Mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator-induced DNA hypomethylation in rat liver
Authors: Pogribny, I; Tryndyak, V; Boureiko, A; Melnyk, S; Bagnyukova, T; Montgomery, B; Rusyn, I
Mutation Research 644:17-23.
HERO ID: 697818
Genomic hypomethylation is a consistent finding in both human and animal tumors and mounting experimental . . .
Genomic hypomethylation is a consistent finding in both human and animal tumors and mounting experimental evidence suggests a key role for epigenetic events in tumorigenesis. Furthermore, it has been suggested that early changes in DNA methylation and histone modifications may serve as sensitive predictive markers in animal testing for carcinogenic potency of environmental agents. Alterations in metabolism of methyl donors, disturbances in activity and/or expression of DNA methyltransferases, and presence of DNA single-strand breaks could contribute to the loss of cytosine methylation during carcinogenesis; however, the precise mechanisms of genomic hypomethylation induced by chemical carcinogens remain largely unknown. This study examined the mechanism of DNA hypomethylation during hepatocarcinogenesis induced by peroxisome proliferators WY-14,643 (4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-pyrimidynylthioacetic acid) and DEHP (di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate), agents acting through non-genotoxic mode of action. In the liver of male Fisher 344 rats exposed to WY-14,643 (0.1% (w/w), 5 months), the level of genomic hypomethylation increased by approximately 2-fold, as compared to age-matched controls, while in the DEHP group (1.2% (w/w), 5 months) DNA methylation did not change. Global DNA hypomethylation in livers from WY-14,643 group was accompanied by the accumulation of DNA single-strand breaks, increased cell proliferation, and diminished expression of DNA methyltransferase 1, while the metabolism of methyl donors was not affected. In contrast, none of these parameters changed significantly in rats fed DEHP. Since WY-14,643 is much more potent carcinogen than DEHP, we conclude that the extent of loss of DNA methylation may be related to the carcinogenic potential of the chemical agent, and that accumulation of DNA single-strand breaks coupled to the increase in cell proliferation and altered DNA methyltransferase expression may explain genomic hypomethylation during peroxisome proliferator-induced carcinogenesis.