Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Chloroform 2018 Update

Show Project Details Hide Project Details
2,827 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mutation induction and killing of Escherichia coli by DNA adducts and crosslinks: A photobiological study with 8-methoxypsoralen

Authors: Bridges, BA; Mottershead, RP; Knowles, A (1979) Chemico-Biological Interactions 27:221-233. HERO ID: 1069595

[Less] Low doses of 350 nm radiation (NUV) in the presence of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) induce predominantly . . . [More] Low doses of 350 nm radiation (NUV) in the presence of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) induce predominantly mono-adducts in bacterial DNA. Further exposure to NUV in the absence of 8-MOP converts a proportion of these mono-adducts to interstrand cross-links. Using this approach the relative effects of adducts and cross-links on bacteria with different repair capacities was studied. Escherichia coli WP100 uvrA recA, believed to be totally deficient in the ability to repair 8-MOP plus NUV damage to DNA, was inactivated on average by a single photon event occurring with a quantum efficiency of about 0.03. We conclude that the inactivating lesion is probably a single mono-adduct. E. coli WP2 uvrA, deficient in excision endonuclease activity, may be inactivated by a very small number of cross-links, probably one. These conclusions are consistent with present knowledge of the repair capabilities of these bacteria. Conversion of mono-adducts to cross-links in WP2 uvrA (which occurs with a quantum efficiency of around 0.3) greatly increases lethality but results in a reduction of the induced mutation frequency presumably because cross-links are (almost) invariably lethal. In the repair-proficient strain WP2 both adducts and cross-links can be repaired but the latter are more likely than the former to lead to either death or mutation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Safety evaluation of toothpaste containing chloroform: II. Long term studies in rats

Authors: Palmer, AK; Street, AE; Roe, FJC; Worden, AN; Van Abbe, NJ (1979) Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology 2:821-833. HERO ID: 65019

[Less] The results of a preliminary rangefinding 13-wk oral toxicity study and of two longer term studies on . . . [More] The results of a preliminary rangefinding 13-wk oral toxicity study and of two longer term studies on chloroform in toothpaste base are reported. Significant changes in serum enzymes and certain haemotological parameters were seen at the higher dose-levels in the rangefinding study. Intercurrent disease made it necessary to terminate the first long-term experiment prematurely after 1 yr. No evidence of serious toxicity was recorded. In the second long-term experiment, groups of 50 caesarian-derived SPF Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex received either the equivalent of 60 mg CHCl3/kg/d in toothpaste base or the vehicle only, by gavage on 6 d/wk for 80 wk and were then observed for up to a further 15 wk. Chloroform-treated rats of both sexes survived better than the controls, though both groups had a high incidence of non-neoplastic respiratory and renal disease. Female rats gave a consistent finding of decrease in plasma cholinesterase, shown to be related to activity against butyrylcholine but not acetyl-beta-methylcholine. Tumours of various sites were seen in 39 percent of chloroform-treated rats of both sexes examined histologically, compared with 38 percent of vehicle controls. There were no treatment-related effects on the incidence of liver or kidney tumours. Histologically-malignant mammary tumours were reported in more treated than control rats, but the difference in incidence was not statistically significant.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sister chromatid exchanges induced by inhaled anesthetics

Authors: White, AE; Takehisa, S; Eger, EI; Wolff, S; Stevens, WC (1979) Anesthesiology 50:426-430. HERO ID: 10074

[Less] There is sufficient evidence that anesthetics may cause cancer to justify a test of their carcinogenic . . . [More] There is sufficient evidence that anesthetics may cause cancer to justify a test of their carcinogenic potential. Baden, et al., using the Ames test, a rapid and inexpensive genetic indicator of carcinogenicity, have shown that among currently used anesthetics fluroxene alone caused bacterial mutations. The authors used the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) technique, another rapid assay of mutagenic-carcinogenic potential. The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells increases when the cell cultures are exposed to mutagen-carcinogens, particularly in the presence of a metabolic activating system. With this test system a one-hour exposure to 1 MAC nitrous oxide, diethyl ether, trichloroethylene, halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, methoxyflurane, or chloroform did not increase SCE values. Divinyl ether, fluroxene and ethyl vinyl ether increased SCE values in the same circumstances. Results of this study of mammalian cells suggest that no currently used anesthetic is a mutagen-carcinogen. The results also suggest that anesthetics containing a vinyl moiety may be mutagen-carcinogens.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Mutagenic and clastogenic effects of chloroform

Authors: Agustin, JS; Lim-Sylianco, CY (1978) Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 34:168-178. HERO ID: 10053


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inhalation teratology studies of five chemicals in rats

Authors: Dilley, JV; Chernoff, N; Kay, D; Winslow, N; Newell, GW (1977) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 41:196. HERO ID: 10051


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lack of mutagenic effect of halothane or chloroform on cultured cells using the azaguanine test system

Author: Sturrock, J (1977) British Journal of Anaesthesia 49:207-210. HERO ID: 10069

[Less] Halothane with and without nitrous oxide and chloroform alone were tested for mutagenic effects at the . . . [More] Halothane with and without nitrous oxide and chloroform alone were tested for mutagenic effects at the 8-azaguanine locus on the chromosomes of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells in culture. No significant numbers of mutations were found after 24 h exposures to 1-3% of these anaesthetics, or to 75% nitrous oxide.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Metabolic activation of haloalkanes and tests in vitro for mutagenicity

Authors: Uehleke, H; Werner, T; Greim, H; Kramer, M (1977) Xenobiotica 7:393-400. HERO ID: 10071

[Less] 1. During incubation of 14CCl4, 14CHCl3, [14C]halothane, or 14CCl3F with liver microsomes and NADPH, . . . [More] 1. During incubation of 14CCl4, 14CHCl3, [14C]halothane, or 14CCl3F with liver microsomes and NADPH, considerable radioactivity is bound irreversibly to endoplasmic protein and lipid. However, no 14C was detected in the ribosomal RNA. 2. None of the four haloalkanes studied induced mutations after incubation with liver microsomes and the bacterial tester strains S. typhimurium TA 1535 and TA 1538. 3. Very low or no activity was associated with soluble protein or RNA added to incubation mixtures of the four haloalkanes with liver microsomes.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Mutagenic activity of chemicals identified in drinking water

Authors: Simmon, VF; Kauhanen, K; Tardiff, RG (1977) In Scott, D; Bridges, B; Sobel, F (Eds.), Progress in genetic toxicology: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Environmental Mutagens (pp. 249-258). New York, NY: Elsevier/North Holland Press. HERO ID: 29451


Technical Report
Technical Report

Report on the carcinogenesis bioassay of chloroform

Author: NCI (1976) (1-60). Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health. HERO ID: 194616

[Less] UNLABELLED: Chloroform, also known as trichloromethane, is primarily used (93%) in . . . [More] UNLABELLED: Chloroform, also known as trichloromethane, is primarily used (93%) in the manufacture of fluorocarbons for refrigerants, propellants, and plastics. The remainder is used for many purposes including extracting and purifying antibiotics, as an industrial solvent, in preparation of dyes, drugs and pesticides, as a component of some toothpastes, cough medicines, liniments, salves, in photographic processing and in industrial drycleaning. A carcinogenesis bioassay of USP grade chloroform was conducted using Osborne-Mendel rats and B6C3F1 mice. Chloroform was administered orally (by gavage) in corn oil to 50 animals of each sex and at two dose levels five times per week for 78 weeks. Rats were started on test at 52 days of age and sacrificed after 111 weeks. The dose levels for males were 90 and 180 mg/kg body weight. Female rats were started at 125 and 250 mg/kg, reduced to 90 and 180 mg/kg after 22 weeks, with an average level of 100 and 200 mg/kg for the study. A decrease in survival rate and weight gain was evident for all treated groups. The most significant observation (P=.0016) was kidney epithelial tumors in male rats with incidences of: 0% in controls, 8% in the low dose and 24% in the high dose groups. Although an increase in thyroid tumors was also observed in treated female rats, this finding was not considered biologically significant. Mice were started on test at 35 days and sacrificed after 92-93 weeks. Initial dose levels were 100 and 200 mg/kg for males and 200 and 400 mg/kg or female mice. These levels were increased after 18 weeks to 150/300 and 250/500 mg/kg respectively so that the average levels were 138 and 277 mg/kg for males and 238 and 477 mg/kg for female mice. Survival rates and weight gains were comparable for all groups except high dose females which had a decreased survival. Highly significant increases (P<.001) in hepatocellular carcinoma were observed in both sexes of mice with incidences of: 98% and 95% for males and females at the high dose; 36% and 80% for males and females at the low dose as compared with 6% in both matched and colony control males, 0% in matched control females and 1% in colony control females. Nodular hyperplasia of the liver was observed in many low dose male mice that had not developed hepatocellular carcinoma.

SYNONYMS: trichloromethane LEVELS OF EVIDENCE OF CARCINOGENICITY: Male Rats: Positive; Female Rats: Negative; Male Mice: Positive; Female Mice: Positive.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mechanisms of acute hepatic toxicity: chloroform, halothane, and glutathione

Authors: Brown, BR, Jr; Sipes, IG; Sagalyn, AM (1974) 41:554-561. HERO ID: 9964

[Less] The effects of hepatic microsomal enzyme induction with phenobarbital and depletion of hepatic glutathione . . . [More] The effects of hepatic microsomal enzyme induction with phenobarbital and depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH) with diethyl maleate on the acute hepatotoxic responses to chloroform and halothane anesthesia were studied in rats. Phenobarbital pretreatment markedly increased the hepatotoxic response to chloroform anesthesia but had little effect on halothane hepatotoxicity. Hepatic GSH levels were decreased 70-80 per cent by 2 hours of chloroform anesthesia in induced rats hut were unchanged in non-induced rats and in animals anesthetized with halothane. Marked destruction of microsomal electron transfer components was observed in the chlorofonn-anesthetized, induced animals only. Induction caused a large increase in in-vitro covalent binding of CHCl3 metabolites to microsomal protein, which could be prevented by GSH. Diethyl maleate pretreatment lowers GSH content approximately 80 per cent. Chloroform anesthesia produced hepatic necrosis and destruction of microsoma1 enzymes in the absence of induction, but halothane did not. Hepatotoxicity of chloroform appears to he related to two factors: 1) rate of biotransformation; 2) availability of the hepatic antioxidant, GSH. Halothane hepatotoxicity does not proceed by the same sequence of events as does that of chloroform.