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1,4-Dioxane - with inhalation update

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Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lactone metabolite common to the carcinogens dioxane, diethylene glycol, and N-nitrosomorpholine: aqueous chemistry and failure to mediate liver carcinogenesis in the F344 rat

Authors: Koissi, N; Shah, NH; Ginevan, B; Eck, WS; Roebuck, BD; Fishbein, JC (2012) Chemical Research in Toxicology 25:1022-1028. HERO ID: 1876441

[Less] 1,4-Dioxan-2-one, 1, was synthesized, and the equilibrium constant between it and the hydrolysis product . . . [More] 1,4-Dioxan-2-one, 1, was synthesized, and the equilibrium constant between it and the hydrolysis product 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy) acetic acid, 2, was determined as K(O) = 70 ± 4 in acidic aqueous media, 25 °C, ionic strength 1 M (KCl), and 5% by volume acetonitrile. The carboxylic acid dissociation constant of 2 was determined under the same conditions to be pK(a) = 3.31 ± 0.02. On the basis of these two determinations, the equilibrium constant between 1 and carboxylic acid anion, 3, and the proton was calculated to be K(OA) = 0.034 ± 0.002 M. The stability of 1 was determined in the range of pH between 1 and 8.5 in buffered aqueous solutions under the conditions above by UV spectrophotometric methods and exhibited simple first order kinetics of decay. On the basis of buffer dilution plots, the values of k(o), the rate constant for solvent mediated decomposition, were determined. The plot of log k(o) against pH is consistent with a three term rate law for solvolysis with a hydrogen ion catalyzed rate constant k(H+) = 1.1 (±0.1) M(-1) min(-1), a water catalyzed rate constant, k(w) = 9.9 (±0.5) × 10(-4) min(-1), and a hydroxide ion catalyzed rate constant, k(OH) = 4.1 (±0.3) × 10(4) M(-1) min(-1). The t(1/2) for decay at pH 7.0, at 25 °C, is ∼2 h. Treatment of F344 rats with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) (positive control) elicited the expected preneoplastic foci in the livers of each rat tested, while subsequent administration of 1 (a total of 1.32 g over 12 weeks) failed to statistically increase focal number or focal volume percent. In 8 rats administered 1 (1.32 g, 12 weeks) alone, no increase above background foci was detected. This study does not support compound 1 as a common carcinogen.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Fact Sheet: 1,4-dioxane in well water

Author: Connecticut DPH (2012) Hartford, CT: Connecticut Department of Public Health. Environmental & Occupational Health Assessment Program.. [Fact Sheet] HERO ID: 1920785


Archival Material
Archival Material

EWG research shows 22 percent of all cosmetics may be contaminated with cancer-causing impurity

Author: EWG (2012) HERO ID: 1920815


Technical Report
Technical Report

Maximum exposure guidelines (MEGs) for drinking water

Author: Maine CDC (2012) Maine Department of Human Services. HERO ID: 1920864


Technical Report
Technical Report

Standards and guidelines for contaminants in Massachusetts drinking water

Author: Commonwealth of Massachusetts (2012) Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Research and Standards. HERO ID: 1920879


Technical Report
Technical Report

Benchmark dose technical guidance

Author: U.S. EPA (2012) (EPA/100/R-12/001). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Risk Assessment Forum. HERO ID: 1239433


Technical Report
Technical Report

IRIS Progress Report

Author: U.S. EPA (2011) HERO ID: 783309


Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

1,4-dioxane

Author: ACGIH (2011) In 2011 TLVs and BEIs: Based on the documentation of the threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. HERO ID: 1881764


Technical Report
Technical Report

1,4-Dioxane for Drinking Water Systems

Author: CDPH (2011) HERO ID: 1882438


Technical Report
Technical Report

Environmental fact sheet: 1,4-dioxane and drinking water

Author: New Hampshire DES (2011) (WD-DWGB-3-24). [Fact Sheet] HERO ID: 1920927