Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Dioxin (2012 Project Page for Final Report)


2,506 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Decreased cytochrome c oxidase IV expression reduces steroidogenesis

Authors: Pawlak, KJ; Prasad, M; McKenzie, KA; Wiebe, JP; Gairola, CG; Whittal, RM; Bose, HS (2011) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 338:598-604. HERO ID: 784768

[Less] Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein facilitates the translocation of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial . . . [More] Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein facilitates the translocation of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby initiating steroidogenesis. At the inner mitochondrial membrane, cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme converts cholesterol to pregnenolone, an oxidative process requiring electrons from NADPH. Pregnenolone then serves as the substrate for the formation of progesterone or dehydroepiandrosterone by downstream enzymes. Studies have shown that cigarette smoke (CS) influences steroid hormone levels. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, we used a mouse model to study the effects of chronic CS exposure on steroidogenesis. Through radioimmunoassay and metabolic conversion assays, we found that CS reduced progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone without affecting cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme or 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 expression. However, CS did reduce expression of cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV), a component of the mitochondrial complex that serves as the last enzyme in the electron transport chain. Small interfering RNA-mediated COX IV knockdown indeed decreased progesterone synthesis in steroidogenic cells. In summary, COX IV likely plays a role in steroidogenesis, and passive smoking may negatively affect steroidogenesis by disrupting the electron transport chain.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Deletion of P399_E401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency

Authors: Flück, CE; Mallet, D; Hofer, G; Samara-Boustani, D; Leger, J; Polak, M; Morel, Y; Pandey, AV (2011) Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 412:572-577. HERO ID: 784774

[Less] P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes . . . [More] P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399_E401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399_E401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17α-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399_E401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399_E401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399_E401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Deleterious sucking habits and atypical swallowing in children with otitis media with effusion

Authors: Ralli, G; Ruoppolo, G; Mora, R; Guastini, L (2011) International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 75:1260-1264. HERO ID: 784876

[Less] The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between otitis media with effusion, . . . [More] The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between otitis media with effusion, bad sucking habits and atypical swallowing in children affected by otitis media with effusion.

65 children, aged from 7 to 12 years, observed in the ENT Department of the "La Sapienza" University of Rome, were enrolled in the study group (group A). All children were affected by otitis media with effusion for more than 3 months. As control group, 60 healthy children, aged from 7 to 12 years were identified (group B). All the children underwent medical history, with evaluation of the sucking habits, ENT examination, tympanometry, orthodontic examination and evaluation of swallowing. In the orthodontic examination the variables analyzed were: maximum mouth opening, right and left mandibular lateral movements and mandibular protrusion. Atypical swallowing was considered to occur when lip activity produced strong tension in the perioral musculature, and/or the tip of the tongue was placed or pushed against the anterior teeth during swallowing.

In the group A, atypical swallowing was found in 33/65 subjects out of the 65 children (50.7%). In the control group (group B) 16/60 children (26.6%) showed atypical swallowing. Compared with group B, deleterious sucking habits were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the study group (28/65 vs. 12/60). In both the study and control group, deleterious sucking habits were present in almost all children with atypical swallowing (28/33 in group A and 12/16 in group B).

Our data suggest a correlation between otitis media with effusion, deleterious sucking habits and prevalence of atypical swallowing.

Journal Article
Journal Article

The role of rifaximin therapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome without constipation

Authors: Schey, R; Rao, SS (2011) 5:461-464. [Review] HERO ID: 784881

[Less] Alterations in gut flora may play an important role in the pathophysiology of bowel symptoms, especially . . . [More] Alterations in gut flora may play an important role in the pathophysiology of bowel symptoms, especially in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). If so, antibiotics that affect gut flora may offer a novel approach for the management of patients with IBS. Here, we discuss the results of two identically designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (TARGET 1 and TARGET 2) of a poorly absorbed antibiotic, rifaximin, in patients with IBS. In these studies, 1260 patients (females 76.1 and 72.1%, respectively) who had IBS without constipation were randomized to receive either rifaximin 550 mg or placebo, three-times daily for 2 weeks. Subsequently, daily symptoms were assessed and patients were followed up for 10 weeks. The primary outcome measure - adequate relief of global IBS symptoms during the first 4 weeks after treatment - was met in significantly more patients who received rifaximin than placebo (p < 0.001). In addition, more patients in the rifaximin group than in the placebo group (p < 0.001) reported an adequate relief of bloating, and an improvement in abdominal pain and stool consistency - secondary outcome measures. The incidence of adverse events with rifaximin was similar to placebo, and the drug was well tolerated. In summary, a 2-week course of rifaximin provided significant relief of IBS symptoms, as well as bloating and abdominal pain.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Positive association of major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A polymorphism with leukemia susceptibility in the people of Han nationality of Southern China

Authors: Luo, QZ; Lin, L; Gong, Z; Mei, B; Xu, YJ; Huo, Z; Yu, P (2011) Tissue Antigens 78:178-184. HERO ID: 784882

[Less] To assess the potential contribution of major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene . . . [More] To assess the potential contribution of major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) polymorphisms toward the pathogenesis of leukemia, 107 leukemia patients and 162 ethnically matched controls from Hunan province, Southern China, were genotyped for the MICA polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific priming (PCR-SSP) and sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT). The relevance between these genotypes and risk of leukemia was assessed by means of odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Allele frequencies of MICA-sequence and MICA-STR were different in leukemia patients in comparison with normal controls (both P < 0.05). MICA A5 was directly associated with leukemia (OR = 2.3257, Pc < 0.0005), whereas MICA A5.1 and MICA*008 were inversely associated with leukemia (OR = 0.5874, Pc = 0.0235 and OR = 0.5874, Pc = 0.0329, respectively). In addition, we found that homozygotes for MICA A5 (OR = 14.0659, 95% CI: 3.1627-62.5574, Pc < 0.0001) and MICA*010 (OR = 10.1053, 95% CI: 2.2139-46.1260, Pc < 0.0004) were at an increased risk for leukemia, whereas heterozygotes for MICA*008 and MICA A5.1 were linked to a decreased risk for leukemia (OR = 0.4609, 95% CI: 0.2799-0.7590, Pc = 0.0027). MICA allelic variation is associated with leukemia in Hunan Han population; the data also suggest that MICA gene polymorphism affects susceptibility to different clinical subtypes of leukemia.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Immune interactions in endometriosis

Authors: Herington, JL; Bruner-Tran, KL; Lucas, JA; Osteen, KG (2011) Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 7:611-626. HERO ID: 784899

[Less] Endometriosis is a common, complex gynecologic disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial . . . [More] Endometriosis is a common, complex gynecologic disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma at extrauterine (ectopic) sites. In women who develop this disease, alterations in specific biological processes involving both the endocrine and immune systems have been observed, which may explain the survival and growth of displaced endometrial tissue in affected women. In the past decade, a considerable amount of research has implicated a role for alterations in progesterone action at both eutopic and ectopic sites of endometrial growth which may contribute to the excessive inflammation associated with progression of endometriosis; however, it remains unclear whether these anomalies induce the condition or are simply a consequence of the disease process. In this article, we summarize current knowledge of alterations within the immune system of endometriosis patients and discuss how endometrial cells from women with this disease not only have the capacity to escape immunosurveillance, but also use inflammatory mechanisms to promote their growth within the peritoneal cavity. Finally, we discuss evidence that exposure to an environmental endocrine disruptor, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, can mediate the development of an endometrial phenotype that exhibits both reduced progesterone responsiveness and hypersensitivity to proinflammatory stimuli mimicking the endometriosis phenotype. Future studies in women with endometriosis should consider whether a heightened inflammatory response within the peritoneal microenvironment contributes to the development and persistence of this disease.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

CALUX measurements: Statistical inferences for the dose-response curve

Authors: Elskens, M; Baston, DS; Stumpf, C; Haedrich, J; Keupers, I; Croes, K; Denison, MS; Baeyens, W; Goeyens, L (2011) Talanta 85:1966-1973. HERO ID: 784902

[Less] Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression [CALUX] is a reporter gene mammalian cell bioassay used . . . [More] Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression [CALUX] is a reporter gene mammalian cell bioassay used for detection and semi-quantitative analyses of dioxin-like compounds. CALUX dose-response curves for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD] are typically smooth and sigmoidal when the dose is portrayed on a logarithmic scale. Non-linear regression models are used to calibrate the CALUX response versus TCDD standards and to convert the sample response into Bioanalytical EQuivalents (BEQs). Several complications may arise in terms of statistical inference, specifically and most important is the uncertainty assessment of the predicted BEQ. This paper presents the use of linear calibration functions based on Box-Cox transformations to overcome the issue of uncertainty assessment. Main issues being addressed are (i) confidence and prediction intervals for the CALUX response, (ii) confidence and prediction intervals for the predicted BEQ-value, and (iii) detection/estimation capabilities for the sigmoid and linearized models. Statistical comparisons between different calculation methods involving inverse prediction, effective concentration ratios (ECR(20-50-80)) and slope ratio were achieved with example datasets in order to provide guidance for optimizing BEQ determinations and expand assay performance with the recombinant mouse hepatoma CALUX cell line H1L6.1c3.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The possible roles of environmental factors and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the prevalence of thyroid diseases in Vietnam era veterans

Author: Spaulding, SW (2011) Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity 18:315-320. [Review] HERO ID: 784906

[Less] 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) profoundly affects the immune system in experimental animals. . . . [More] 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) profoundly affects the immune system in experimental animals. TCDD was a contaminant in defoliants used in the Vietnam War, and is known to cause prolonged activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in humans. Chronic exposure to TCDD is associated with an increased prevalence of certain chronic diseases, lymphomas and leukemias. The AhR is a transcription factor that responds to cellular metabolites as well as to environmental substances. We review how TCDD and the AhR alter thyroid metabolism directly, and how recent experimental and clinical findings on TCDD and immunity are related to autoimmune thyroid diseases.

TCDD exaggerates the normal responses of the AhR to endogenous activators, affecting dendritic cells, regulatory T cells (Treg), Thelper17 (Th17) and Thelper22 (Th22) cells. A recent study on approximately 225 000 veterans of the Vietnam era found that those who served in Vietnam or were otherwise exposed to defoliants had a 2.5-fold to three-fold higher prevalence of the diagnosis of Graves' disease, compared to Veterans who served elsewhere.

The balance between Treg, Th17 and Th22 cells is disrupted by TCDD, resembling what has been found clinically in Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and in animal models of these diseases. By altering the immune balance in susceptible individuals, chronic TCDD exposure may influence the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

BAFF Promotes Th17 Cells and Aggravates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

Authors: Zhou, X; Xia, Z; Lan, Q; Wang, J; Su, W; Han, YP; Fan, H; Liu, Z; Stohl, W; Zheng, SG (2011) PLoS ONE 6:e23629. HERO ID: 784660

[Less] BAFF, in addition to promoting B cell survival and differentiation, may affect T cells. The objective . . . [More] BAFF, in addition to promoting B cell survival and differentiation, may affect T cells. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of BAFF on Th17 cell generation and its ramifications for the Th17 cell-driven disease, EAE.

Th17 cells were increased in BAFF-Tg B6 (B6.BTg) mice and decreased in B6.Baff(-/-) mice. Th17 cells in B6.Baff(-/-) mice bearing a BAFF Tg (B6.Baff(-/-).BTg mice) were identical to those in B6.BTg mice, indicating that membrane BAFF is dispensable for Th17 cell generation as long as soluble BAFF is plentiful. In T + non-T cell criss-cross co-cultures, Th17 cell generation was greatest in cultures containing B6.BTg T cells and lowest in cultures containing B6.Baff(-/-) T cells, regardless of the source of non-T cells. In cultures containing only T cells, Th17 cell generation followed an identical pattern. CD4(+) cell expression of CD126 (IL-6R α chain) was increased in B6.BTg mice and decreased in B6.Baff(-/-) mice, and activation of STAT3 following stimulation with IL-6 + TGF-β was also greatest in B6.BTg cells and lowest in B6.Baff(-/-) cells. EAE was clinically and pathologically most severe in B6.BTg mice and least severe in B6.Baff(-/-) mice and correlated with MOG(35-55) peptide-induced Th17 cell responses.

Collectively, these findings document a contribution of BAFF to pathogenic Th17 cell responses and suggest that BAFF antagonism may be efficacious in Th17 cell-driven diseases.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Towards a system level understanding of non-model organisms sampled from the environment: a network biology approach

Authors: Williams, TD; Turan, N; Diab, AM; Wu, H; Mackenzie, C; Bartie, KL; Hrydziuszko, O; Lyons, BP; Stentiford, GD; Herbert, JM; Abraham, JK; Katsiadaki, I; Leaver, MJ; Taggart, JB; George, SG; Viant, MR; Chipman, KJ; Falciani, F (2011) P L o S Computational Biology 7:e1002126. HERO ID: 784661

[Less] The acquisition and analysis of datasets including multi-level omics and physiology from non-model species, . . . [More] The acquisition and analysis of datasets including multi-level omics and physiology from non-model species, sampled from field populations, is a formidable challenge, which so far has prevented the application of systems biology approaches. If successful, these could contribute enormously to improving our understanding of how populations of living organisms adapt to environmental stressors relating to, for example, pollution and climate. Here we describe the first application of a network inference approach integrating transcriptional, metabolic and phenotypic information representative of wild populations of the European flounder fish, sampled at seven estuarine locations in northern Europe with different degrees and profiles of chemical contaminants. We identified network modules, whose activity was predictive of environmental exposure and represented a link between molecular and morphometric indices. These sub-networks represented both known and candidate novel adverse outcome pathways representative of several aspects of human liver pathophysiology such as liver hyperplasia, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. At the molecular level these pathways were linked to TNF alpha, TGF beta, PDGF, AGT and VEGF signalling. More generally, this pioneering study has important implications as it can be applied to model molecular mechanisms of compensatory adaptation to a wide range of scenarios in wild populations.