Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


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1,766 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air pollutant exposure field modeling using air quality model-data fusion methods and comparison with satellite AOD-derived fields: application over North Carolina, USA

Authors: Huang, Ran; Zhai, X; Ivey, CE; Friberg, MD; Hu, X; Liu, Y; Di, Q; Schwartz, J; Mulholland, JA; Russell, AG (2018) HERO ID: 4439732

[Less] In order to generate air-pollutant exposure fields for health studies, a data fusion (DF) approach is . . . [More] In order to generate air-pollutant exposure fields for health studies, a data fusion (DF) approach is developed that combines observations from ambient monitors and simulated data from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. These resulting fields capture the spatiotemporal information provided by the air quality model, as well as the finer temporal scale variations from the pollutant observations and decrease model biases. Here, the approach is applied to develop daily concentration fields for PM2.5 total mass, five major particulate species (OC, EC, SO42-, NO3-, and NH4 (+)), and three gaseous pollutants (CO, NOx , and NO2) from 2006 to 2008 over North Carolina (USA). Several data withholding methods are then conducted to evaluate the data fusion method, and the results suggest that typical approaches may overestimate the ability of spatiotemporal estimation methods to capture pollutant concentrations in areas with limited or no monitors. The results show improvements in capturing spatial and temporal variability compared with CMAQ results. Evaluation tests for PM2.5 led to an R-2 of 0.95 (no withholding) and 0.82 when using 10% random data withholding. If spatially based data withholding is used, the R-2 is 0.73. Comparisons of DF-developed PM2.5 total mass concentration with the spatiotemporal fields derived from two other methods (both use satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data) find that, in this case, the data fusion fields have slightly less overall error, with an RMSE of 1.28 compared with 3.06 mu g/m(3) (two-stage statistical model) and 2.74 (neural network-based hybrid model). Applying the Integrated Mobile Source Indicator (IMSI) method shows that the data fusion fields can be used to estimate mobile source impacts. Overall, the growing availability of chemically detailed air quality model fields and the accuracy of the DF field, suggest that this approach is better able to provide spatiotemporal pollutant fields for gaseous and speciated particulate pollutants for health and planning studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Applied concepts in PBPK modeling: How to extend an open systems pharmacology model to the special population of pregnant women

Authors: Dallmann, A; Solodenko, J; Ince, I; Eissing, T (2018) CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology 7:419-431. HERO ID: 4470799

[Less] This tutorial presents the workflow of adapting an adult physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) . . . [More] This tutorial presents the workflow of adapting an adult physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to the pregnant populations using the Open Systems Pharmacology (OSP) software suite (www.open-systems-pharmacology.org). This workflow is illustrated using a previously published PBPK model for metronidazole that is extrapolated to pregnancy by parameterizing and extending the model structure in terms of pregnancy-induced physiological changes. Importantly, this workflow can be applied to other scenarios where PBPK models need to be re-parameterized or structurally modified.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Development of growth equations from longitudinal studies of body weight and height in the full term and preterm neonate: From birth to four years postnatal age

Authors: Troutman, JA; Sullivan, MC; Carr, GJ; Fisher, J (2018) HERO ID: 4471076

[Less] Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are developed from compound-independent information . . . [More] Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are developed from compound-independent information to describe important anatomical and physiological characteristics of an individual or population of interest. Modeling pediatric populations is challenging because of the rapid changes that occur during growth, particularly in the first few weeks and months after birth. Neonates who are born premature pose several unique challenges in PBPK model development. To provide appropriate descriptions for body weight (BW) and height (Ht) for age and appropriate incremental gains in PBPK models of the developing preterm and full term neonate, anthropometric measurements collected longitudinally from 1,063 preterm and 158 full term neonates were combined with 2,872 cross-sectional measurements obtained from the NHANES 2007-2010 survey. Age-specific polynomial growth equations for BW and Ht were created for male and female neonates with corresponding gestational birth ages of 25, 28, 31, 34, and 40 weeks. Model-predicted weights at birth were within 20% of published fetal/neonatal reference standards. In comparison to full term neonates, postnatal gains in BW and Ht were slower in preterm subgroups, particularly in those born at earlier gestational ages. Catch up growth for BW in neonates born at 25, 28, 31, and 34 weeks gestational age was complete by 13, 8, 6, and 2 months of life (males) and by 10, 6, 5, and 2 months of life (females), respectively. The polynomial growth equations reported in this paper represent extrauterine growth in full term and preterm neonates and differ from the intrauterine growth standards that were developed for the healthy unborn fetus.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quantifying population exposure to air pollution using individual mobility patterns inferred from mobile phone data

Authors: Nyhan, MM; Kloog, I; Britter, R; Ratti, C; Koutrakis, P (2018) HERO ID: 4543561

[Less] A critical question in environmental epidemiology is whether air pollution exposures of large populations . . . [More] A critical question in environmental epidemiology is whether air pollution exposures of large populations can be refined using individual mobile-device-based mobility patterns. Cellular network data has become an essential tool for understanding the movements of human populations. As such, through inferring the daily home and work locations of 407,435 mobile phone users whose positions are determined, we assess exposure to PM2.5. Spatiotemporal PM2.5 concentrations are predicted using an Aerosol Optical Depth- and Land Use Regression-combined model. Air pollution exposures of subjects are assigned considering modeled PM2.5 levels at both their home and work locations. These exposures are then compared to residence-only exposure metric, which does not consider daily mobility. In our study, we demonstrate that individual air pollution exposures can be quantified using mobile device data, for populations of unprecedented size. In examining mean annual PM2.5 exposures determined, bias for the residence-based exposures was 0.91, relative to the exposure metric considering the work location. Thus, we find that ignoring daily mobility potentially contributes to misclassification in health effect estimates. Our framework for understanding population exposure to environmental pollution could play a key role in prospective environmental epidemiological studies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Detection of titanium particles in human liver and spleen and possible health implications

Authors: Heringa, MB; Peters, RJB; Bleys, RLAW; van der Lee, MK; Tromp, PC; van Kesteren, PCE; van Eijkeren, JCH; Undas, AK; Oomen, AG; Bouwmeester, H (2018) HERO ID: 4585525

[Less] BACKGROUND: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is produced at high volumes and applied in many . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is produced at high volumes and applied in many consumer and food products. Recent toxicokinetic modelling indicated the potential of TiO2 to accumulate in human liver and spleen upon daily oral exposure, which is not routinely investigated in chronic animal studies. A health risk from nanosized TiO2 particle consumption could not be excluded then.

RESULTS: Here we show the first quantification of both total titanium (Ti) and TiO2 particles in 15 post-mortem human livers and spleens. These low-level analyses were enabled by the use of fully validated (single particle) inductively coupled plasma high resolution mass spectrometry ((sp)ICP-HRMS) detection methods for total Ti and TiO2 particles. The presence of TiO2 in the particles in tissues was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry.

CONCLUSIONS: These results prove that TiO2 particles are present in human liver and spleen, with ≥24% of nanosize (< 100 nm). The levels are below the doses regarded as safe in animals, but half are above the dose that is deemed safe for liver damage in humans when taking into account several commonly applied uncertainty factors. With these new and unique human data, we remain with the conclusion that health risks due to oral exposure to TiO2 cannot be excluded.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

In vivo effects: Methodologies and biokinetics of inhaled nanomaterials

Authors: Oberdörster, G; Kuhlbusch, TAJ (2018) NanoImpact 10:38-60. [Review] HERO ID: 4680992

[Less] Inhalation is the prevailing route of inadvertent exposure for manufactured nanomaterials (MNs). For . . . [More] Inhalation is the prevailing route of inadvertent exposure for manufactured nanomaterials (MNs). For assessing potential adverse effects, indepth knowledge about Exposure-Dose-Response relationships is required to define a risk as a function of hazard and relevant exposure. Intrinsic (physico-chemical) and extrinsic (functional) MN properties determine the biological/toxicological properties (effects) of MNs. Predictive testing strategies are useful for comparative hazard and risk characterization against toxicologically well-defined positive and negative benchmark materials involving studies in rodents, cells, and cell-free (abiotic) assays.

Inhalation studies can be used for hazard identification as well as for hazard and risk characterization of inhaled MNs. A design to provide dose-response data is ideal, but less so if only exposure-response data are available. Information should also be provided for biokinetics and for identifying secondary targets. Bolus-type dosing (intratracheal instillation; oropharyngeal aspiration) can be useful for hazard identification and characterization, but not for risk characterization. Combining results from bolus dosing or in vitro tests with results of a subchronic inhalation study of the same group of MNs can be a suitable predictive bridging approach.

In vitro cellular assays designed to determine in vivo effects and underlying mechanisms present additional challenges. Cellular dose equivalency to in vivo is difficult to achieve because of static, mostly acute in vitro systems with no MN clearance. The dose dependency of mechanisms has to be considered as well. Still, in vitro tests are suitable for toxicity ranking against well-characterized benchmarks (Hazard ID). Regarding abiotic assays, predictive toxicity ranking using the metric of specific MN surface reactivity (ROS assays) is a promising screening tool, but requires further validation and standardization. Dynamic abiotic dissolution assays are also a promising tool for predicting in vivo dissolution rates but require standardization.

Information about MN dissolution using static (equilibrium solubility, μg/L) and dynamic (dissolution rate, ng/cm2/day) abiotic in vitro assays provide different information about the solubilization of MNs reflecting either static in vitro or dynamic in vivo conditions. Results of both assays may be useful for categorization if performed in physiologically relevant fluids. Because the in vivo dissolution rates of MNs can differ widely, it is too simplistic to group MNs just into soluble and poorly soluble materials. Static (equilibrium solubility) and dynamic (dissolution rate) abiotic assays are based on different concepts. Results from dynamic dissolution in relevant physiological fluids - rather than just water - add valuable information about the extrinsic functional characteristics of MNs, which may be considered as a grouping tool into high, moderate, low and insoluble MNs.

Systemic biodistribution of MNs depends on the point-of-entry. For example, MNs deposited by inhalation or instillation in the respiratory tract distribute differently than intravenously administered MNs; thus, biokinetic models based on data from intravenous MN administration should not be used to model biodistribution following inhalation. The significance of biodissolution for biokinetics, effects and underlying mechanisms has to be assessed in separate in vivo studies, involving biopersistence/biodurability and ultra-high resolution imaging for analysing bioprocessing and biotransformations at a sub-cellular level.

With respect to grouping, several strategies are necessary to cover all classes of MNs of different compositions and for different exposure routes, all of which are to be considered in regulatory decision-making. The suggested grouping and extrapolation framework presented in this paper could be pivotal in leveraging subchronic inhalation data with data from alternative test methods, thus leading to more efficient, cost-effective, and – in the long run – animal and cost saving methods to obtain needed input data for regulatory use.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lifetime exposure to ambient air pollution and methylation of tumor suppressor genes in breast tumors

Authors: Callahan, CL; Bonner, MR; Nie, J; Han, D; Wang, Y; Tao, MH; Shields, PG; Marian, C; Eng, KH; Trevisan, M; Beyea, J; Freudenheim, JL (2018) Environmental Research 161:418-424. HERO ID: 4166118

[Less] BACKGROUND: We previously reported increased risk of breast cancer associated with . . . [More] BACKGROUND: We previously reported increased risk of breast cancer associated with early life exposure to two measures of air pollution exposure, total suspended particulates (TSP) and traffic emissions (TE), possible proxies for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure to PAHs has been shown to be associated with aberrant patterns of DNA methylation in peripheral blood of healthy individuals. Exposure to PAHs and methylation in breast tumor tissue has received little attention. We examined the association of early life exposure to TSP and TE with patterns of DNA methylation in breast tumors.

METHODS: We conducted a study of women enrolled in the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) Study. Methylation of nine genes (SFN, SCGB3A1, RARB, GSTP1, CDKN2A CCND2, BRCA1, FHIT, and SYK) was assessed using bisulfite-based pyrosequencing. TSP exposure at each woman's home address at birth, menarche, and when she had her first child was estimated. TE exposure was modeled for each woman's residence at menarche, her first birth, and twenty and ten years prior to diagnosis. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate odds ratios (OR) of having methylation greater than the median value, adjusting for age, secondhand smoke exposure before age 20, current smoking status, and estrogen receptor status.

RESULTS: Exposure to higher TSP at a woman's first birth was associated with lower methylation of SCGB3A1 (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.23-0.99) and higher methylation of SYK (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.03-3.35). TE at menarche was associated with increased methylation of SYK (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.05-5.33). TE at first birth and ten years prior to diagnosis was associated with decreased methylation of CCND2 (OR ten years prior to diagnosis=0.48, 95% CI: 0.26-0.89). Although these associations were nominally significant, none were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: We observed suggestive evidence that exposure to ambient air pollution throughout life, measured as TSP and TE, may be associated with DNA methylation of some tumor suppressor genes in breast tumor tissue. Future studies with a larger sample size that assess methylation of more sites are warranted.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of human lactational transfer of methylmercury in China

Authors: Ou, L; Wang, H; Chen, C; Chen, L; Zhang, W; Wang, X (2018) Environment International 115:180-187. HERO ID: 4471224

[Less] Methylmercury can readily cross the human placental barrier and the blood-brain barrier and cause damage . . . [More] Methylmercury can readily cross the human placental barrier and the blood-brain barrier and cause damage to the vulnerable developing brains of the fetus and infants. Most of the previous studies on the maternal transfer of methylmercury to the next generation have focused on the prenatal period. In this study, human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of methylmercury were established for breastfeeding mothers and suckling infants based on the existing model prototypes of previous studies. Relevant parameters of the models were modified, and the validation was conducted based on measured data in North China. The models could effectively describe the human lactational transfer of methylmercury, including the time-dependent methylmercury levels in different tissues and organs of the breastfeeding mothers and suckling infants. The results indicated that 77.2% and 14.9% of methylmercury were excreted via hair and breast milk, respectively, from breastfeeding mothers during the first year after delivery. Meanwhile, 79.2% was excreted from the suckling infants during the first year after delivery via hair. Lactational transfer of methylmercury was considered an important pathway of methylmercury exposure for the breastfeeding infants, which accounted for approximately 80% of the accumulated adverse impacts at the early stages of human development.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal exposure estimation of BPA and DEHP using integrated external and internal dosimetry: A case study

Authors: Martínez, MA; Rovira, J; Sharma, RP; Nadal, M; Schuhmacher, M; Kumar, V (2017) Environmental Research 158:566-575. HERO ID: 3972271

[Less] Prenatal exposure to Endocrine disruptors (EDs), such as Bisphenol A (BPA) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate . . . [More] Prenatal exposure to Endocrine disruptors (EDs), such as Bisphenol A (BPA) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), has been associated with obesity and diabetes diseases in childhood, as well as reproductive, behavioral and neurodevelopment problems. The aim of this study was to estimate the prenatal exposure to BPA and DEHP through food consumption for pregnant women living in Tarragona County (Spain). Probabilistic calculations of prenatal exposure were estimated by integrated external and internal dosimetry modelling, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, using a Monte-Carlo simulation. Physical characteristic data from the cohort, along with food intake information from the questionnaires (concentrations of BPA and DEHP in different food categories and the range of the different food ratios), were used to estimate the value of the total dietary intake for the Tarragona pregnancy cohort. The major contributors to the total dietary intake of BPA were canned fruits and vegetables, followed by canned meat and meat products. In turn, milk and dairy products, followed by ready to eat food (including canned dinners), were the most important contributors to the total dietary intake of DEHP. Despite the dietary variations among the participants, the intakes of both chemicals were considerably lower than their respective current tolerable daily intake (TDI) values established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Internal dosimetry estimates suggest that the plasma concentrations of free BPA and the most important DEHP metabolite, mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), in pregnant women were characterized by transient peaks (associated with meals) and short half-lives (< 2h). In contrast, fetal exposure was characterized by a low and sustained basal BPA and MEHP concentration due to a lack of metabolic activity in the fetus. Therefore, EDs may have a greater effect on developing organs in young children or in the unborn child.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ambient air pollution and cancer mortality in the Cancer Prevention Study II

Authors: Turner, MC; Krewski, D; Diver, WR; Pope, CA; Burnett, RT; Jerrett, M; Marshall, JD; Gapstur, SM (2017) Environmental Health Perspectives 125:087013. HERO ID: 4165130

[Less] BACKGROUND: The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified both outdoor . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified both outdoor air pollution and airborne particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) for lung cancer. There may be associations with cancer at other sites; however, the epidemiological evidence is limited.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify whether ambient air pollution is associated with specific types of cancer other than lung cancer by examining associations of ambient air pollution with nonlung cancer death in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II).

METHODS: Analysis included 623,048 CPS-II participants who were followed for 22 y (1982-2004). Modeled estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5µm (PM2.5) (1999-2004), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (2006), and ozone (O3) (2002-2004) concentrations were linked to the participant residence at enrollment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate associations per each fifth percentile-mean increment with cancer mortality at 29 anatomic sites, adjusted for individual and ecological covariates.

RESULTS: We observed 43,320 nonlung cancer deaths. PM2.5 was significantly positively associated with death from cancers of the kidney {adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per 4.4 μg/m3=1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.27]} and bladder [HR=1.13 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.23)]. NO2 was positively associated with colorectal cancer mortality [HR per 6.5 ppb=1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.10). The results were similar in two-pollutant models including PM2.5 and NO2 and in three-pollutant models with O3. We observed no statistically significant positive associations with death from other types of cancer based on results from adjusted models.

CONCLUSIONS: The results from this large prospective study suggest that ambient air pollution was not associated with death from most nonlung cancers, but associations with kidney, bladder, and colorectal cancer death warrant further investigation. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1249.