Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Chloroprene


200 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A fatal intoxication by chloroprene

Authors: Rickert, A; Hartung, B; Kardel, B; Teloh, J; Daldrup, T (2012) Forensic Science International 215:110-113. HERO ID: 1788018

[Less] Objective: Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3 butadiene, is a volatile synthetic liquid. The chloroprene monomer . . . [More] Objective: Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3 butadiene, is a volatile synthetic liquid. The chloroprene monomer is extremely reactive and is used for the production of latexes and synthetic rubber such as Neoprene. Up to now an acute lethal human exposure has been described only once in the literature [19]. The intoxication is associated with nervous system depression, pulmonary edema, narcosis, and respiratory arrest.

Case report: A 29-year-old chemistry company worker was found unconscious in an empty vessel (depth: 3m) used for chloroprene. The man was dressed in shoes, trousers, a helmet and a respiratory mask. The upper part of the body was unclothed. In spite of reanimation, the man died three hours later in a hospital.

Material and methods: All analyses were performed by headspace gas chromatography (HS/GC/FID). In addition, brain, muscle and myocardial muscle were analysed by headspace GC-MS.

Results and discussion: Autopsy findings: The cause of death could not be determined as the macromorphological findings were unspecific.

Toxicology findings: The calibration curve of chloroprene in serum shows linearity from 1.0 to 200 μg/ml (r(2)=0.9999) using benzene as internal standard. The LOD is 0.28 μg/ml, the LLOQ is 0.99 μg/ml. Tissues and body fluids were stored at -20 °C till the analysis. Chloroprene was quantified after addition of benzene as the internal standard. It was found in nearly all tissues and body fluids except in the urine and lung. The highest concentrations were detected in the kidney, liver, myocardial muscle and especially in the brain. Furthermore, hexanal was found in all samples except in the urine. The amount of hexanal in some specimens is high, especially in the lung, bile, gastric content and myocardial muscle.

Conclusion: We assume that a significant amount of chloroprene was not only inhaled but also absorbed through the skin because the man wore a respiratory mask. Presumably the accident would not have happened if the works safety protocols had been followed. The reason why high concentrations of hexanal were found in the tissues could not be clarified.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) insights into agitation stress methods in biopharmaceutical development

Authors: Bai, G; Bee, JS; Biddlecombe, JG; Chen, Q; Leach, WT (2012) International Journal of Pharmaceutics 423:264-280. HERO ID: 5184502

[Less] Agitation of small amounts of liquid is performed routinely in biopharmaceutical process, formulation, . . . [More] Agitation of small amounts of liquid is performed routinely in biopharmaceutical process, formulation, and packaging development. Protein degradation commonly results from agitation, but the specific stress responsible or degradation mechanism is usually not well understood. Characterization of the agitation stress methods is critical to identifying protein degradation mechanisms or specific sensitivities. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to model agitation of 1 mL of fluid by four types of common laboratory agitation instruments, including a rotator, orbital shaker, magnetic stirrer and vortex mixer. Fluid stresses in the bulk liquid and near interfaces were identified, quantified and compared. The vortex mixer provides the most intense stresses overall, while the stir bar system presented locally intense shear proximal to the hydrophobic stir bar surface. The rotator provides gentler fluid stresses, but the air-water interfacial area and surface stresses are relatively high given its low rotational frequency. The orbital shaker provides intermediate-level stresses but with the advantage of a large stable platform for consistent vial-to-vial homogeneity. Selection of experimental agitation methods with targeted types and intensities of stresses can facilitate better understanding of protein degradation mechanisms and predictability for "real world" applications.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Toxicological review of Chloroprene (CASRN 126-99-8) in support of summary information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS).

Author: U.S. EPA (2010) HERO ID: 625433


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

DNA interstrand cross-linking activity of (1-Chloroethenyl)oxirane, a metabolite of beta-chloroprene

Authors: Wadugu, BA; Ng, C; Bartley, BL; Rowe, RJ; Millard, JT (2010) Chemical Research in Toxicology 23:235-239. HERO ID: 1508892

[Less] With the goal of elucidating the molecular and cellular mechanisms of chloroprene toxicity, we examined . . . [More] With the goal of elucidating the molecular and cellular mechanisms of chloroprene toxicity, we examined the potential DNA cross-linking of the bifunctional chloroprene metabolite, (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane (CEO). We used denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to monitor the possible formation of interstrand cross-links by CEO within synthetic DNA duplexes. Our data suggest interstrand cross-linking at deoxyguanosine residues within 5'-GC and 5'-GGC sites, with the rate of cross-linking depending on pH (pH 5.0 > pH 6.0 > pH 7.0). A comparison of the cross-linking efficiencies of CEO and the structurally similar cross-linkers diepoxybutane (DEB) and epichlorohydrin (ECH) revealed that DEB > CEO > or = ECH. Furthermore, we found that cytotoxicity correlates with cross-linking efficiency, supporting a role for interstrand cross-links in the genotoxicology of chloroprene.

Technical Report
Technical Report

NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards: beta-Chloroprene

Author: NIOSH (2010) [Data]. Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. [Database] HERO ID: 644448


Technical Report
Technical Report

Toxicological review of Chloroprene (CASRN 126-99-8) [External Review Draft]

Author: U.S. EPA (2009) HERO ID: 625434


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

IMPACT OF CHLOROPRENE AND ITS DERIVATIVES ON FERMENTAL SYSTEMS IN WORKERS ENGAGED IN THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHETIC RUBBER

Authors: Khlgatyan, DS; Nersesova, LS; Gazaryants, MG; Mkrtchyan, ZS; Meliksetyan, GO; Pogosyan, LG; Kostandyan, SR; Akopyan, ZI (2009) HERO ID: 610310

[Less] Labor conditions of workers engaged in chloroprene rubber production are characterized by exposure to . . . [More] Labor conditions of workers engaged in chloroprene rubber production are characterized by exposure to a complex of chemical compounds among which the leading part is played by chloroprene and products Of its interaction with hydroxyl radicals and atmospheric ozone. It was shown with certainty that the activity of creatine kinase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase decreases 2-fold as compared to the control in blood serum Of workers engaged in chloroprene synthesis. Changes in enzymes activity are not related to gender, age or length of service. Activity of serumal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) did not revealed any changes in those workers.

Data/Software
Data/ Software

2-Chloro-1,3-Butadiene: Chemical/physical properties

Author: HSDB (2009) HERO ID: 594343

Abstract: Online database produced by the National Library of Medicine

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Genetic polymorphism in CYP2E1: Population distribution of CYP2E1 activity

Authors: Neafsey, P; Ginsberg, G; Hattis, D; Johns, DO; Guyton, KZ; Sonawane, B (2009) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B: Critical Reviews 12:362-388. [Review] HERO ID: 196814

[Less] Cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is a key enzyme in the metabolic activation of a variety of toxicants . . . [More] Cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is a key enzyme in the metabolic activation of a variety of toxicants including nitrosamines, benzene, vinyl chloride, and halogenated solvents such as trichloroethylene. CYP2E1 is also one of the enzymes that metabolizes ethanol to acetaldehyde, and is induced by recent ethanol ingestion. There is evidence that interindividual variability in the expression and functional activity of this cytochrome (CYP) may be considerable. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2E1 were identified and linked to altered susceptibility to hepatic cirrhosis induced by ethanol and esophageal and other cancers in some epidemiological studies. Therefore, it is important to evaluate how such polymorphisms affect CYP2E1 function and whether it is possible to construct a population distribution of CYP2E1 activity based upon the known effects of these polymorphisms and their frequency in the population. This analysis is part of the genetic polymorphism database project described in the lead article in this series and followed the approach described in that article (Ginsberg et al., 2009, this issue). Review of the literature found that there are a variety of CYP2E1 variant alleles but the functional significance of these variants is still unclear. Some, but not all, studies suggest that several upstream 5' flanking mutations affect gene expression and response to inducers such as ethanol or obesity. None of the coding-region variants consistently affects enzyme function. Part of the reason for conflicting evidence regarding genotype effect on phenotype may be due to the wide variety of exposures such as ethanol or dietary factors and physiological factors including body weight or diabetes that modulate CYP2E1 expression. In conclusion, evidence is too limited to support the development of a population distribution of CYP2E1 enzyme activity based upon genotypes. Health risk assessments may best rely upon data reporting interindividual variability in CYP2E1 function for input into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models involving CYP2E1 substrates.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Epidemiologic evidence for chloroprene carcinogenicity: Review of study quality and its application to risk assessment

Author: Bukowski, JA (2009) Risk Analysis 29:1203-1216. [Review] HERO ID: 628496

[Less] This article evaluates the quality and weight of evidence associated with epidemiologic studies of cancer . . . [More] This article evaluates the quality and weight of evidence associated with epidemiologic studies of cancer among occupational cohorts exposed to chloroprene. The focus is on liver, lung, and lymphohematopoietic cancers, which had been increased in early studies. Literature searches identified eight morbidity/mortality studies covering seven chloroprene-exposed cohorts from six countries. These studies were summarized and their quality was assessed using the 10 criteria suggested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The limitations within this literature (primarily the early studies) included crude exposure assessment, incomplete follow-up, uncertain baseline rates, and uncontrolled confounding by factors such as smoking, drinking, and co-exposure to benzene and vinyl chloride. Four cohorts were studied by the same group of investigators, who reported no overall increased associations for any cancers. This four-cohort study was by far the most rigorous, having the most comprehensive exposure assessment and follow-up and the most detailed documentation. This study also contained the two largest cohorts, including an American cohort from Louisville, Kentucky, that ranked at or near the top for each of the 10 quality criteria. There was evidence of a strong healthy worker effect in the four-cohort study, which could have hidden small excess risks. Small increased risks were suggested by internal or company-specific analyses, but these were most likely caused by uncontrolled confounding and low baseline rates. Overall, the weight of evidence does not support any substantial link between chloroprene exposure and cancer, but inconsistencies and a lack of control for major confounders preclude drawing firmer conclusions.