Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Hexachloroethane (HCE) (Final, 2011)


117 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

alpha 2u-globulin nephropathy and renal tumors in national toxicology program studies

Authors: Doi, A; Hill, G; Seely, J; Hailey, J; Kissling, G; Bucher, J (2007) Toxicologic Pathology 35:533-540. HERO ID: 699818

[Less] Chemically induced renal neoplasms in male rats, developed coincident with alpha(2u)-globulin nephropathy, . . . [More] Chemically induced renal neoplasms in male rats, developed coincident with alpha(2u)-globulin nephropathy, are not considered predictive of risk to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Criteria have been defined to establish the role of alpha(2u)-globulin nephropathy in renal carcinogenesis, based on a proposed mode of action involving sustained tubular cell proliferation resulting from alpha(2u)-induced nephropathy, with consequent development of neoplastic lesions. Recent NTP studies demonstrated inconsistencies with this proposed mechanism, including in some cases, far weaker kidney tumor responses than expected based on the extent of alpha(2u)-globulin nephropathy. NTP studies with decalin, propylene glycol mono-t-butyl ether and Stoddard solvent IIC included extended evaluations of alpha(2u)-related nephropathy, and were thus used in assessing the linkage between key events in 90-day studies with renal tumors in 2-year studies. This review revealed no or at best weak associations of tumor responses with renal alpha(2u)-globulin concentrations, indices of cell turnover, or microscopic evidence of alpha(2u)-associated nephropathy in prechronic studies. While tumor responses corresponded somewhat with a measure of cumulative alpha(2u)-associated nephropathy (linear mineralization of the papilla) at the end of the 2-year studies, the severity of chronic nephropathy was generally in best agreement with the pattern of tumor response. These results suggest that while alpha(2u)-globulin nephropathy may contribute to the renal tumor response, the critical component(s) of the nephropathy most closely associated with the development of tumors could not be clearly identified in this review.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mast cells protect mice from Mycoplasma pneumonia

Authors: Xu, X; Zhang, D; Lyubynska, N; Wolters, P; Killeen, N; Baluk, P; McDonald, D; Hawgood, S; Caughey, G (2006) American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 173:219-225. HERO ID: 699792

[Less] As the smallest free-living bacteria and a frequent cause of respiratory infections, mycoplasmas are . . . [More] As the smallest free-living bacteria and a frequent cause of respiratory infections, mycoplasmas are unique pathogens. Mice infected with Mycoplasma pulmonis can develop localized, life-long airway infection accompanied by persistent inflammation and remodeling.

Because mast cells protect mice from acute septic peritonitis and gram-negative pneumonia, we hypothesized that they defend against mycoplasma infection. This study tests this hypothesis using mast cell-deficient mice.

Responses to airway infection with M. pulmonis were compared in wild-type and mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh)/Kit(W-sh) mice and sham-infected control mice.

Endpoints include mortality, body and lymph node weight, mycoplasma antibody titer, and lung mycoplasma burden and histopathology at intervals after infection. The results reveal that infected Kit(W-sh)/Kit(W-sh) mice, compared with other groups, lose more weight and are more likely to die. Live mycoplasma burden is greater in Kit(W-sh)/Kit(W-sh) than in wild-type mice at early time points. Four days after infection, the difference is 162-fold. Titers of mycoplasma-specific IgM and IgA appear earlier and rise higher in Kit(W-sh)/Kit(W-sh) mice, but antibody responses to heat-killed mycoplasma are not different compared with wild-type mice. Infected Kit(W-sh)/Kit(W-sh) mice develop larger bronchial lymph nodes and progressive pneumonia and airway occlusion with neutrophil-rich exudates, accompanied by angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. In wild-type mice, pneumonia and exudates are less severe, quicker to resolve, and are not associated with increased angiogenesis.

These findings suggest that mast cells are important for innate immune containment of and recovery from respiratory mycoplasma infection.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Case report: Hexachloroethane smoke inhalation: A rare cause of severe hepatic injuries

Authors: Loh, C; Chang, Y; Liou, S; Chang, J; Chen, H (2006) Environmental Health Perspectives 114:763-765. HERO ID: 699844

[Less] We report on two patients, a 23-year-old man and a 24-year-old man, who had chemical pneumonitis and . . . [More] We report on two patients, a 23-year-old man and a 24-year-old man, who had chemical pneumonitis and respiratory distress after inhaling hexachloroethane/zinc oxide (HC/ZnO) smoke during military training.

The patients had been healthy previously and denied any history of alcohol or drug abuse. Hematologic tests revealed leukocytosis with neutrophils predominant. The respiratory conditions of both patients improved after steroid therapy and oxygen support, but deterioration of liver function was found. The laboratory results showed that alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels were elevated about 1.5-fold the normal limits and that aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were marginally elevated. The elevation of liver aminotransferase started from day 1 and day 2 and peaked from day 18 to day 22. ALT/AST levels then returned to normal in 6 weeks. Common viral hepatitis was ruled out after serologic tests. Abdominal sonography and physical examination failed to show any specific findings.

The hepatotoxic effect was attributed to inhalation of high-concentration HC/ZnO smoke in an enclosed area, where several hepatotoxicants, including ZnCl2, HC, and chlorinated vapors, could have been generated and mixed in the smoke.

These case reports elaborate the hepatic effects that may occur in addition to pulmonary effects of HC/ZnO smoke.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Peer review handbook (3rd edition)

Author: U.S. EPA (2006) (EPA/100/B-06/002). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Science Policy Council. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 194566


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Malignant pheochromocytoma

Authors: Lehnert, H; Mundschenk, J; Hahn, K (2004) Frontiers of Hormone Research 31:155-162. [Review] HERO ID: 699843


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impact of inter-individual differences in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics on safety evaluation

Author: Dorne, JL (2004) Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 18:609-620. [Review] HERO ID: 202142

[Less] Safety evaluation aims to assess the dose-response relationship to determine a dose/level of exposure . . . [More] Safety evaluation aims to assess the dose-response relationship to determine a dose/level of exposure for food contaminants below which no deleterious effect is measurable that is 'without appreciable health risk' when consumed daily over a lifetime. These safe levels, such as the acceptable daily intake (ADI) have been derived from animal studies using surrogates for the threshold such as the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL). The extrapolation from the NOAEL to the human safe intake uses a 100-fold uncertainty factor, defined as the product of two 10-fold factors allowing for human variability and interspecies differences. The 10-fold factor for human variability has been further subdivided into two factors of 10(0.5) (3.16) to cover toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and this subdivsion allows for the replacement of an uncertainty factor with a chemical-specific adjustment factor (CSAF) when compound-specific data are available. Recently, an analysis of human variability in pharmacokinetics for phase I metabolism (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, hydrolysis, alcohol dehydrogenase), phase II metabolism (N-acetyltransferase, glucuronidation, glycine conjugation, sulphation) and renal excretion was used to derive pathway-related uncertainty factors in subgroups of the human population (healthy adults, effects of ethnicity and age). Overall, the pathway-related uncertainty factors (99th centile) were above the toxicokinetic uncertainty factor for healthy adults exposed to xenobiotics handled by polymorphic metabolic pathways (and assuming the parent compound was the proximate toxicant) such as CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (26), CYP2C19 poor metabolizers (52) and NAT-2 slow acetylators (5.2). Neonates were the most susceptible subgroup of the population for pathways with available data [CYP1A2 and glucuronidation (12), CYP3A4 (14), glycine conjugation (28)]. Data for polymorphic pathways were not available in neonates but uncertainty factors of up to 45 and 9 would allow for the variability observed in children for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 metabolism, respectively. This review presents an overview on the history of uncertainty factors, the main conclusions drawn from the analysis of inter-individual differences in metabolism and pharmacokinetics, the development of pathway-related uncertainty factors and their use in chemical risk assessment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Distinct gene expression profiles in norepinephrine- and epinephrine-producing hereditary and sporadic pheochromocytomas: Activation of hypoxia-driven angiogenic pathways in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome

Authors: Eisenhofer, G; Huynh, TT; Pacak, K; Brouwers, FM; Walther, MM; Linehan, WM; Munson, PJ; Mannelli, M; Goldstein, DS; Elkahloun, AG (2004) Endocrine-Related Cancer 11:897-911. HERO ID: 711139

[Less] Pheochromocytomas in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome produce exclusively norepinephrine, whereas those . . . [More] Pheochromocytomas in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome produce exclusively norepinephrine, whereas those in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) produce epinephrine. This study examined the pathways activated in VHL-associated pheochromocytomas by comparing gene expression profiles in VHL and MEN 2 tumors in relationship to profiles in sporadic norepinephrine- and epinephrine-producing tumors. Larger and more distinct differences in gene expression among hereditary than sporadic tumors indicated the importance of the underlying mutation to gene expression profiles. Many of the genes over-expressed in VHL compared with MEN 2 tumors were clearly linked to the hypoxia-driven angiogenic pathways that are activated in VHL-associated tumorigenesis. Such genes included those for the glucose transporter, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor, angiopoietin 2, tie-1, VEGF receptor 2 and its coreceptor, neuropilin-1. Other up-regulated genes, such as connective tissue growth factor, cysteine-rich 61, matrix metalloproteinase 1, vascular endothelial cadherin, tenascin C, stanniocalcin 1, and cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 are known to be involved in VEGF-regulated angiogenesis. Shared differences in expression of subsets of genes in norepinephrine- versus epinephrine-producing hereditary and sporadic pheochromocytomas indicated other differences in gene expression that may underlie the biochemical phenotype. Over-expression of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, HIF-2alpha, in norepinephrine-predominant sporadic and VHL tumors compared with epinephrine-producing tumors indicates that expression of this gene depends on the noradrenergic biochemical phenotype. The findings fit with the known expression of HIF-2alpha in norepinephrine-producing cells of the sympathetic nervous system and might explain both the development and noradrenergic biochemical phenotype of pheochromocytomas in VHL syndrome.

Technical Report
Technical Report

NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens

Author: NTP (2004) (PB2005104914). Research Triangle Park, NC: National Toxicology Program. [NTP] HERO ID: 93207

[Less] The Report on Carcinogens (RoC) is a scientific and public health document mandated by Congress in 1978. . . . [More] The Report on Carcinogens (RoC) is a scientific and public health document mandated by Congress in 1978. The RoC identifies and discusses substances, chemicals, mixtures, or exposure circumstances (collectively called substances) that may pose a cancer hazard to human health and to which persons in the United States are exposed. Nominations to the RoC go through a rigorous review process with multiple opportunities for public comment. The RoC is a compilation of substance profiles and each new edition replaces the previous one. Each substance profile in the RoC identifies a substance as known or reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen and provides information on (1) the scientific evidence that supports the listing (human epidemiological studies, cancer studies in experimental animals, and toxicokinetic, genotoxic, and mechanistic data), (2) the potential for human exposure, such as data on use, production, environmental occurrence, occupational exposure, and exposure to the general population, and (3) current Federal regulations to limit exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

KI-67 AND hTERT expression can aid in the distinction between malignant and benign pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma

Authors: Elder, E; Xu, D; Höög, A; Enberg, U; Hou, M; Pisa, P; Gruber, A; Larsson, C; Bäckdahl, M (2003) Modern Pathology 16:246-255. HERO ID: 699820

[Less] The clinical and histopathological distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas . . . [More] The clinical and histopathological distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas is difficult, and reliable diagnostic markers are lacking. Here we have evaluated the prognostic value of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR); telomerase activity (TA) measured by TRAP (telomeric repeat amplification protocol) assay; immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67/MIB-1; and the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) analyzed by in situ hybridization in 32 primary pheochromocytomas or abdominal paragangliomas. hTERT was expressed in 7/11 malignant tumors (defined as presence of metastasis and/or extensive local invasion) as compared with in 2/21 benign tumors. All of the benign tumors showed <1% proliferative activity, as measured by Ki-67/MIB-1 staining. In all three patients with malignant tumors who developed metastases and/or invasive local recurrence during follow-up, the tumors were positive for either hTERT expression or Ki-67/MIB-1 immunoreactivity. TA was not a significant discriminator between benign and malignant tumors, and the value of EMMPRIN and MMP-2 as predictive markers was limited. In conclusion, the findings imply that the combined use of Ki-67/MIB-1 and hTERT, in addition to histopathology, provides a highly specific tool to identify benign pheochromocytoma and abdominal paraganglioma cases that are not at risk of developing recurrent or metastatic disease.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Levels of environmental contaminants in human follicular fluid, serum, and seminal plasma of couples undergoing in vitro fertilization

Authors: Younglai, E; Foster, W; Hughes, E; Trim, K; Jarrell, J (2002) Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 43:121-126. HERO ID: 699797

[Less] Environmental chemicals are thought to adversely affect human reproductive function, however there are . . . [More] Environmental chemicals are thought to adversely affect human reproductive function, however there are no studies that have explored the association between failed fertilization and exposure of both partners to environmental contaminants. Therefore, we collected blood and follicular fluid from the female partner and seminal plasma from the male partner of 21 couples attending an in vitro fertilization (IVF) program, in order to determine the extent of the existence of environmental chemicals in these fluids. Any relationship to the outcome of IVF was also considered. Sera and fluids were analysed for a variety of contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, cotinine, and the steroids progesterone and estradiol. Of the couples examined, 18 had fertilizations, three of whom became pregnant. There were no fertilizations in three other couples. The contaminants most frequently found in follicular fluid, more than 50% of the samples tested, were p,p'-DDE, mirex, hexachloroethane, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, PCB 49, PCB 153, and PCB 180. Cadmium was detected in eight of 21 (38.1%) samples of follicular fluid whereas cotinine was detected in 18 (85.7%). Residue levels of p,p'-DDE, endosulfan I, PCB 99, PCB 138, PCB 153, PCB 180 were quantified in more than 50% of the sera samples examined. Seminal plasma was relatively free of pollutants with mirex being the most frequently detected contaminant found in seven of 21 (33.3%) samples. Mirex could not be detected in the seminal plasma of the husbands whose partner's oocytes failed to fertilize whereas significant levels of mirex were found in the seminal plasma of all couples who had a pregnancy. Cadmium was also found in the follicular fluid of these pregnant subjects. No relationship was found between follicular fluid cotinine in pregnant and non-pregnant subjects. Where identical contaminants were found in both sera and follicular fluids, the levels were about twofold higher in serum and were positively correlated in both fluids. Fertilization was negatively correlated with serum and follicular fluid p,p'-DDE whereas pregnancy was positively correlated with follicular fluid PCB 49. These data reveal that more than 50% of the population of women attending a fertility program have had exposure to environmental chemicals sufficient to produce detectable concentrations in their serum and ovarian follicular fluid. Of the chemical contaminants detected in the serum and follicular fluid of these women, p,p'-DDE was the most frequently detected, had the highest residue levels, and was associated with failed fertilization.