the DiPG exposed groups and the control. NOAEL was 5000 mg/kg/day. DiPG has no teratogenetic or embryonal effect. Dipropylene glycol markedly stimulated choleresis, /SRP: Secretion of bile/, when injected intraduodenally at 1 mL/kg into rats. Propylene glycol and dipropylene glycol were tested for mutagenic or genotoxic potential and found to be negative in a battery of studies: a bacterial gene mutation assay using Salmonella typhimurium, and in vitro Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutation assay, an in vitro Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) chromosomal aberration assay and an in vitro sister chromatid exchange assay. Dogs... after survival of repeated gastric dosage of dipropylene glycol showed only moderate degenerative changes in kidneys and only minimal evidence of liver damage. Ecotoxicity Studies: /Authors/ were able to feed chicks a diet containing 5% dipropylene glycol for 27 days without adverse effects. The chicks were unable to use it as an energy source.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of alpha-MoO3 particles utilizing different polyol monomers under visible light irradiation

Authors: Chiang, TzuH; Ho, PYen; Chiu, SYao; Chao, AnC (2015) HERO ID: 4395587

[Less] Distinct chemical structures of polyol monomers such as ethylene glycol (EG), 1,2-pentandiol (1,2-P), . . . [More] Distinct chemical structures of polyol monomers such as ethylene glycol (EG), 1,2-pentandiol (1,2-P), 1,3-butandiol (1,3-B), 1,4-butandiol (1,4-B), and tripropylene glycol (TPG) obtained from different morphologies and sizes of molybdenum oxide (MoO3) particles were investigated. Because of the polyol monomers having different redox potentials and chemical structures, they produce various oxidation characteristics and steric hindrances. Experimental results showed that the highest number of precipitates occurred when 50 ml of polyol monomers were combined with 250 ml of 0.1 M ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate at a reaction temperature of 100 degrees C for 1 h. The precipitates were heated at 300 degrees C for 1 h to form orthorhombic alpha-MoO3 particles as demonstrated by X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and transmission electron microscopy. When MoO3 particles are prepared using a 1,4-butandiol monomer and subjected to heating at 300 degrees C, which form the smallest, rice-shaped particles (100-200 nm) they tend to have the best photocatalytic activity potential for degrading methylene blue under visible light irradiation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Technical Report
Technical Report

CMR substances in toys – market surveillance and risk assessment

Authors: Heckmann, LL; Tordrup, SW; Nielsen, IB; Malmgren-Hansen, B; Nilsson, NH (2015) HERO ID: 5349759


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The challenge of using read-across within the EU REACH regulatory framework; how much uncertainty is too much? Dipropylene glycol methyl ether acetate, an exemplary case study

Authors: Ball, N; Bartels, M; Budinsky, R; Klapacz, J; Hays, S; Kirman, C; Patlewicz, G (2014) Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 68:212-221. HERO ID: 4946621

[Less] The use of read-across of data within a group of structurally similar substances potentially allows . . . [More] The use of read-across of data within a group of structurally similar substances potentially allows one to characterise the hazards of a substance without resorting to additional animal studies. However the use of read-across is not without challenges, particularly when used to address the needs of a regulatory programme such as the EU REACH regulation. This paper presents a case study where a previously accepted read-across approach was used to address several data gaps in a REACH registration dossier but was subsequently rejected in part by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), resulting in the requirement to perform a developmental toxicity study in rodents. Using this case study, this paper illustrates some of the practical challenges faced when making use of read-across, particularly with respect to addressing the uncertainty associated with the use of read-across; showcasing the scientific justification and highlighting some of the potential implications/opportunities for future cases.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Identification of toxicants in cinnamon-flavored electronic cigarette refill fluids

Authors: Behar, RZ; Davis, B; Wang, Y; Bahl, V; Lin, S; Talbot, P (2014) Toxicology In Vitro 28:198-208. HERO ID: 4088550

[Less] In a prior study on electronic cigarette (EC) refill fluids, Cinnamon Ceylon was the most cytotoxic . . . [More] In a prior study on electronic cigarette (EC) refill fluids, Cinnamon Ceylon was the most cytotoxic of 36 products tested. The purpose of the current study was to determine if high cytotoxicity is a general feature of cinnamon-flavored EC refill fluids and to identify the toxicant(s) in Cinnamon Ceylon. Eight cinnamon-flavored refill fluids, which were screened using the MTT assay, varied in their cytotoxicity with most being cytotoxic. Human embryonic stem cells were generally more sensitive than human adult pulmonary fibroblasts. Most products were highly volatile and produced vapors that impaired survival of cells in adjacent wells. Cinnamaldehyde (CAD), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2MOCA), dipropylene glycol, and vanillin were identified in the cinnamon-flavored refill fluids using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). When authentic standards of each chemical were tested using the MTT assay, only CAD and 2MOCA were highly cytotoxic. The amount of each chemical in the refill fluids was quantified using HPLC, and cytotoxicity correlated with the amount of CAD/product. Duplicate bottles of the same product were similar, but varied in their concentrations of 2MOCA. These data show that the cinnamon flavorings in refill fluids are linked to cytotoxicity, which could adversely affect EC users.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Vapor-liquid equilibrium for the binary mixtures of dipropylene glycol with aromatic hydrocarbons: Experimental and regression

Authors: Nicolae, M; Oprea, F (2014) HERO ID: 4275583

[Less] Vapor-liquid equilibrium data was determined by using a static method for the binary mixtures of dipropylene . . . [More] Vapor-liquid equilibrium data was determined by using a static method for the binary mixtures of dipropylene glycol (4-oxa-2,6-heptanediol) with benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene. o-xylene, m-xylene, and p-xylene at temperatures within 293.15 K-481.15 K. The p-T-x experimental data obtained was regressed with NRTL and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models in order to obtain the binary interaction parameters of the models, specific to each mixture. Furthermore, the T-x-y diagrams were determined based on these parameters and then compared with the diagrams calculated using the UNIFAC predictive model. We observed differences between the T-x curves calculated with the two models mentioned above and the UNIFAC predictive model. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Fragrance solubilization in temperature insensitive aqueous microemulsions based on synergistic mixtures of nonionic and anionic surfactants

Authors: Lukowicz, T; Maldonado, RC; Molinier, V; Aubry, JM; Nardello-Rataj, V (2014) Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 458:85-95. HERO ID: 2978028

[Less] Well-defined tetraethylene glycol monooctylether (C8E4) and its commercial polydispersed counterpart . . . [More] Well-defined tetraethylene glycol monooctylether (C8E4) and its commercial polydispersed counterpart (Dehydol(R) O4) were used to solubilize fragrances. Addition of small amounts (<= 1 wt.%) of the ionic surfactants, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), permits the formulation of temperature insensitive fragrance in water microemulsions. The investigation of the pseudo-ternary surfactants/beta-pinene/water systems allows the determination of the optimum temperature T* as well as the assessment of the efficiency of the surfactant mixtures to solubilize beta-pinene. A mixture of Dehydol O4 and SDS (9/1 wt.%) can solubilize 6.5 wt.% of beta-pinene in water within the temperature range of 25-80 degrees C. This synergistic formulation was also applied to the solubilization of p-cymene, the essential oils pinus pinaster and pinus sylvestris and a true fragrant mixture composed of 9 terpenes and terpenoids in dipropylene glycol. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of alkyl alcohol on viscosity of silica-based chemical gels for decontamination of radioactive contaminations

Authors: Yoon, S; Kim, CKi; Jung, C; Choi, BS; Choi, W; Lee, K; Moon, J (2013) Asian Journal of Chemistry 25:7023-7027. HERO ID: 2292715

[Less] Silica-based chemical gel for the decontamination of nuclear facilities was prepared using fumed silica . . . [More] Silica-based chemical gel for the decontamination of nuclear facilities was prepared using fumed silica as a viscosifier, a 0.5 M Ce (IV) solution dissolved in concentrated nitric acid as a chemical decontamination agent and tripropylene glycol butyl ether (TPGBE) as a coviscosifier. A new effective strategy for the preparation of the chemical gel was investigated by introducing the alkyl alcohols as organic solvents to effectively dissolve the coviscosifier. Using the mixture solution of the coviscosifier and alkyl alcohol was more effective in the control of viscosity than that of only coviscosifier in the gel. Here, alkyl alcohols play a key role as an effective dissolution solvent for the covicosifier in the preparation of the chemical gel, resulting in a reduction of the amount of covicosifier and gel time compared with that of the chemical gel prepared without alkyl alcohols. It was considered that the alkyl alcohols contributed to the effective dissolution of the coviscosifier as well as homogeneous mixing in the formation of the gel, while the coviscosifier in an aqueous media of the chemical decontaminant solution showed a lower solubility. The decontamination efficiency of the chemical gels prepared in this work using a multi-channel analyzer showed a high decontamination efficiency of over ca. 94 % and ca. 92 % for Co-60 and Cs-137 contaminated on the surface of stainless steel 304, respectively.