Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Hexachloroethane (HCE) (Final, 2011)


117 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chemical reactivity, biotransformation, and toxicity of polychlorinated aliphatic compounds

Authors: Bonse, G; Henschler, D (1976) Critical Reviews in Toxicology 4:395-409. [Review] HERO ID: 58039

[Less] The metabolic transformation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons to reactive intermediates is predominantly . . . [More] The metabolic transformation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons to reactive intermediates is predominantly determined by the number of chlorine substitutions and the type of C-C bonds. Due to their electron-attracting effect, chlorine residues exert a destabilization in alkanes, resulting in metabolic conversions to either alkenes (dechlorination or dehydrochlorination) or free radicals. Chlorinated alkenes are enzymatically oxidized to epoxides which may be hydrolized (enzymatically or nonenzymatically), react with cellular nucleophiles, or rearrange to either chlorinated aldehydes or acyl chlorides. In the series of chlorinated ethylenes (tetra-, tri-, 1,2-cis- and trans-di-, 1,1-di-, and monochloroethylene) the metabolites thus far identified are identical to or biological conjugates of the expected thermal rearrangement products of the epoxides, with one important exception: trichloroethylene. The thermal rearrangement of this epoxide leads to dichloroacetylchloride; in vivo, however, only chloral hydrate (or further derivatives of it) is found. It is suggested that a Lewis acid-like catalysis is responsible, at the site of epoxide formation, for this striking difference in the behavior in vitro and in vivo. Mutagenic and possible carcinogenic activities of the chlorinated ethylenes may be a function of the stability of the epoxides, which is higher in symmetric than unsymmetric substituted molecules. Little is known about the metabolic fate of chlorinated alkynes where the chlorine substitution in general results in a destabilization of the molecules. The neurotoxic activity of dichloroacetylene is discussed

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparison of early injury to liver endoplasmic reticulum by halomethanes, hexachloroethane, benzene, toluene, bromobenzene, ethionine, thioacetamide and dimethylnitrosamine

Author: Reynolds, E (1972) Biochemical Pharmacology 21:2555-2561. HERO ID: 699857

[Less] This study compares the effects in vivo of CH2Cl2, CH2Br2, CHCl3, CH2I2, CHBr3, CCl4, CHI3, CBr4, CI4, . . . [More] This study compares the effects in vivo of CH2Cl2, CH2Br2, CHCl3, CH2I2, CHBr3, CCl4, CHI3, CBr4, CI4, C2Cl6, C2HCl5, C6H6, C7H8, C6H5Br, ethionine, thioaeetamide and dimethylnitrosamine on the functions and composition of liver endoplasmic reticulum 2 hr after poisoning. Within the halomethane series, the effects on lipid diene conjugate content, oxidative demethylase, 14C-glycine incorporation into protein and glucose 6-phosphatase of liver microsomes and cell sap RNA content, increase with decreasing effective negative charge on the halogen atoms (), an indicator of increasing halomethane free radical reactivity (cf.B. P. Dailey, J. chem. Phys.33, 1641,1960). Peak toxic effect is reached following CCl4 and CHI3. Glycine incorporation into protein is also decreased 2 hr after thioacetamide and dimethylnitrosamine. After dimethylnitrosamine, suppression of protein synthesis is concomitant with increases in lipid diene conjugate content and cell sap RNA. C6H5Br and ethionine, both known hepatotoxins, do not effect microsomal composition and function at this time, nor do C6H6 or C7H8 both organic solvents with solubility properties similar to CCl4. The findings support the hypothesis that free radical halomethane metabolites injure the endoplasmic reticulum by reacting with and chemically altering its constituents. While dimethylnitrosamine may act similarly, thioaeetamide, bromobenzene and ethionine apparently do not.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Enzymatic dechlorination: Dechlorination of chloroethanes and propanes in vitro

Authors: Van Dyke, RA; Wineman, CG (1971) Biochemical Pharmacology 20:463-470. HERO ID: 63192

[Less] The enzymatic dechlorination of a series of chloroethanes and chloropropanes was investigated. It was . . . [More] The enzymatic dechlorination of a series of chloroethanes and chloropropanes was investigated. It was found that these materials were dechlorinated enzymatically by an enzyme system located in hepatic microsomes. This system requires NADPH and oxygen, and is inducible by phenobarbital and benzpyrene, but not by methylcholanthrene. The pH optimum of this system was found to be 8.2. Evidence is presented that a factor is present in the 105,000 g supernatant which is necessary for optimum activity. This supernatant factor is not inducible. The dechlorination varied depending on the extent of chlorination of the ethane or propane.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Some hepatotoxic actions of hexachloroethane and its metabolites in sheep

Author: Fowler, JSL (1969) British Journal of Pharmacology 35:530-542. HERO ID: 94838

[Less] 1. Pentachloroethane and tetrachloroethylene were major metabolites of hexachloroethane in sheep.2. . . . [More] 1. Pentachloroethane and tetrachloroethylene were major metabolites of hexachloroethane in sheep.2. Concentrations of hexachloroethane, pentachloroethane and tetrachloroethylene were determined by gas-liquid chromatography in blood, bile, faeces, urine and tissues after oral administration of hexachloroethane emulsions to sheep.3. Increased blood concentrations of sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase were found to follow oral administration of hexachloroethane or pentachloroethane.4. The rate of bromsulphthalein transfer from liver cells to bile was found to decrease after oral administration of hexachloroethane.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The metabolism of [14C]hexachloroethane

Authors: Jondorf, WR; Parke, DV; Williams, RT (1957) Biochemical Journal 65:14P-15P. [Abstract] HERO ID: 63181

[Less] The metabolism of carbon-14(C-14) labeled hexachloroethane(C2-C116) (67721) was studied in experimental . . . [More] The metabolism of carbon-14(C-14) labeled hexachloroethane(C2-C116) (67721) was studied in experimental rabbits. Three days after feeding the animals 0.5 g/kg C2-C116 containing C-14 in both carbon (7440440) atoms, 5 percent of the radioactivity appeared in the urine and 14-24 percent in the expired air. Analysis of labeled metabolites in the urine and the expired air by chromatography and isotope-dilution techniques yielded a number of chlorinated and other compounds, including the highly toxic urinary metabolite monochloroacetic-acid (79118).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The toxicity and anthelmintic efficiency of hexachlorethane in sheep

Author: Southcott, WH (1951) Australian Veterinary Journal 27:18-21. HERO ID: 699847


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Tabulation of toxicity classes

Authors: Hodge, HC; Sterner, JH (1949) HERO ID: 699896