Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ethylbenzene


10,308 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Photocatalytic conversion of gaseous ethylbenzene on lanthanum-doped titanium dioxide nanotubes

Authors: Cheng, ZW; Feng, L; Chen, JM; Yu, JM; Jiang, YF (In Press) Journal of Hazardous Materials. HERO ID: 1580437

[Less] The photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) make it an attractive material for environmental . . . [More] The photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) make it an attractive material for environmental remediation. In the present study, lanthanum (La(3+))-doped TiO2 nanotubes with excellent photocatalytic activity were fabricated by a combination of sol-gel method and hydrothermal technique. The optimal preparation parameters were determined by the structural characterization using a range of methods and the photocatalytic degradation of gaseous ethylbenzene (EB). Compared with pure TiO2 nanoparticles, 1.2%-La(3+)-doped - titania nanotubes (1.2%-La(3+)-TNTs) exhibited higher activity under 254nm UV for conversion of EB. The initial EB concentrations and relative humidity (RH) obviously influenced the photocatalytic activity of 1.2%-La(3+)-TNTs. Kinetic analysis showed that surface adsorption and surface reaction controlled the rate-determining step for RH of 40-50% and >80%, respectively. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to analyze the intermediates generated in the conversion of EB, allowing a tentative decomposition pathway to be proposed. The prepared photocatalyst exhibited enhanced EB conversion compared with undoped TiO2, and showed a promise for the decomposition of recalcitrant compounds before subsequent biopurification.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Geochemical survey of an illegal waste disposal site under a waste emergency scenario (Northwest Naples, Italy)

Authors: Ferrara, L; Iannace, M; Patelli, AM; Arienzo, M (In Press) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. HERO ID: 1249011

[Less] Since the mid 1980s, Naples and the Campania region have suffered from the dumping of wastes into overfilled . . . [More] Since the mid 1980s, Naples and the Campania region have suffered from the dumping of wastes into overfilled landfills. The aim was to characterise a former cave located in Roccarainola (Naples, Italy) for its eventual destination to a controlled landfill site. A detailed hydro-geochemical survey of the area was carried out through drilling of 14 boreholes and four monitoring wells. Samples of water, sediment and soil were analysed for heavy metals and organic contaminants from a dew pond placed in the middle of the cave. The underneath aquifer was also surveyed. The nature of gases emitted from the site was investigated. Results of the geognostic survey revealed the presence of huge volumes of composite wastes, approximately half a million of cubic metre, which accumulated up to a thickness of 25.6 m. In some points, wastes lie below the free surface level of the aquifer. The sampled material from the boreholes revealed levels of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sn, Tl and Zn exceeding the intervention legal limits. Outstanding loads of Cd, Pb and Zn were found, with levels exceeding of about 50, 100 and 1,870 times the limit. In several points, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon load was extremely high, 35 vs 1 mg kg(-1) of the threshold. The aquifer was also very heavily polluted by Cd, Cr-tot, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, with impressive high load of Cr and Mn, up to 250-370 times the limits. Hot gases up to 62 °C with presence of xylene and ethylbenzene were found. Results indicated that the site needs an urgent intervention of recovery to avoid compromising the surrounding areas and aquifers of the Campania plain.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Does plant species selection in functional active green walls influence VOC phytoremediation efficiency?

Authors: Irga, PJ; Pettit, T; Irga, RF; Paull, NJ; Douglas, ANJ; Torpy, FR (2019) HERO ID: 5094790

[Less] Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of public concern due to their adverse health effects. Botanical . . . [More] Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of public concern due to their adverse health effects. Botanical air filtration is a promising technology for reducing indoor air contaminants, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study assessed active botanical biofilters for their single-pass removal efficiency (SPRE) for benzene, ethyl acetate and ambient total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), at concentrations of in situ relevance. Biofilters containing four plant species (Chlorophytum orchidastrum, Nematanthus glabra, Nephrolepis cordifolia 'duffii' and Schefflera arboricola) were compared to discern whether plant selection influenced VOC SPRE. Amongst all tested plant species, benzene SPREs were between 45.54 and 59.50%, with N. glabra the most efficient. The botanical biofilters removed 32.36-91.19% of ethyl acetate, with C. orchidastrum and S. arboricola recording significantly higher ethyl acetate SPREs than N. glabra and N. cordifolia. These findings thus indicate that plant type influences botanical biofilter VOC removal. It is proposed that ethyl acetate SPREs were dependent on hydrophilic adsorbent sites, with increasing root surface area, root diameter and root mass all associated with increasing ethyl acetate SPRE. The high benzene SPRE of N. glabra is likely due to the high wax content in its leaf cuticles. The SPREs for the relatively low levels of ambient TVOCs were consistent amongst plant species, providing no evidence to suggest that in situ TVOC removal is influenced by plant choice. Nonetheless, as inter-species differences do exist for some VOCs, botanical biofilters using a mixture of plants is proposed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Traffic-related air emissions in Houston: Effects of light-rail transit

Authors: Park, ES; Sener, IN (2019) HERO ID: 5068557

[Less] Recent studies have suggested that automobile pollution poses significantly more harmful health impacts . . . [More] Recent studies have suggested that automobile pollution poses significantly more harmful health impacts than previously realized. Light-rail transit (LRT) is a major type of transportation infrastructure, but there has been little research assessing the air quality effects of LRT based on the actual air pollution data. This study aimed to assess the effects of LRT on automobile-related air emissions in Houston. Specifically, we examined the effects of LRT on key tailpipe pollutants-carbon monoxide and acetylene-as well as other traffic pollution surrogates referred to as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), measured from ambient air monitoring stations. An interrupted time series design and analysis was used to determine the impact of an intervention, where the intervention was the opening of an LRT on January 1, 2004, with two years (2002-2003) of before and two years (2004-2005) of after period data. We found that, after controlling for weather, the opening of the LRT was associated with statistically significant reductions in traffic-related air emissions. Specifically, at the exposure sites, the daily maximum carbon monoxide level was reduced roughly by 24%, and the daily level of toluene was reduced roughly by 60% (33% after accounting for the reduction at the comparison site). Our findings lend support to the air quality benefits of LRT by providing suggestive evidence of positive effects of LRT based on actual air pollution monitoring data. This study's findings also emphasize the importance of developing effective measures to assess traffic-related pollution and call for advanced data collection strategies of additional data, including traffic volume and speed data.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The Possibilities of Using Broadleaf Cattail Seeds (Typha latifolia L.) as Super Absorbents for Removing Aromatic Hydrocarbons (BTEX) from an Aqueous Solution

Authors: Ciesielczuk, T; Rosik-Dulewska, C; Poluszyńska, J (2019) Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 230:6. HERO ID: 5024823

[Less] Sorption of oil-related products (including mainly the propellants) is the very basic process that counteracts . . . [More] Sorption of oil-related products (including mainly the propellants) is the very basic process that counteracts spreading these types of pollution into environment. Plenty of synthetic substances (including the monoaromatic hydrocarbons) are both from the surface and underground waters. The aim of this study was to present the research's results on the possibilities of using the broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia L.) seeds as a sorbent of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from an aqueous solution. In order to increase sorptive capacity, the seeds biomass was submitted for the process of mercerizing in diversified time and temperature in water and the NaOH solution. The removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene and cumene was carried out by means of the "batch method". All the conducted experiments have shown a high sorption level of the analysed pollutions from an aqueous solution. The best sorptive qualities appeared in the seeds drenched in 80 °C water for 4 h (W) 97 g/kg, what was 9.06% more absorbed hydrocarbons in comparison to the control sample (C) and 26.8% more than the smallest seeds drenched in NaOH for 240 min. in the temperature of 80 °C (N). The process of the seeds mercerizing that was conducted with the use of hot water appeared to be most effective, but seeds without mercerisation (C) is actually the material which absorbs the least amounts of energy for preparation and had quite good sorption capacity too.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biodegradation of naphthalene, BTEX, and aliphatic hydrocarbons by Paraburkholderia aromaticivorans BN5 isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil

Authors: Lee, Y; Lee, Y; Jeon, CO (2019) HERO ID: 5068489

[Less] To isolate bacteria responsible for the biodegradation of naphthalene, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, . . . [More] To isolate bacteria responsible for the biodegradation of naphthalene, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-xylene), and aliphatic hydrocarbons in petroleum-contaminated soil, three enrichment cultures were established using soil extract as the medium supplemented with naphthalene, BTEX, or n-hexadecane. Community analyses showed that Paraburkholderia species were predominant in naphthalene and BTEX, but relatively minor in n-hexadecane. Paraburkholderia aromaticivorans BN5 was able to degrade naphthalene and all BTEX compounds, but not n-hexadecane. The genome of strain BN5 harbors genes encoding 29 monooxygenases including two alkane 1-monooxygenases and 54 dioxygenases, indicating that strain BN5 has versatile metabolic capabilities, for diverse organic compounds: the ability of strain BN5 to degrade short chain aliphatic hydrocarbons was verified experimentally. The biodegradation pathways of naphthalene and BTEX compounds were bioinformatically predicted and verified experimentally through the analysis of their metabolic intermediates. Some genomic features including the encoding of the biodegradation genes on a plasmid and the low sequence homologies of biodegradation-related genes suggest that biodegradation potentials of strain BN5 may have been acquired via horizontal gene transfers and/or gene duplication, resulting in enhanced ecological fitness by enabling strain BN5 to degrade all compounds including naphthalene, BTEX, and short aliphatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soil.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Carboxamide-Based Tripodal Fluororeceptors for Cations: Preparation, Characterization and Spectroscopic Studies

Authors: Obali, AY; Ali, DKA; Ucan, HI (2019) HERO ID: 5068490

[Less] Tripodal receptors, N-1,3,5-tris[2-(ethylamino)ethyl]benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylamide (L1), N-1,3,5-tris[2-(phenylamino)ethyl]benzene-1,3,5tricarboxylamide . . . [More] Tripodal receptors, N-1,3,5-tris[2-(ethylamino)ethyl]benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylamide (L1), N-1,3,5-tris[2-(phenylamino)ethyl]benzene-1,3,5tricarboxylamide (L2) and highly fluorescent N-1,3,5-tris[2(naphthalene-2-ylamino)-ethyl]benzene-1,3,5,tricarboxyl-amid)) (L3) were synthesized by the reaction of 1,3,5-benzene-tricarbonylchloride and different amine groups originally. Sensitivity measurements were performed with the addition of Fe(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), Ga(III), Co(II), Yb(III), Cr(III) and Ag(I) metals to the receptor solutions. According to the absorption and emission studies, these receptors show fluorescent property and Fe(II) ion quenches their fluorescence effectively.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Direct methyl esterification with 2,2-dimethoxypropane for the simultaneous determination of urinary metabolites of toluene, xylene, styrene, and ethylbenzene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

Authors: Takeuchi, A; Namera, A; Sakui, N; Yamamoto, S; Yamamuro, K; Nishinoiri, O; Endo, Y; Endo, G (2019) HERO ID: 5068493

[Less] OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and accurate gas chromatography-mass . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and accurate gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of four urinary metabolites from four organic solvents, that is, hippuric acid (HA) from toluene, methylhippuric acid (MHA) from xylene, and mandelic acid (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) from styrene or ethylbenzene for biological monitoring.

METHODS: The four metabolites were directly methyl-esterified with 2,2-dimethoxypropane and analyzed using GC-MS. The proposed method was validated according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidance. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analyzing a ClinChek® -Control for occupational medicine (RECIPE Chemicals +Instruments GmbH).

RESULTS: Calibration curves showed linearity in the concentration range of 10-1000 mg/L for each metabolite, with correlation coefficients >0.999. For each metabolite, the limits of detection and quantification were 3 mg/L and 10 mg/L, respectively. The recovery was 93%-117%, intraday accuracy, expressed as the deviation from the nominal value, was 92.7%-103.0%, and intraday precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD), was 1.3%-4.7%. Interday accuracy and precision were 93.4%-104.0% and 1.2%-9.5%, respectively. The analytical values of ClinChek obtained using the proposed method were sufficiently accurate.

CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method is a simple and accurate which is suitable for routine analyses that could be used for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to four organic solvents.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ethylbenzene and styrene exposure in the United States based on urinary mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid: NHANES 2005-2006 and 2011-2012

Authors: Capella, KM; Roland, K; Geldner, N; Rey deCastro, B; De Jesús, VR; van Bemmel, D; Blount, BC (2019) HERO ID: 5068508

[Less] Ethylbenzene and styrene are air toxicants with widespread nonoccupational exposure sources, including . . . [More] Ethylbenzene and styrene are air toxicants with widespread nonoccupational exposure sources, including tobacco smoke and diet. Ethylbenzene and styrene (EB/S) exposure was quantified from their common metabolites measured in spot urine samples obtained from participants (≥6 years old) in the 2005-2006 and 2011-2012 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; N = 4690). EB/S metabolites mandelic acid (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) were measured using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). MA and PGA were detected in 98.9% and 90.6% of tested urine specimens, respectively. Exclusive smokers had 2-fold and 1.6-fold higher median urinary MA and PGA, respectively, compared with non-users. Sampleweighted regression analysis among exclusive smokers showed that smoking 0.5 pack cigarettes per day significantly increased MA (+97.9 μg/L) and PGA (+69.3 μg/L), controlling for potential confounders. In comparison, exposure from the median daily dietary intake of grain products increased MA by 1.95 μg/L and was not associated with statistically significant changes in urinary PGA levels. Conversely, consuming vegetables and fruit was associated with decreased MA and PGA. These results confirm tobacco smoke as a major source of ethylbenzene and styrene exposure for the general U.S. population.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Compact, Automated, Inexpensive, and Field-Deployable Vacuum-Outlet Gas Chromatograph for Trace-Concentration Gas-Phase Organic Compounds

Authors: Skog, KM; Xiong, F; Kawashima, H; Doyle, E; Soto, R; Gentner, DR (2019) HERO ID: 5068510

[Less] The identification and quantification of gas-phase organic compounds, such as volatile organic compounds . . . [More] The identification and quantification of gas-phase organic compounds, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), frequently use gas chromatography (GC), which typically requires high-purity compressed gases. We have developed a new instrument for trace-concentration measurements of VOCs and intermediate-volatility compounds of up to 14 carbon atoms in a fully automated (computer-free), independent, low-cost, compact GC-based system for the quantitative analysis of complex mixtures without the need for compressed, high-purity gases or expensive detectors. Through adsorptive analyte preconcentration, vacuum GC, photoionization detectors, and need-based water-vapor control, we enable sensitive and selective measurements with picogram-level limits of detection (i.e., under 15 ppt in a 4 L sample for most compounds). We validate performance against a commercial pressurized GC, including resolving challenging isomers of similar volatility, such as ethylbenzene and  m/ p-xylene. We employ vacuum GC across the whole column with filtered air as a carrier gas, producing long-term system stability and performance over a wide range of analytes. Through theory and experiments, we present variations in analyte diffusivities in the mobile phase, analyte elution temperatures, optimal linear velocities, and separation-plate heights with vacuum GC in air at different pressures, and we optimize our instrument to exploit these differences. At 2-6 psia, the molecular diffusion coefficients are 6.4-2.1 times larger and the elution temperatures are 39-92 °C lower than with pressurized GC with helium (at 30 psig) depending on the molecular structure, and we find a wide range of optimal linear velocities (up to 60 cm s-1) that are faster with broader tolerances than with pressurized-N2 GC.