Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ethylbenzene


10,308 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A hydrophobic deep eutectic solvent mediated sol-gel coating of solid phase microextraction fiber for determination of toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene in water coupled with GC-FID

Authors: Li, T; Song, Y; Xu, J; Fan, J (2019) HERO ID: 5068515

[Less] As a new type of green solvents, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are attracting more and more attentions . . . [More] As a new type of green solvents, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are attracting more and more attentions due to their unique properties and cheapness. However, most DESs reported previously were hydrophilic and thus limiting their applications in aqueous medium. In this study, a novel hydrophobic DES was prepared by mixing ethylparaben and methyl trioctyl ammonium chloride, and density, viscosity, and contact angle of the DES were determined to character its solvent characteristics. Then, this DES was used as an efficient additive of sol-gel sorbent coating of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) fiber. It was found that the addition of hydrophobic DES could generate a lot of neat pores in the PDMS fiber surface, thus significantly improving the performance of PDMS fiber coating. The feasibility of PDMS-DES adopted for head space solid phase microextraction was evaluated by GC-FID for the extraction and determination of volatile organic compounds, such as toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene. Key parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated systematically. Under optimal conditions, the linear range with PDMS-DES fiber lied between 10 and 1000 μg L-1, and the limit of detection (LOD) was in the range from 0.005 to 0.025 μg L-1. Compared with homemade PDMS fiber, the peak area of signal response for the PDMS-DES fiber was 3 times higher. At the same time, the LOD for the proposed method was much lower than the commercial 100 µm-PDMS fiber coating.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Spatial and temporal variations of volatile organic compounds using passive air samplers in the multi-industrial city of Ulsan, Korea

Authors: Kim, SJ; Kwon, HO; Lee, MI; Seo, Y; Choi, SD (2019) HERO ID: 5068517

[Less] The source-receptor relationship of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is an important environmental . . . [More] The source-receptor relationship of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is an important environmental concern, particularly in large industrial cities; however, only a few studies have identified VOC sources using high spatial resolution data. In this study, 28 VOCs were monitored in Ulsan, the biggest multi-industrial city in Korea. Passive air samplers were seasonally deployed at eight urban and six industrial sites. The target compounds were detected at all sites. No significant seasonal variations of VOCs were observed probably due to the continuous emissions from major industrial facilities. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and styrene accounted for 66-86% of the concentration of Σ28 VOCs. The spatial distribution of the individual VOCs clearly indicated that petrochemical, automobile, non-ferrous, and shipbuilding industries were major VOC sources. Seasonal wind patterns were found to play a role in the spatial distribution of VOCs. Diagnostic ratios also confirmed that the industrial complexes were the dominant VOC sources. The results of principal component analysis and correlation analyses identified the influence of specific compounds from each industrial complex on individual sites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report on the seasonal distribution of VOCs with high spatial resolution in a metropolitan industrial city in Korea.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Synthesis of Porous Fe3 C-Based Composite Beads as Heterogeneous Oxidation Catalysts

Authors: Wang, Z; Jiang, Y; Li, Y; Huo, H; Zhao, T; Li, D; Lin, K; Xu, X (2019) HERO ID: 5068520

[Less] A series of multiscale cementite/iron/porous carbon (CIPC-T) composites with extremely low nitrogen . . . [More] A series of multiscale cementite/iron/porous carbon (CIPC-T) composites with extremely low nitrogen content and millimeter-size spherical morphology were prepared by simple carbothermal pyrolysis of resin spheres exchanged with ferric oxalate anions. CIPC-T materials are composed of highly disperse core-shell-structured Fe3 C/Fe@graphitic carbon (CI@GC) nanoparticles embedded in a porous amorphous carbon framework. A mechanism for the formation of the composites is proposed on the basis of the results of XRD, SEM, TEM, and thermogravimetric analysis. The Fe3 C content can be easily controlled just by using different carbothermal temperatures. The CIPC-T materials proved to be active as heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of ethylbenzene to acetophenone and Fenton-like oxidation of methylene blue. For the first time, the role of Fe3 C in catalytic oxidation was confirmed. The spherical morphology of the composites and magnetic property facilitate separation of the catalyst from the reaction solution. More importantly, no leaching of iron active sites occurs during the reactions and the catalyst can be reused in continuous runs without obvious loss of activity. Such high stability of iron sites in the composites is ascribed to the protecting outer graphitic carbon shell of CI@GC.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers of occupational exposure to low dose organic solvents

Authors: Sisto, R; Capone, P; Cerini, L; Sanjust, F; Paci, E; Pigini, D; Gatto, MP; Gherardi, M; Gordiani, A; L'Episcopo, N; Tranfo, G; Chiarella, P (2019) HERO ID: 5068521

[Less] Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been recently acknowledged as novel and non-invasive biomarkers . . . [More] Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been recently acknowledged as novel and non-invasive biomarkers of exposure to environmental and occupational hazardous substances. This preliminary study investigates the potential role of blood miRNAs as molecular biomarkers of exposure to the most common organic solvents (ethylbenzene, toluene, xylene) used in the shipyard painting activity. Despite the low number of recruited workers, a two-tail standard Students' test with Holm-Bonferroni adjusted p-value shows a significant up-regulation of two miRNAs (miR_6819_5p and miR_6778_5p) in exposed workers with respect to controls. A correlation analysis between miRNA, differentially expressed in exposed workers and in controls and urinary dose biomarkers i.e. methylhyppuric acid (xylenes metabolite), phenylglyoxylic and mandelic acid (ethylbenzene metabolites) S-benzyl mercapturic acid (toluene metabolite) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (benzene metabolite) measured at the end of the work-shift, allowed the identification of high correlation (0.80-0.99) of specific miRNAs with their respective urinary metabolites. MiRNA_671_5p correlated with methylhippuric, S-phenylmercapturic and S-benzyl mercapturic acid while the miRNA best correlating with the phenylglioxylic acid was miRNA_937_5p. These findings suggest miRNA as sensitive biomarkers of low dose exposure to organic chemicals used at workplace. Urinary DNA and RNA repair biomarkers coming from the oxidation product of guanine have been also associated to the different miRNAs. A significant negative association was found between 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua) urinary concentration and miR_6778_5p. The findings of the present pilot study deserve to be tested on a larger population with the perspective of designing a miRNA based test of low dose exposure to organic solvents.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Draft genome of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii

Authors: Quan, Q; Hu, X; Pan, B; Zeng, B; Wu, N; Fang, G; Cao, Y; Chen, X; Li, X; Huang, Y; Zhan, S (2019) HERO ID: 5068524

[Less] The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is a worldwide agricultural pest that feeds on cotton, melon, . . . [More] The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is a worldwide agricultural pest that feeds on cotton, melon, and other landscape plants, causing a high level of economic loss. In addition to the common characteristics shared with other aphids, Ap. gossypii has evolved multiple biotypes that present substantial differences in host adaption. These intriguing biological features are of interest from both a fundamental and applied perspective. However, the molecular studies of Ap. gossypii have been restrained by the lack of a reference genome. Furthermore, in order to establish a platform for the development of novel and sustainable control methods, it is necessary to generate genomic resources for Ap. gossypii. Here, we present a 294 Mb draft genome sequence of Ap. gossypii, which consists of 4,724 scaffolds with an N50 size of 438 kb. Compared to other aphid species with published genomes, Ap. gossypii presents the most compact genome size. A total of 14,694 protein-coding genes were predicted and annotated in the consensus gene set, 98.03% of CEGMA genes and 93.5% of BUSCO genes were captured respectively. Genome-wide selection analyses revealed that significantly evolving pathways in the genus Aphis are related to biological processes of detoxification, steroid biosynthesis, and ethylbenzene degradation. The acquisition of the genome of Ap. gossypii makes it possible to understand the molecular mechanism of intricate biological traits of this species, and will further facilitate the study of aphid evolution.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Multienzymatic in situ hydrogen peroxide generation cascade for peroxygenase-catalysed oxyfunctionalisation reactions

Authors: Pesic, M; Willot, SJ; Fernández-Fueyo, E; Tieves, F; Alcalde, M; Hollmann, F (2019) Zeitschrift fuer Naturforschung C 74:101-104. [Letter] HERO ID: 5068525

[Less] There is an increasing interest in the application of peroxygenases in biocatalysis, because of their . . . [More] There is an increasing interest in the application of peroxygenases in biocatalysis, because of their ability to catalyse the oxyfunctionalisation reaction in a stereoselective fashion and with high catalytic efficiencies, while using hydrogen peroxide or organic peroxides as oxidant. However, enzymes belonging to this class exhibit a very low stability in the presence of peroxides. With the aim of bypassing this fast and irreversible inactivation, we study the use of a gradual supply of hydrogen peroxide to maintain its concentration at stoichiometric levels. In this contribution, we report a multienzymatic cascade for in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide. In the first step, in the presence of NAD+ cofactor, formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii (FDH) catalysed the oxidation of formate yielding CO2. Reduced NADH was reoxidised by the reduction of the flavin mononucleotide cofactor bound to an old yellow enzyme homologue from Bacillus subtilis (YqjM), which subsequently reacts with molecular oxygen yielding hydrogen peroxide. Finally, this system was coupled to the hydroxylation of ethylbenzene reaction catalysed by an evolved peroxygenase from Agrocybe aegerita (rAaeUPO). Additionally, we studied the influence of different reaction parameters on the performance of the cascade with the aim of improving the turnover of the hydroxylation reaction.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Explainable extreme gradient boosting tree-based prediction of toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene wet deposition

Authors: Stojić, A; Stanić, N; Vuković, G; Stanišić, S; Perišić, M; Šoštarić, A; Lazić, L (2019) HERO ID: 5068526

[Less] Current research suggests that, apart from photochemical reactions, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene . . . [More] Current research suggests that, apart from photochemical reactions, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (TEX) removal from ambient air might be affected by atmospheric precipitation, depending on the concentrations and water solubility of the compounds, Henry's law, physico-chemical properties of the water, as well as the frequency and intensity of precipitation events. Nevertheless, existing knowledge of the role that wet deposition plays in biogeochemical cycles of volatile species remains insufficient, and this topic requires more scientific effort to be explored and understood. In this study, we employed the eXtreme Gradient Boosting tree ensemble for revealing TEX transfer from ambient air to rainwater, and applied a novel SHapley Additive exPlanations feature attribution framework to examine the relevance of the monitored parameters and identify key factors that govern wet deposition of TEX. According to the results, main impacts, including ambient air TEX concentrations, and rainwater and air temperatures, and occasional, but less important impacts, including wind speed, air pressure, turbidity, and total organic carbon, NO3-, Cl- and K+ rainwater concentration, shaped TEX partition between gaseous and aqueous phases during rain events.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Observations of particulate matter, NO2, SO2, O3, H2S and selected VOCs at a semi-urban environment in the Amazon region

Authors: Paralovo, SL; Barbosa, CGG; Carneiro, IPS; Kurzlop, P; Borillo, GC; Schiochet, MFC; Godoi, AFL; Yamamoto, CI; de Souza, RAF; Andreoli, RV; Ribeiro, IO; Manzi, AO; Kourtchev, I; Bustillos, JOV; Martin, ST; Godoi, RHM (2019) HERO ID: 5068529

[Less] This research aims to assess air quality in a transitional location between city and forest in the Amazon . . . [More] This research aims to assess air quality in a transitional location between city and forest in the Amazon region. Located downwind of the Manaus metropolitan region, this study is part of the large-scale experiment GoAmazon2014/5. Based on their pollutant potential, inhalable particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta-, orto-, para-xylene (BTEX) were selected for analysis. Sampling took place during the wet season (March-April 2014) and dry season (August-October 2014). The number of forest fires in the surroundings was higher during the dry wet season. Results show significant increase during the dry season in mass concentration (wet: <0.01-10 μg m-3; dry: 9.8-69 μg m-3), NH4+ soluble content (wet: 13-125 μg m-3; dry: 86-323 μg m-3) and K+ soluble content (wet: 11-168 μg m-3; dry 60-356 μg m-3) of the PM2.5, and O3 levels (wet: 1.4-14 μg m-3; dry: 1.0-40 μg m-3), indicating influence of biomass burning emissions. BTEX concentrations were low in both periods, but also increased during the dry season. A weak correlation in the time series of the organic and inorganic gaseous pollutants indicates a combination of different sources in both seasons and NO2 results suggest a spatial heterogeneity in gaseous pollutants levels beyond initial expectations.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

VOC characteristics, sources and contributions to SOA formation during haze events in Wuhan, Central China

Authors: Hui, L; Liu, X; Tan, Q; Feng, M; An, J; Qu, Y; Zhang, Y; Cheng, N (2019) HERO ID: 5068530

[Less] Based on detailed data on 102 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured continuously from 2016.10.9 . . . [More] Based on detailed data on 102 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured continuously from 2016.10.9 to 2016.11.17 in Wuhan, the VOC characteristics, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) characteristics, SOA formation potential (SOAP), potential source regions, sources and contributions during different haze episodes were analyzed. The total VOC (TVOC) concentrations on clear days (visibility >10 km), slight haze days (visibility of 5-10 km), and severe haze days (visibility <5 km) were 34.87 ± 14.89 ppbv, 45.06 ± 26.69 ppbv, and 49.55 ± 24.82 ppbv, respectively. The SOAP on haze days (447.04 ± 253.85 ppbv) was significantly higher than that on clear days (300.62 ± 138.48 ppbv), and aromatics were the dominant contributors to SOA formation under different visibility conditions, accounting for approximately 97% of the total SOAP. The ratio of ethylbenzene to m/p-xylene (E/X) indicated that atmospheric photochemical reactions were slightly stronger on haze days. The ratio of toluene to benzene (T/B) indicated that vehicle exhaust had significant effects on VOCs, but no significant changes occurred during different haze episodes. The ratio of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to CO indicated that VOCs from solvent usage in painting/coating and industrial emissions increased with increasing haze pollution. Based on backward trajectories and the potential source contribution function (PSCF), short-distance transport was the main source influencing VOC pollution, especially transport from the southwest. Seven sources were identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF): industrial sources, vehicular exhaust, solvent usage in painting/coating, fuel evaporation, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) usage, biogenic sources and biomass burning. Moreover, solvent usage in painting/coating, vehicle exhaust and LPG usage were the most important sources that significantly aggravated VOC pollution during haze events. The results can provide references for local governments developing control strategies of VOCs during haze pollution events.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lifestyle and occupational factors affecting exposure to BTEX in municipal solid waste composting facility workers

Authors: Rafiee, A; Delgado-Saborit, JM; Sly, PD; Amiri, H; Hoseini, M (2019) Science of the Total Environment 656:540-546. HERO ID: 5068533

[Less] Composting facilities workers are potentially exposed to different volatile organic compounds (VOCs). . . . [More] Composting facilities workers are potentially exposed to different volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study aims to investigate the potential exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) compounds among workers of composting facilities by measuring un-metabolized BTEX in urine and to investigate the effect that several lifestyle factors (i.e. smoking and residential traffic), using personal protective equipment, and religious practices such as Ramadan fasting can have on the urinary BTEX concentrations. We assessed concentrations of BTEX in the urine of a composting facility workers. Samples were collected in May 2018. Overall, 25 workers chosen as the exposed group and 20 inhabitants living close to the composting facility as a control group. The urine samples were collected from studied subjects. Identification and quantification of un-metabolized BTEX was performed using a headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Detailed information of participants was gathered by a comprehensive questionnaire. The geometric mean levels of urinary benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m‑p xylene, and o‑xylene in the exposed subjects were 1.27, 2.12, 0.54, 1.22 and 1.51 μg/L, respectively; 1.4 to 3.7-time higher than values in control group (p < 0.05). Post-shift levels were significantly higher than pre-shift for all chemicals (p < 0.05). Smoking habits, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and Ramadan fasting predicted urinary BTEX levels. Personal protective equipment which included a simple N95 mask did not protected workers from BTEX emissions. Composting facilities represent a significant source BTEX emissions and exposure for staff. More effective protective strategies are required to minimize exposure and related occupational hazards.