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ISA NOxSOxPM Ecology (2018)

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135 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

National coastal condition assessment 2010

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA 841-R-15-006). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Office of Research and Development. HERO ID: 3209485

[Less] This National Coastal Condition Assessment 2010 (NCCA 2010) is the fifth in a series of reports assessing . . . [More] This National Coastal Condition Assessment 2010 (NCCA 2010) is the fifth in a series of reports assessing the condition of the coastal waters of the United States, including a vast array of beautiful and productive estuarine, Great Lakes, and coastal embayment waters. It is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS), a series of statistically based surveys designed to provide the public and decision makers with nationally consistent and representative information on the condition of all the nation’s waters. The NCCA 2010 answers questions such as: What is the condition of the nation’s coastal waters, and is that condition getting better or worse? What is the extent of the stressors affecting them?

This report is based on an analysis of indicators of ecological condition and key stressors in the coastal waters of the Northeast, Southeast, Gulf of Mexico, West, and Great Lakes regions of the conterminous United States. These waters are enormously varied and valuable, including remarkable resources as diverse as Narragansett Bay; the Chesapeake Bay; the subtropical waters of Biscayne Bay and Tampa Bay; San Francisco Bay and Puget Sound; and the nearshore waters of the Great Lakes—the largest expanse of fresh surface water on earth. In the summer of 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state, tribal, and federal partners sampled 1,104 sites in these waters, representing 35,400 square miles of U.S. coastal waters. They used the same methods at all sites to ensure that results would be nationally comparable. This report examines four indices as indicators of U.S. coastal condition: a benthic index, a water quality index, a sediment quality index, and an ecological fish tissue contaminant index. Figure ES-1 summarizes these findings.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessing the effects of climate change and air pollution on soil properties and plant diversity in sugar maple-beech-yellow birch hardwood forests in the northeastern United States: Model simulations from 1900 to 2100

Authors: Phelan, J; Belyazid, S; Jones, P; Cajka, J; Buckley, J; Clark, C (2016) Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 227. HERO ID: 3121763

[Less] Historical deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) over the Eastern United States has impacted ecosystem . . . [More] Historical deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) over the Eastern United States has impacted ecosystem structure and function. The potential for recovery of ecosystems is relatively uncertain, with deposition paired with future climate change contributing to this uncertainty. The impacts of N and S deposition and climate change (from 1900 to 2100) on two sugar maple-beech-yellow birch sites in the Northeastern United States were evaluated using the paired biogeochemical-vegetation response model ForSAFE-Veg at two research sites, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest and Bear Brook Watershed. Deposition was found to be the dominant stressor, causing changes in soil acid-base chemistry, N enrichment, and shifts in understory species composition. Responses of the two sites varied due primarily to differences in buffering capacity and levels of deposition. However, at both sites, recovery of soil and plant community properties to 1900 conditions was approached only when future deposition to 2100 was returned to pre-industrial levels. Policy-based reductions in deposition generally halted further damage to soils and plants and resulted in no or only partial recovery. Increased temperatures and precipitation according to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate futures stimulated soil and plant response, thereby accelerating changes in plant communities and N enrichment and counteracting the acidifying impacts of N and S deposition on soil acid-base chemistry.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Conditional vulnerability of plant diversity to atmospheric nitrogen deposition across the United States

Authors: Simkin, SM; Allen, EB; Bowman, WD; Clark, CM; Belnap, J; Brooks, ML; Cade, BS; Collins, SL; Geiser, LH; Gilliam, FS; Jovan, SE; Pardo, LH; Schulz, BK; Stevens, CJ; Suding, KN; Throop, HL; Waller, DM (2016) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113:4086-4091. HERO ID: 3227299

[Less] Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been shown to decrease plant species richness along regional . . . [More] Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been shown to decrease plant species richness along regional deposition gradients in Europe and in experimental manipulations. However, the general response of species richness to N deposition across different vegetation types, soil conditions, and climates remains largely unknown even though responses may be contingent on these environmental factors. We assessed the effect of N deposition on herbaceous richness for 15,136 forest, woodland, shrubland, and grassland sites across the continental United States, to address how edaphic and climatic conditions altered vulnerability to this stressor. In our dataset, with N deposition ranging from 1 to 19 kg N⋅ha(-1)⋅y(-1), we found a unimodal relationship; richness increased at low deposition levels and decreased above 8.7 and 13.4 kg N⋅ha(-1)⋅y(-1)in open and closed-canopy vegetation, respectively. N deposition exceeded critical loads for loss of plant species richness in 24% of 15,136 sites examined nationwide. There were negative relationships between species richness and N deposition in 36% of 44 community gradients. Vulnerability to N deposition was consistently higher in more acidic soils whereas the moderating roles of temperature and precipitation varied across scales. We demonstrate here that negative relationships between N deposition and species richness are common, albeit not universal, and that fine-scale processes can moderate vegetation responses to N deposition. Our results highlight the importance of contingent factors when estimating ecosystem vulnerability to N deposition and suggest that N deposition is affecting species richness in forested and nonforested systems across much of the continental United States.

Technical Report
Technical Report

National rivers and streams assessment 2008-2009: A collaborative survey

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA/841/R-16/007). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Office of Research and Development. HERO ID: 3229866


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Critical loads and exceedances for nitrogen and sulfur atmospheric deposition in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, United States

Authors: Fakhraei, H; Driscoll, CT; Renfro, JR; Kulp, MA; Blett, TF; Brewer, PF; Schwartz, JS (2016) Ecosphere 7:1-28. HERO ID: 3444905

[Less] Acid deposition has impacted sensitive streams, reducing the amount of habitat available for fish survival . . . [More] Acid deposition has impacted sensitive streams, reducing the amount of habitat available for fish survival in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) and portions of the surrounding Southern Appalachian Mountains by decreasing pH and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and mobilizing aluminum dissolved from soil. Land managers need to understand whether streams can recover from the elevated acid deposition and sustain the healthy aquatic biota, and if so, how long it would take to achieve this condition. We used a dynamic biogeochemical model, PnET-BGC, to evaluate past, current, and potential future changes in soil and water chemistry of watersheds of the GRSM in response to the projected changes in acid deposition. The model was parameterized with soil, vegetation, and stream observations for 30 stream watersheds in the GRSM. Using model results, the level of atmospheric deposition (known as a “critical load”) above which harmful ecosystem effects (defined here as modeled stream ANC below a defined target) occur was determined for the 30 study watersheds. In spite of the recent marked decreases in atmospheric sulfur and nitrate deposition, our results suggest that stream recovery has been limited and delayed due to the high sulfate adsorption capacity of soils in the park resulting in a long lag time for recovery of soil chemistry to occur. Model simulations suggest that over the long term, increases in modeled stream ANC per unit decrease in NH4+ deposition are greater than unit decreases in SO42− or NO3− deposition, due to high SO42− adsorption capacity and the limited N retention of the watersheds. Watershed simulations were used to extrapolate the critical load results to 387 monitored stream sites throughout the park and depict the spatial pattern of atmospheric deposition exceedances. These types of model simulations inform park managers on the amount of air quality improvement needed to meet the stream restoration goals.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Key ecological responses to nitrogen are altered by climate change

Authors: Greaver, TL; Clark, CM; Compton, JE; Vallano, D; Talhelm, AF; Weaver, CP; Band, LE; Baron, JS; Davidson, EA; Tague, CL; Felker-Quinn, E; Lynch, JA; Herrick, JD; Liu, L; Goodale, CL; Novak, KJ; Haeuber, RA (2016) HERO ID: 3445935

[Less] Climate change and anthropogenic nitrogen deposition are both important ecological threats. Evaluating . . . [More] Climate change and anthropogenic nitrogen deposition are both important ecological threats. Evaluating their cumulative effects provides a more holistic view of ecosystem vulnerability to human activities, which would better inform policy decisions aimed to protect the sustainability of ecosystems. Our knowledge of the cumulative effects of these stressors is growing, but we lack an integrated understanding. In this Review, we describe how climate change alters key processes in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems related to nitrogen cycling and availability, and the response of ecosystems to nitrogen addition in terms of carbon cycling, acidification and biodiversity.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Integrated science assessment for oxides of nitrogen-Health Criteria (final report)

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA/600/R-15/068). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3077038

[Less] The Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria document represents . . . [More] The Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific basis for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standard for NO2 sufficiently protects public health.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Integrated review plan for the national ambient air quality standards for particulate matter

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA-452/R-16-005). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3838532

[Less] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting a review of the existing air quality criteria . . . [More] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting a review of the existing air quality criteria for particulate matter (PM) and of the primary (health-based) and secondary (welfare-based) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for PM. This review will provide an integrative assessment of relevant scientific information on PM and will focus on the basic elements of the PM NAAQS: the indicator, averaging time, form, and level. These elements, which together serve to define each NAAQS, are considered collectively in evaluating the protection to public health and public welfare afforded by the standards. The purpose of this Integrated Review Plan (IRP) is to communicate the plan for reviewing the air quality criteria and the primary and secondary NAAQS for PM.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Use of Combined Biogeochemical Model Approaches and Empirical Data to Assess Critical Loads of Nitrogen

Authors: Fenn, ME; Driscoll, CT; Zhou, Q; Rao, LE; Meixner, T; Allen, EB; Yuan, F; Sullivan, TJ (2015) HERO ID: 3253440


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Frontiers in research on biodiversity and disease

Authors: Johnson, PT; Ostfeld, RS; Keesing, F (2015) HERO ID: 3452602

[Less] Global losses of biodiversity have galvanised efforts to understand how changes to communities affect . . . [More] Global losses of biodiversity have galvanised efforts to understand how changes to communities affect ecological processes, including transmission of infectious pathogens. Here, we review recent research on diversity-disease relationships and identify future priorities. Growing evidence from experimental, observational and modelling studies indicates that biodiversity changes alter infection for a range of pathogens and through diverse mechanisms. Drawing upon lessons from the community ecology of free-living organisms, we illustrate how recent advances from biodiversity research generally can provide necessary theoretical foundations, inform experimental designs, and guide future research at the interface between infectious disease risk and changing ecological communities. Dilution effects are expected when ecological communities are nested and interactions between the pathogen and the most competent host group(s) persist or increase as biodiversity declines. To move beyond polarising debates about the generality of diversity effects and develop a predictive framework, we emphasise the need to identify how the effects of diversity vary with temporal and spatial scale, to explore how realistic patterns of community assembly affect transmission, and to use experimental studies to consider mechanisms beyond simple changes in host richness, including shifts in trophic structure, functional diversity and symbiont composition.