Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA NOxSOxPM Ecology (2018)

Show Project Details Hide Project Details
135 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of PnET-BGC to inform the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of acidity in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park: Supplementary materials

Authors: Fakhraei, HK; Driscoll, CT; Kulp, MA; Renfro, JR; Blett, TF; Brewer, PF; Schwartz, JS (2017) Environmental Modelling and Software 95. [Supplemental Data] HERO ID: 4176879

Abstract: Supplementary materials

Journal Article
Journal Article

Critical loads of atmospheric N deposition for phytoplankton nutrient limitation shifts in western U.S. mountain lakes

Authors: Williams, JJ; Lynch, JA; Saros, JE; Labou, SG (2017) Ecosphere 8:e01955. HERO ID: 4034559

[Less] In many oligotrophic mountain lakes, anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has increased . . . [More] In many oligotrophic mountain lakes, anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has increased concentrations of N, a key limiting nutrient, and thereby shifted phytoplankton biomass growth from N limitation to P limitation. In the western United States, the critical load N deposition rate for these shifts has not been quantified. We synthesized existing mountain lake chemistry, nutrient limitation bioassay, and N deposition data to estimate N critical loads for shifts from N to P limitation of phytoplankton biomass growth. Data from bioassays in 47 mountain lakes were used to define biological (RR-N/RR-P = 1) and chemical (NO3, DIN, DIN:TP) thresholds above which biomass P limitation is more likely than N limitation. Logistic regression was used to calculate critical loads as the total N deposition rate with >50% probability of exceeding biological or chemical thresholds, and thus where P limitation is more likely than N limitation. Logistic regression models were developed with N deposition as the only predictor and with both N deposition and watershed characteristics as predictors. Logistic model performance was evaluated by comparing predicted and observed chemical threshold exceedances in 108 mountain lakes. Across models, estimated critical loads ranged from 2.8 to 5.2 kg total N·ha−1·yr−1. The best-performing model was a univariate logistic model predicting NO3 threshold exceedance, with N deposition as the only predictor. This model yielded a critical load of 4.1 kg total N·ha−1·yr−1 and accurately predicted NO3 threshold exceedance in 69% of lakes. We applied this critical load to an independent sample of 385 mountain lakes with NO3 data to estimate the frequency it would fail to predict a limitation shift—cases where the NO3 threshold for biomass shifts was exceeded, but the critical load was not. The false-negative rate was 13% across the western United States, but was higher (22%) in the Sierras. Performance analyses suggest a 2.0 kg total N·ha−1·yr−1 critical load may avoid false negatives entirely. Critical loads presented here can be used to assess N deposition impacts on western U.S. mountain lakes, and associated performance information can be used to consider if presented critical loads are adequate for specific management applications.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Impacts to ecosystem services from aquatic acidification: using FEGS-CS to understand the impacts of air pollution

Authors: O'Dea, CB; Anderson, S; Sullivan, T; Landers, D; Casey, CF (2017) Ecosphere 8. HERO ID: 3872938

[Less] Increases in anthropogenic emissions of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have resulted in increases in the . . . [More] Increases in anthropogenic emissions of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have resulted in increases in the associated atmospheric deposition of acidic compounds. In sensitive watersheds, this deposition has initiated a cascade of negative environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems, resulting in a degradation or loss of valuable ecosystem goods and services. Here, we report the activities of an expert workgroup to synthesize information on acidic deposition-induced aquatic acidification from the published literature and to link critical load exceedances with ecosystem services and beneficiaries, using the Stressor-Ecological Production function-Final Ecosystem Services (STEPS) Framework and the Final Ecosystem Goods and Services Classification System (FEGS-CS). Experts identified and documented the sensitive aquatic ecosystem ecological endpoints valued by humans, and the environmental pathways through which these endpoints may experience degradation in response to acidification. Beneficiary groups were then identified for each sensitive ecological endpoint to clarify relationships between humans and the effects of aquatic acidification, and to lay the foundation for future research and analysis to value these FEGS.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Terrestrial acidification and ecosystem services: effects of acid rain on bunnies, baseball, and Christmas trees

Authors: Irvine, IC; Greaver, T; Phelan, J; Sabo, RD; Van Houtven, G (2017) Ecosphere 8. HERO ID: 3941223

[Less] Often termed "acid rain," combined nitrogen and sulfur deposition can directly and indirectly impact . . . [More] Often termed "acid rain," combined nitrogen and sulfur deposition can directly and indirectly impact the condition and health of forest ecosystems. Researchers use critical loads (CLs) to describe response thresholds, and recent studies on acid-sensitive biological indicators show that forests continue to be at risk from terrestrial acidification. However, rarely are impacts translated into changes in "ecosystem services" that impact human well-being. Further, the relevance of this research to the general public is seldom communicated in terms that can motivate action to protect valuable resources. To understand how changes in biological indicators affect human well-being, we used the STEPS (Stressor-Ecological Production function-final ecosystem Services) Framework to quantitatively and qualitatively link CL exceedances to ecosystem service impacts. We specified the cause-and-effect ecological processes linking changes in biological indicators to final ecosystem services. The Final Ecosystem Goods and Services Classification System (FEGS-CS) was used within the STEPS Framework to classify the ecosystem component and the beneficiary class that uses or values the component. We analyzed two acid-sensitive tree species, balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and white ash (Fraxinus americana), that are common in northeastern USA. These well-known species provide habitat for animals and popular forest products that are relatable to a broad audience. We identified 160 chains with 10 classes of human beneficiaries for balsam fir and white ash combined, concluding that there are resources at risk that the public may value. Two stories resulting from these explorations into the cascading effects of acid rain on terrestrial resources are ideal for effective science communication: the relationship between (1) balsam fir as a popular Christmas tree and habitat for the snowshoe hare, a favorite of wildlife viewers, and (2) white ash because it is used for half of all baseball bats, fine wood products, and musical instruments. Thus, rather than focusing on biological indicators that may only be understood or appreciated by specific stakeholders or experts, this approach extends the analysis to include impacts on FEGS and humans. It also lays the foundation for developing stakeholder-specific narratives, quantitative measures of endpoints, and for conducting demand-based valuations of affected ecosystem services.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Nitrogen-induced terrestrial eutrophication: Cascading effects and impacts on ecosystem services

Authors: Clark, CM; Bell, MD; Boyd, JW; Compton, JE; Davidson, EA; Davis, C; Fenn, ME; Geiser, L; Jones, L; Blett, TF (2017) Ecosphere 8:e01877. HERO ID: 4135271

[Less] Human activity has significantly increased the deposition of nitrogen (N) on terrestrial ecosystems . . . [More] Human activity has significantly increased the deposition of nitrogen (N) on terrestrial ecosystems over pre-industrial levels leading to a multitude of effects including losses of biodiversity, changes in ecosystem functioning, and impacts on human well-being. It is challenging to explicitly link the level of deposition on an ecosystem to the cascade of ecological effects triggered and ecosystem services affected, because of the multitude of possible pathways in the N cascade. To address this challenge, we report on the activities of an expert workshop to synthesize information on N-induced terrestrial eutrophication from the published literature and to link critical load exceedances with human beneficiaries by using the STressor- Ecological Production function final ecosystem Services Framework and the Final Ecosystem Goods and Services Classification System (FEGS-CS). We found 21 N critical loads were triggered by N deposition (ranging from 2 to 39 kg N.ha(-1),yr(-1)), which cascaded to distinct beneficiary types through 582 individual pathways in the five ecoregions examined (Eastern Temperate Forests, Marine West Coast Forests, Northwestern Forested Mountains, North American Deserts, Mediterranean California). These exceedances ultimately affected 66 FEGS across a range of final ecosystem service categories (21 categories, e.g., changes in timber production, fire regimes, and native plant and animal communities) and 198 regional human beneficiaries of different types. Several different biological indicators were triggered in different ecosystems, including grasses and/or forbs (33% of all pathways), mycorrhizal communities (22%), tree species (21%), and lichen biodiversity (11%). Ecoregions with higher deposition rates for longer periods tended to have more numerous and varied ecological impacts (e.g., Eastern Temperate Forests, eight biological indicators) as opposed to other ecoregions (e.g., North American Deserts and Marine West Coast Forests each with one biological indicator). Nonetheless, although ecoregions differed by ecological effects from terrestrial eutrophication, the number of FEGS and beneficiaries impacted was similar across ecoregions. We found that terrestrial eutrophication affected all ecosystems examined, demonstrating the widespread nature of terrestrial eutrophication nationally. These results highlight which people and ecosystems are most affected according to present knowledge, and identify key uncertainties and knowledge gaps to be filled by future research.

Data/Software
Data/ Software

Northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone

Author: U.S. EPA (2017) Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. HERO ID: 4121236


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nitrogen pollution is linked to US listed species declines

Authors: Hernández, DL; Vallano, DM; Zavaleta, ES; Tzankova, Z; Pasari, JR; Weiss, S; Selmants, PC; Morozumi, C (2016) BioScience 66:213-222. HERO ID: 3114292

[Less] Nitrogen (N) pollution is increasingly recognized as a threat to biodiversity. However, our understanding . . . [More] Nitrogen (N) pollution is increasingly recognized as a threat to biodiversity. However, our understanding of how N is affecting vulnerable species across taxa and broad spatial scales is limited. We surveyed approximately 1400 species in the continental United States listed as candidate, threatened, or endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA) to assess the extent of recognized N-pollution effects on biodiversity in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We found 78 federally listed species recognized as affected by N pollution. To illustrate the complexity of tracing N impacts on listed species, we describe an interdisciplinary case study that addressed the threat of N pollution to California Bay Area serpentine grasslands. We demonstrate that N pollution has affected threatened species via multiple pathways and argue that existing legal and policy regulations can be applied to address the biodiversity consequences of N pollution in conjunction with scientific evidence tracing N impact pathways.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Conditional vulnerability of plant diversity to atmospheric nitrogen deposition across the United States

Authors: Simkin, SM; Allen, EB; Bowman, WD; Clark, CM; Belnap, J; Brooks, ML; Cade, BS; Collins, SL; Geiser, LH; Gilliam, FS; Jovan, SE; Pardo, LH; Schulz, BK; Stevens, CJ; Suding, KN; Throop, HL; Waller, DM (2016) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113:4086-4091. HERO ID: 3227299

[Less] Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been shown to decrease plant species richness along regional . . . [More] Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been shown to decrease plant species richness along regional deposition gradients in Europe and in experimental manipulations. However, the general response of species richness to N deposition across different vegetation types, soil conditions, and climates remains largely unknown even though responses may be contingent on these environmental factors. We assessed the effect of N deposition on herbaceous richness for 15,136 forest, woodland, shrubland, and grassland sites across the continental United States, to address how edaphic and climatic conditions altered vulnerability to this stressor. In our dataset, with N deposition ranging from 1 to 19 kg N⋅ha(-1)⋅y(-1), we found a unimodal relationship; richness increased at low deposition levels and decreased above 8.7 and 13.4 kg N⋅ha(-1)⋅y(-1)in open and closed-canopy vegetation, respectively. N deposition exceeded critical loads for loss of plant species richness in 24% of 15,136 sites examined nationwide. There were negative relationships between species richness and N deposition in 36% of 44 community gradients. Vulnerability to N deposition was consistently higher in more acidic soils whereas the moderating roles of temperature and precipitation varied across scales. We demonstrate here that negative relationships between N deposition and species richness are common, albeit not universal, and that fine-scale processes can moderate vegetation responses to N deposition. Our results highlight the importance of contingent factors when estimating ecosystem vulnerability to N deposition and suggest that N deposition is affecting species richness in forested and nonforested systems across much of the continental United States.

Technical Report
Technical Report

National coastal condition assessment 2010

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA 841-R-15-006). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Office of Research and Development. HERO ID: 3209485

[Less] This National Coastal Condition Assessment 2010 (NCCA 2010) is the fifth in a series of reports assessing . . . [More] This National Coastal Condition Assessment 2010 (NCCA 2010) is the fifth in a series of reports assessing the condition of the coastal waters of the United States, including a vast array of beautiful and productive estuarine, Great Lakes, and coastal embayment waters. It is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS), a series of statistically based surveys designed to provide the public and decision makers with nationally consistent and representative information on the condition of all the nation’s waters. The NCCA 2010 answers questions such as: What is the condition of the nation’s coastal waters, and is that condition getting better or worse? What is the extent of the stressors affecting them?

This report is based on an analysis of indicators of ecological condition and key stressors in the coastal waters of the Northeast, Southeast, Gulf of Mexico, West, and Great Lakes regions of the conterminous United States. These waters are enormously varied and valuable, including remarkable resources as diverse as Narragansett Bay; the Chesapeake Bay; the subtropical waters of Biscayne Bay and Tampa Bay; San Francisco Bay and Puget Sound; and the nearshore waters of the Great Lakes—the largest expanse of fresh surface water on earth. In the summer of 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state, tribal, and federal partners sampled 1,104 sites in these waters, representing 35,400 square miles of U.S. coastal waters. They used the same methods at all sites to ensure that results would be nationally comparable. This report examines four indices as indicators of U.S. coastal condition: a benthic index, a water quality index, a sediment quality index, and an ecological fish tissue contaminant index. Figure ES-1 summarizes these findings.

Technical Report
Technical Report

National wetland condition assessment 2011: A collaborative survey of the nation's wetlands

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (1-105). (EPA-843-R-15-005). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. HERO ID: 3230061