Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ammonia


10,721 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prevalence of Nitrosomonas cluster 7 populations in the ammonia-oxidizing community of a submerged membrane bioreactor treating urban wastewater under different operation conditions

Authors: Cerrone, F; Poyatos, JM; Molina-Muñoz, M; Cortés-Lorenzo, C; González-López, J; Rodelas, B (In Press) HERO ID: 1510879

[Less] A pilot-scale ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor (MBR) was used for the aerobic treatment of urban . . . [More] A pilot-scale ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor (MBR) was used for the aerobic treatment of urban wastewater in four experimental stages influenced by seasonal temperature and different sets of operation conditions. The structure of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community was profiled by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), based on the amplification and separation of partial ammonia-monoxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that temperature, hydraulic retention time and percentage of ammonia removal had a significant effect on the fingerprints of AOB communities. Phylogenetic analysis conducted on amoA/AmoA sequences of reamplified TGGE bands showed, however, that closely related ammonia-oxidizing populations inhabited the sludge of the MBR in all experimental stages. Nitrosomonas cluster 7 populations (N. europaea-N. eutropha cluster) prevailed under all conditions tested, even when the MBR was operated under complete biomass retention or at low temperatures, suggesting that the high ammonia concentrations in the system were determinant to select r-strategist AOB.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Coarse-Grained Model for the Interconversion between Native and Liquid Ammonia-Treated Crystalline Cellulose

Authors: Bellesia, G; Chundawat, SP; Langan, P; Redondo, A; Dale, BE; Gnanakaran, S (In Press) Journal of Physical Chemistry B. HERO ID: 1510972

[Less] We present the results of Langevin dynamics simulations on a coarse-grained model for a structural transition . . . [More] We present the results of Langevin dynamics simulations on a coarse-grained model for a structural transition in crystalline cellulose pertinent to the cellulose degradation problem. We analyze two different cellulose crystalline forms: cellulose I(β) (the natural form of cellulose) and cellulose III(I) (obtained after cellulose I(β) is treated with anhydrous liquid ammonia). Cellulose III(I) has been the focus of wide interest in the field of cellulosic biofuels, as it can be efficiently hydrolyzed to readily fermentable glucose (its enzymatic degradation rates are up to 5-fold higher than those of cellulose I(β)). The coarse-grained model presented in this study is based on a simplified geometry and on an effective potential mimicking the changes in both intracrystalline hydrogen bonds and stacking interactions during the transition from cellulose I(β) to cellulose III(I). The model reproduces both structural and thermomechanical properties of cellulose I(β) and III(I). The work presented herein describes the structural transition from cellulose I(β) to cellulose III(I) as driven by the change in the equilibrium state of two degrees of freedom in the cellulose chains. The structural transition from cellulose I(β) to cellulose III(I) is essentially reduced to a search for optimal spatial arrangement of the cellulose chains.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Cloning, expression and characterization of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from Rhodotorula glutinis

Authors: Zhu, L; Cui, W; Fang, Y; Liu, Y; Gao, X; Zhou, Z (In Press) HERO ID: 1510769

[Less] The industrial-scale production of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) mainly uses strains of Rhodotorula. . . . [More] The industrial-scale production of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) mainly uses strains of Rhodotorula. However, the PAL gene from Rhodotorula has not been cloned. Here, the full-length gene of PAL from Rhodotorula glutinis was isolated. It was 2,121 bp, encoding a polypeptide with 706 amino acids and a calculated MW of 75.5 kDa. Though R. glutinis is an anamorph of Rhodosporium toruloides, the amino acid sequences of PALs them are not the same (about 74 % identity). PAL was expressed in E. coli and characterized. Its specific activity was 4.2 U mg(-1) and the k (cat)/K (m) was 1.9 × 10(4) mM(-1) s(-1), exhibiting the highest catalytic ability among the reported PALs. The genetic and biochemical information reported here should facilitate future application in industry.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Diversity and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in the seasonally frozen soils in Northeastern China

Authors: Chen, CH; Gao, DW; Tao, Y (In Press) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. HERO ID: 1510856

[Less] The genetic diversity and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) in nine seasonally frozen . . . [More] The genetic diversity and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) in nine seasonally frozen soils sampled around the city of Harbin, China, is analyzed based on archaeal amoA gene. Soil samples are divided into four groups by its properties: fertilized/unfertilized mesic (well-balanced supply of moisture) soils and fertilized/unfertilized hydric (abundant of moisture) soils. Clone libraries based on AOA amoA gene polymerase chain reaction products are constructed, and the phylogenetic analysis at 5 % cutoff level shows that AOA members mainly belong to the soil/sediment lineage which includes four clusters, and very few archaeal amoA gene sequences fall into the marine lineage. The four groups of soils have different archaeal amoA gene assemblage, and the available nitrogen and organic carbon are significantly correlated with diversity indexes. The result shows that long-term artificial amendment such as fertilization and agriculture cultivation has an important impact on AOA community shift in terrestrial environment. Moisture may drive the shape of different AOA communities by changing the aerobic environment into anaerobic. Soil composition is another noticeable factor effect AOA community, which can help the shape of a special AOA community with only two species.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Geochemistry and mobilization of arsenic in Shuklaganj area of Kanpur-Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Chauhan, VS; Yunus, M; Sankararamakrishnan, N (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 1000194

[Less] The level of arsenic (As) contamination and the geochemical composition of groundwater in Shuklaganj . . . [More] The level of arsenic (As) contamination and the geochemical composition of groundwater in Shuklaganj area located on the banks of the Ganges Delta of Kanpur-Unnao district were elucidated. Samples (n = 59) were collected from both India Mark II hand pumps (depth, 30-33 m) and domestic hand pump tube wells (10-12 m) located within 5 km from the banks of Ganges. Samples were analyzed for various parameters, including total inorganic As, sulfate, nitrate, alkalinity, ammonia, and iron. Hydrochemistry of the groundwater aquifer was studied through the trilinear plots between monovalent and divalent cations and anions. In Indian mark II hand pumps, arsenic concentration ranged from below detection limit to 448 μg/L. Most of the samples contained both As(III) and As(V). The pH of the samples ranged from 7.1 to 8.2. Except for a few, most of the samples were reducing in nature as evident by their negative oxidation reduction potentials. A positive correlation for arsenic with iron, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon shows the probability of biodegradation of organic matter and reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxide processes to leach As in aquifers. For confirmation of the suggested arsenic mobilization mechanism, the presence and absence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and iron-reducing bacteria were also tested.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effect of humic acids on the reverse osmosis treatment of hazardous landfill leachate

Authors: Sír, M; Podhola, M; Patočka, T; Honzajková, Z; Kocurek, P; Kubal, M; Kuraš, M (In Press) Journal of Hazardous Materials. HERO ID: 1000722

[Less] This study deals with the treatment of hazardous waste landfill leachate with the help of reverse osmosis. . . . [More] This study deals with the treatment of hazardous waste landfill leachate with the help of reverse osmosis. The landfill is located in an abandoned brown coal pit in northern Bohemia. The leachate contained 7.2g/L of dissolved inorganic salts. Among other contaminants were heavy metals, arsenic, ammonia nitrogen and associated organic pollutants, especially chlorinated compounds. A mobile membrane unit (LAB M30) equipped with a spiral wound element (FILMTEC SW30-4040), with a membrane area equaling 7.4m(2) was used for the pilot plant experiments. All experiments were carried out in batch mode. 94% conversion of the input stream into the permeate was achieved by use of a two-stage arrangement. Removal efficiencies of the monitored contaminants in the feed ranged from 94% for ammonia nitrogen to 99% for the two-valent ions. Removal efficiency for total dissolved solids was 99.3% on average. Due to varying levels of humic acids in the leachate throughout the year, fouling experiments were performed to investigate the separation process under different conditions than those used in the pilot plant. Leachates containing different concentrations of added humic acids were separated using a thin film composite on a propylene membrane. The added humic acids were obtained from samples of contaminated oxihumolite.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quantification of reductions in ammonia emissions from fertiliser urea and animal urine in grazed pastures with urease inhibitors for agriculture inventory: New Zealand as a case study

Authors: Saggar, S; Singh, J; Giltrap, DL; Zaman, M; Luo, J; Rollo, M; Kim, DG; Rys, G; Der Weerden, TJ (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 1510889

[Less] Urea is the key nitrogen (N) fertiliser for grazed pastures, and is also present in excreted animal . . . [More] Urea is the key nitrogen (N) fertiliser for grazed pastures, and is also present in excreted animal urine. In soil, urea hydrolyses rapidly to ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and may be lost as ammonia (NH(3)) gas. Unlike nitrous oxide (N(2)O), however, NH(3) is not a greenhouse gas although it can act as a secondary source of N(2)O, and hence contribute indirectly to global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Various urease inhibitors (UIs) have been used over the last 30years to reduce NH(3) losses. Among these, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT), sold under the trade name Agrotain®, is currently the most promising and effective when applied with urea or urine. Here we conduct a critical analysis of the published and non-published data on the effectiveness of nBTPT in reducing NH(3) emission, from which adjusted values for Frac(GASF) (fraction of total N fertiliser emitted as NH(3)) and Frac(GASM) (fraction of total N from, animal manure and urine emitted as NH(3)) for the national agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory are recommended in order to provide accurate data for the inventory. We use New Zealand as a case study to assess and quantify the overall reduction in NH(3) emission from urea and animal urine with the application of UI nBTPT. The available literature indicates that an application rate of 0.025% w/w (nBTPT per unit of N) is optimum for reducing NH(3) emissions from temperate grasslands. UI-treated urine studies gave highly variable reductions (11-93%) with an average of 53% and a 95% confidence interval of 33-73%. New Zealand studies, using UI-treated urea, suggest that nBTPT (0.025% w/w) reduces NH(3) emissions by 44.7%, on average, with a confidence interval of 39-50%. On this basis, a New Zealand specific value of 0.055 for Frac(GASF) FN(UI) (fraction of urease inhibitor treated total fertiliser N emitted as NH(3)) is recommended for adoption where urea containing UI are applied as nBTPT at a rate of 0.025% w/w. Only a limited number of published data sets are available on the effectiveness of UI for reducing NH(3) losses from animal urine-N deposited during grazing in a grazed pasture system. The same can be said about mixing UI with urine, rather than spraying UI before or after urine application. Since it was not possible to accurately measure the efficacy of UI in reducing NH(3) emissions from animal urine-N deposited during grazing, we currently cannot recommend the adoption of a Frac(GASM) value adjusted for the inclusion of UI.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in eutrophic and oligotrophic basins of a shallow Chinese lake (Lake Donghu)

Authors: Chen, GY; Qiu, SL; Zhou, YY (In Press) Research in Microbiology. HERO ID: 990585

[Less] Classical cultivation and molecular methods based on the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) were used . . . [More] Classical cultivation and molecular methods based on the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) were used to study the abundance and diversity of beta-proteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in lake sediments. The eutrophic and oligotrophic basins of a Chinese shallow lake (Lake Donghu), in terms of ammonium (NH(4)(+)) concentrations, were sampled. The AOB number was significantly lower in the oligotrophic basin, but significantly higher in the eutrophic basin. In addition, using restriction fragment length polymorphism targeting the amoA, ten restriction patterns including six unique ones were found in the eutrophic basin, while five patterns were observed in the oligotrophic basin with only one unique restriction group. Phylogenetic analysis for AOB revealed that Nitrosomonas oligotropha- and Nitrosomonas ureae-related AOB and Nitrosospira-affiliated AOB were ubiquitous; the former dominated in the eutrophic basin (87.2%), while, the latter dominated in the oligotrophic basin (65.5%). Furthermore, Nitrosomonas communis-related AOB was only detected in the eutrophic basin, at a small proportion (3.2%). These results indicate significant selection and adaptation of sediment AOB in lakes with differing trophic status.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of primary degradation-reaction products from Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-treated corn stover on the growth and fermentation of Escherichia coli KO11

Authors: Lau, MW; Dale, BE (In Press) Bioresource Technology. HERO ID: 990502

[Less] The primary degradation-reaction products (DRP) identified in Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated . . . [More] The primary degradation-reaction products (DRP) identified in Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover are acetate, lactate, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4HBD) and acetamide. The effects of these products at a broad concentration range were tested on Escherichia coli KO11, a strain engineered for cellulosic ethanol production. Fermentations using glucose or xylose as the sole carbohydrate source and a sugar mixture of glucose and xylose were conducted to determine how these products and sugar selection affected fermentation performance. Co-fermentation of the sugar mixture exhibited the lowest overall ethanol productivity compared to single-sugar fermentations and was more susceptible to inhibition. Metabolic ethanol yield increased with the increasing initial concentration of acetate. Although these degradation-reaction products (with exception of acetamide) are generally perceived to be inhibitory, organic acids and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde at low levels stimulated fermentation. Adaptation of cells to these products prior to fermentation increased overall fermentation rate.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Reversing Hyperammonemia in Neuroendocrine Tumors (NET)

Authors: Broadbridge, V; Townsend, A; Pittman, K; Kimber, R; Patterson, W; Sukumaran, S; Price, TJ (In Press) Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. HERO ID: 990662

[Less] Ammonia is a neurotoxin that is normally cleared by the intact liver and if not, hyperammonemia results . . . [More] Ammonia is a neurotoxin that is normally cleared by the intact liver and if not, hyperammonemia results in hepatic encephalopathy. Hyperammonemia may be owing to primary or secondary causes. Early diagnosis is important to prevent permanent brain damage. Advanced malignancy involving the liver is associated with hyperammonemia as a result of abnormality of the portal venous system or massive hepatic tumor burdon. Neuroendocrine tumors are an example of a malignant process that frequently involves the liver but despite this, may still have a relatively good prognosis, and are often characterized by chronic manageable symptoms and slow progression. Hyperammonemia in neuroendocrine tumor would represent a potentially reversible but ongoing process associated with an indolent malignancy. We present 2 cases that are examples of this diagnosis and discuss the diagnostic and management issues that may arise.