Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ammonia


10,720 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Free Chlorine and Monochloramine Application to Nitrifying Biofilm: Comparison of Biofilm Penetration, Activity, and Viability

Authors: Lee, WH; Wahman, DG; Bishop, PL; Pressman, JG (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1000988

[Less] Biofilm in drinking water systems is undesirable. Free chlorine and monochloramine are commonly used . . . [More] Biofilm in drinking water systems is undesirable. Free chlorine and monochloramine are commonly used as secondary drinking water disinfectants, but monochloramine is perceived to penetrate biofilm better than free chlorine. However, this hypothesis remains unconfirmed by direct biofilm monochloramine measurement. This study compared free chlorine and monochloramine biofilm penetration into an undefined mixed-culture nitrifying biofilm by use of microelectrodes and assessed the subsequent effect on biofilm activity and viability by use of dissolved oxygen (DO) microelectrodes and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with LIVE/DEAD BacLight. For equivalent chlorine concentrations, monochloramine initially penetrated biofilm 170 times faster than free chlorine, and even after subsequent application to a monochloramine penetrated biofilm, free chlorine penetration was limited. DO profiles paralleled monochloramine profiles, providing evidence that either the biofilm was inactivated with monochloramine's penetration or its persistence reduced available substrate (free ammonia). While this research clearly demonstrated monochloramine's greater penetration, this penetration did not necessarily translate to immediate viability loss. Even though free chlorine's penetration was limited compared to that of monochloramine, it more effectively (on a cell membrane integrity basis) inactivated microorganisms near the biofilm surface. Limited free chlorine penetration has implications when converting to free chlorine in full-scale chloraminated systems in response to nitrification episodes.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

On the Mechanism of Silicon Activation by Halogen Atoms

Authors: Soria, FA; Patrito, EM; Paredes-Olivera, P (In Press) Langmuir. HERO ID: 1001052

[Less] Despite the widespread use of chlorinated silicon as the starting point for further functionalization . . . [More] Despite the widespread use of chlorinated silicon as the starting point for further functionalization reactions, the high reactivity of this surface toward a simple polar molecule such as ammonia still remains unclear. We therefore undertook a comprehensive investigation of the factors that govern the reactivity of halogenated silicon surfaces. The reaction of NH(3) was investigated comparatively on the Cl-Si(100)-2 × 1, Br-Si(100)-2 × 1, H-Si(100)-2 × 1, and Si(100)-2 × 1 surfaces using density functional theory. The halogenated surfaces show considerable activation with respect to the hydrogenated surface. The reaction on the halogenated surfaces proceeds via the formation of a stable datively bonded complex in which a silicon atom is pentacoordinated. The activation of the halogenated Si(100)-2 × 1 surfaces toward ammonia arises from the large redistribution of charge in the transition state that precedes the breakage of the Si-X bond and the formation of the Si-NH(2) bond. This transition state has an ionic nature of the form Si-NH(3)(+)X(-). Steric effects also play an important role in surface reactivity, making brominated surfaces less reactive than chlorinated surfaces. The overall activation-energy barriers on the Cl-Si(100)-2 × 1 and Br-Si(100)-2 × 1 surfaces are 12.3 and 19.9 kcal/mol, respectively, whereas on the hydrogenated Si(100)-2 × 1 surface the energy barrier is 38.3 kcal/mol. The reaction of ammonia on the chlorinated surface is even more activated than on the bare Si(100)-2 × 1 surface, for which the activation barrier is 21.3 kcal/mol. Coadsorption effects in partially aminated surfaces and in the presence of reaction products increase activation-energy barriers and have a blocking effect for further reactions of NH(3).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Identification and Inhibitory Properties of Multifunctional Peptides from Pea Protein Hydrolysate

Authors: Li, H; Aluko, RE (In Press) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. HERO ID: 992407

[Less] Pea protein isolate was hydrolyzed with alcalase, and the hydrolysate passed through a 1 kDa cutoff . . . [More] Pea protein isolate was hydrolyzed with alcalase, and the hydrolysate passed through a 1 kDa cutoff ultrafiltration membrane. The permeate was freeze-dried and fractionated on a cationic solid-phase extraction (SPE) column. All fractions were tested for their inhibitory activities against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), renin, and calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase 1 (CaMPDE). With the exception of the first eluted fraction, inhibitory properties of the SPE fractions against CaMPDE (but not ACE and renin) were directly related to cationic character (residence time on the column). However, the fraction that eluted with 1% ammonium hydroxide (SPE 1%) had the highest peptide yield and was subsequently fractionated using two consecutive rounds of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to obtain three peaks with major peptides identified as IR, KF, and EF by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The three dipeptides showed weak inhibitory properties toward CaMPDE but strong inhibitions (IC(50) values <25 mM) of ACE and renin. In general, the peptides had higher potency against ACE than against renin. It is indicated from our results that these peptides may be used as potential ingredients to formulate multifunctional food products and nutraceuticals.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Spatial Architecture of Nitrifying Bacteria Biofilm Immobilized on Polyurethane Foam in an Automatic Biodetector for Water Toxicity

Authors: Woznica, A; Karcz, J; Nowak, A; Gmur, A; Bernas, T (In Press) . HERO ID: 992425

[Less] We describe the architecture of nitrifying bacteria biofilms immobilized on a three-dimensional (3D) . . . [More] We describe the architecture of nitrifying bacteria biofilms immobilized on a three-dimensional (3D) polyurethane foam that permits efficient water flow through a bioreactor. The 3D spatial organization of immobilized bacterial colonies is characterized on three resolution levels with X-ray tomography, light confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using these techniques we demonstrate biofilm distribution in the foam and the existence of several modes of binding of bacteria to the foam. Computed X-ray tomography permits observation of the distribution of the biofilm in the whole open cellular polyurethane material volume and estimation of biofilm volume. SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy techniques permit 3D visualization of biofilm structure. Three distinct immobilization patterns could be observed in the open cellular polyurethane material: (1) large irregular aggregates of bacterial biofilm that exist as irregular biofilm fragments, rope-like structures, or biofilm layers on the foam surface; (2) spherical (pom-pom) aggregates of bacteria localized on the external surface of biofilm; and (3) biofilm threads adherent to the surface of polyurethane foam. Finally, we demonstrate that immobilized bacteria exhibit metabolic activity and growth.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Engineering pH-tolerant mutants of a cyanide dihydratase

Authors: Wang, L; Watermeyer, JM; Mulelu, AE; Sewell, BT; Benedik, MJ (In Press) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. HERO ID: 1000089

[Less] Cyanide dihydratase is an enzyme in the nitrilase family capable of transforming cyanide to formate . . . [More] Cyanide dihydratase is an enzyme in the nitrilase family capable of transforming cyanide to formate and ammonia. This reaction has been exploited for the bioremediation of cyanide in wastewater streams, but extending the pH operating range of the enzyme would improve its utility. In this work, we describe mutants of Bacillus pumilus C1 cyanide dihydratase (CynD(pum)) with improved activity at higher pH. Error-prone PCR was used to construct a library of CynD(pum) mutants, and a high-throughput screening system was developed to screen the library for improved activity at pH 10. Two mutant alleles were identified that allowed cells to degrade cyanide in solutions at pH 10, whereas the wild-type was inactive above pH 9. The mutant alleles each encoded three different amino acid substitutions, but for one of those, a single change, E327G, accounted for the phenotype. The purified proteins containing multiple mutations were five times more active than the wild-type enzyme at pH 9, but all purified enzymes lost activity at pH 10. The mutation Q86R resulted in the formation of significantly longer fibers at low pH, and both E327G and Q86R contributed to the persistence of active oligomeric assemblies at pH 9. In addition, the mutant enzymes proved to be more thermostable than the wild type, suggesting improved physical stability rather than any change in chemistry accounts for their increased pH tolerance.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The PAL2 promoter activities in relation to structural development and adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana

Authors: Wong, JH; Namasivayam, P; Abdullah, MP (In Press) Planta. HERO ID: 1000102

[Less] Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) plays a major role in plant growth, development and adaptation. In . . . [More] Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) plays a major role in plant growth, development and adaptation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the enzyme is encoded by four genes, namely PAL1, PAL2, PAL3, and PAL4 with PAL1 and PAL2 being closely related phylogenetically and functionally. PAL1 promoter activities are associated with plant development and are inducible by various stress agents. However, PAL2 promoter activities have not been functionally analysed. Here, we show that the PAL2 promoter activities are associated with the structural development of a plant and its organs. This function was inducible in an organ-specific manner by the avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (JL1065). The PAL2 promoter was active throughout the course of the plant development particularly in the root, rosette leaf, and inflorescence stem that provide the plant with structural support. In aerial organs, the levels of PAL2 promoter activities were negatively correlated with relative positions of the organs to the rosette leaves. The promoter was inducible in the root following an inoculation by JL1065 in the leaf suggesting PAL2 to be part of an induced defence system. Our results demonstrate how the PAL2 promoter activities are being coordinated and synchronised for the structural development of the plant and its organs based on the developmental programme. Under certain stress conditions the activity may be induced in favour of certain organs.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impacts of gene bioaugmentation with pJP4-harboring bacteria of 2,4-D-contaminated soil slurry on the indigenous microbial community

Authors: Inoue, D; Yamazaki, Y; Tsutsui, H; Sei, K; Soda, S; Fujita, M; Ike, M (In Press) Biodegradation. HERO ID: 1000131

[Less] Gene bioaugmentation is a bioremediation strategy that enhances biodegradative potential via dissemination . . . [More] Gene bioaugmentation is a bioremediation strategy that enhances biodegradative potential via dissemination of degradative genes from introduced microorganisms to indigenous microorganisms. Bioremediation experiments using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-contaminated soil slurry and strains of Pseudomonas putida or Escherichia coli harboring a self-transmissible 2,4-D degradative plasmid pJP4 were conducted in microcosms to assess possible effects of gene bioaugmentation on the overall microbial community structure and ecological functions (carbon source utilization and nitrogen transformation potentials). Although exogenous bacteria decreased rapidly, 2,4-D degradation was stimulated in bioaugmented microcosms, possibly because of the occurrence of transconjugants by the transfer of pJP4. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that, although the bacterial community structure was disturbed immediately after introducing exogenous bacteria to the inoculated microcosms, it gradually approached that of the uninoculated microcosms. Biolog assay, nitrate reduction assay, and monitoring of the amoA gene of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and nirK and nirS genes of denitrifying bacteria showed no irretrievable depressive effects of gene bioaugmentation on the carbon source utilization and nitrogen transformation potentials. These results may suggest that gene bioaugmentation with P. putida and E. coli strains harboring pJP4 is effective for the degradation of 2,4-D in soil without large impacts on the indigenous microbial community.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of supplementation of mustard oil cake on intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis of cattle in a straw-based diet in Bangladesh

Authors: Khandaker, ZH; Uddin, MM; Sultana, MN; Peters, KJ (In Press) Tropical Animal Health and Production. HERO ID: 1000274

[Less] The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of different levels of rumen-degradable protein . . . [More] The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of different levels of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) on intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis by supplementing mustard oil cake (MOC) on rice straw-based diet of cattle (Bos indicus) in Bangladesh. A 4 × 4 Latin square design was applied. Four diets having constant energy (7.0 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM)) with varying levels of RDP (M (0) = 4.1 g/MJ (control), M (1) = 6.3 g/MJ, M (2) = 8.3 g/MJ and M (3) = 12.4 g/MJ of metabolizable energy (ME)) were received by each animal for a period of 28 days. A metabolism trial was conducted for 7 days. Results indicate that with increasing levels of RDP, crude protein (CP) and RDP intake increased significantly (P < 0.01). The significant (P < 0.01) increase in digestibility values are obtained for DM, organic matter, CP and digestible organic matter in the rumen. The digestibility of neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre was also increased significantly (P < 0.05). The total nitrogen (N), ammonia-N and total volatile fatty acids increase significantly (P < 0.01) while the rumen pH increased from M (0) to M (2) and decreased thereafter. The efficiency microbial N intake increased significantly (P < 0.01) but showed a curvilinear response with higher RDP level (12.40 g/RDP/MJ ME). This study concludes that supplementation of RDP from MOC enhances the intake, digestibility and microbial protein synthesis which ultimately increases utilization of low-quality feed resources that can be used for developing cost-effective feeding systems on a straw-based diet in tropical regions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Thermodynamics and Mechanisms of Protonated Diglycine Decomposition: A Computational Study

Authors: Armentrout, PB; Heaton, AL (In Press) . HERO ID: 1000326

[Less] We present a full computational description of the fragmentation reactions of protonated diglycine (H(+)GG). . . . [More] We present a full computational description of the fragmentation reactions of protonated diglycine (H(+)GG). Relaxed potential energy surface scans performed at B3LYP/6-31 G(d) or B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) levels are used to map the reaction coordinate surfaces and identify the transition states (TSs) and intermediate reaction species for seven reactions observed experimentally in the succeeding companion paper. All structures are optimized at the B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) level, with single point energies of the key optimized structures calculated at B3LYP and MP2(full) levels using a 6-311 + G(2 d,2p) basis set. These theoretical structures and energies are compared with extensive calculations in the literature. Although the pathways elucidated here are generally in agreement with those previously outlined, new details and, for some reactions, lower energy transition states are located. Further, the mechanism for the combined loss of carbon monoxide and ammonia is explored for the first time.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Keto analogue and amino acid supplementation affects the ammonaemia response during exercise under ketogenic conditions

Authors: Prado, ES; de Rezende Neto, JM; de Almeida, RD; Dória de Melo, MG; Cameron, LC (In Press) British Journal of Nutrition. HERO ID: 1000884

[Less] Hyperammonaemia is related to both central and peripheral fatigue during exercise. Hyperammonaemia in . . . [More] Hyperammonaemia is related to both central and peripheral fatigue during exercise. Hyperammonaemia in response to exercise can be reduced through supplementation with either amino acids or combined keto analogues and amino acids (KAAA). In the present study, we determined the effect of short-term KAAA supplementation on ammonia production in subjects eating a low-carbohydrate diet who exercise. A total of thirteen male cyclists eating a ketogenic diet for 3 d were divided into two groups receiving either KAAA (KEx) or lactose (control group; LEx) supplements. Athletes cycled indoors for 2 h, and blood samples were obtained at rest, during exercise and over the course of 1 h during the recovery period. Exercise-induced ammonaemia increased to a maximum of 35 % in the control group, but no significant increase was observed in the supplemented group. Both groups had a significant increase (approximately 35 %) in uraemia in response to exercise. The resting urate levels of the two groups were equivalent and remained statistically unchanged in the KEx group after 90 min of exercise; an earlier increase was observed in the LEx group. Glucose levels did not change, either during the trial time or between the groups. An increase in lactate levels was observed during the first 30 min of exercise in both groups, but there was no difference between the groups. The present results suggest that the acute use of KAAA diminishes exercise-induced hyperammonaemia.