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ISA NOxSOxPM Ecology (2018)

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135 References Were Found:

Technical Report
Technical Report

Integrated science assessment for oxides of nitrogen-health criteria (final report)

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA/600/R-15/068). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3077038

[Less] The Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria document represents . . . [More] The Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific basis for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standard for NO2 sufficiently protects public health.

Technical Report
Technical Report

National lakes assessment 2012: A collaborative survey of lakes in the United States

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA 841-R-16-113). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3980934

[Less] Lakes and reservoirs provide many environmental, economic, and public health benefits. We use lakes . . . [More] Lakes and reservoirs provide many environmental, economic, and public health benefits. We use lakes for drinking water, energy production, food, and recreation, while fish, birds, and other wildlife rely on them for habitat and survival. In the National Lakes Assessment (NLA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its partners surveyed a wide array of lakes representative of those found in the U.S., from small ponds and prairie potholes to large lakes and reservoirs.

The National Lakes Assessment 2012: A Collaborative Survey of the Lakes in the United States presents the results of a second evaluation of the biological, chemical, physical, and recreational condition of lakes in the United States, the first having been conducted in 2007. During spring and summer of 2012, 89 field crews sampled 1,038 lakes across the country. Each field crew used consistent procedures to sample benthic macroinvertebrates (e.g., insect larvae, snails, and clams), zooplankton (small animals in the water column), algal toxins, atrazine, and nutrients and to observe near-shore habitat so that results could be compared across the country. These measured values were compared to NLA benchmarks, which are points of reference used to determine the proportion of lakes that are relatively high quality (least disturbed), medium quality (moderately disturbed), and degraded (most disturbed) in condition.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Critical loads and exceedances for nitrogen and sulfur atmospheric deposition in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, United States

Authors: Fakhraei, H; Driscoll, CT; Renfro, JR; Kulp, MA; Blett, TF; Brewer, PF; Schwartz, JS (2016) Ecosphere 7:1-28. HERO ID: 3444905

[Less] Acid deposition has impacted sensitive streams, reducing the amount of habitat available for fish survival . . . [More] Acid deposition has impacted sensitive streams, reducing the amount of habitat available for fish survival in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) and portions of the surrounding Southern Appalachian Mountains by decreasing pH and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and mobilizing aluminum dissolved from soil. Land managers need to understand whether streams can recover from the elevated acid deposition and sustain the healthy aquatic biota, and if so, how long it would take to achieve this condition. We used a dynamic biogeochemical model, PnET-BGC, to evaluate past, current, and potential future changes in soil and water chemistry of watersheds of the GRSM in response to the projected changes in acid deposition. The model was parameterized with soil, vegetation, and stream observations for 30 stream watersheds in the GRSM. Using model results, the level of atmospheric deposition (known as a “critical load”) above which harmful ecosystem effects (defined here as modeled stream ANC below a defined target) occur was determined for the 30 study watersheds. In spite of the recent marked decreases in atmospheric sulfur and nitrate deposition, our results suggest that stream recovery has been limited and delayed due to the high sulfate adsorption capacity of soils in the park resulting in a long lag time for recovery of soil chemistry to occur. Model simulations suggest that over the long term, increases in modeled stream ANC per unit decrease in NH4+ deposition are greater than unit decreases in SO42− or NO3− deposition, due to high SO42− adsorption capacity and the limited N retention of the watersheds. Watershed simulations were used to extrapolate the critical load results to 387 monitored stream sites throughout the park and depict the spatial pattern of atmospheric deposition exceedances. These types of model simulations inform park managers on the amount of air quality improvement needed to meet the stream restoration goals.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Key ecological responses to nitrogen are altered by climate change

Authors: Greaver, TL; Clark, CM; Compton, JE; Vallano, D; Talhelm, AF; Weaver, CP; Band, LE; Baron, JS; Davidson, EA; Tague, CL; Felker-Quinn, E; Lynch, JA; Herrick, JD; Liu, L; Goodale, CL; Novak, KJ; Haeuber, RA (2016) HERO ID: 3445935

[Less] Climate change and anthropogenic nitrogen deposition are both important ecological threats. Evaluating . . . [More] Climate change and anthropogenic nitrogen deposition are both important ecological threats. Evaluating their cumulative effects provides a more holistic view of ecosystem vulnerability to human activities, which would better inform policy decisions aimed to protect the sustainability of ecosystems. Our knowledge of the cumulative effects of these stressors is growing, but we lack an integrated understanding. In this Review, we describe how climate change alters key processes in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems related to nitrogen cycling and availability, and the response of ecosystems to nitrogen addition in terms of carbon cycling, acidification and biodiversity.

Technical Report
Technical Report

National rivers and streams assessment 2008-2009: A collaborative survey

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA/841/R-16/007). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Office of Research and Development. HERO ID: 3229866


Technical Report
Technical Report

National wetland condition assessment 2011: A collaborative survey of the nation's wetlands

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (1-105). (EPA-843-R-15-005). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. HERO ID: 3230061


Technical Report
Technical Report

Integrated review plan for the national ambient air quality standards for particulate matter

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA-452/R-16-005). Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [EPA Report] HERO ID: 3838532

[Less] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting a review of the existing air quality criteria . . . [More] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting a review of the existing air quality criteria for particulate matter (PM) and of the primary (health-based) and secondary (welfare-based) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for PM. This review will provide an integrative assessment of relevant scientific information on PM and will focus on the basic elements of the PM NAAQS: the indicator, averaging time, form, and level. These elements, which together serve to define each NAAQS, are considered collectively in evaluating the protection to public health and public welfare afforded by the standards. The purpose of this Integrated Review Plan (IRP) is to communicate the plan for reviewing the air quality criteria and the primary and secondary NAAQS for PM.

Technical Report
Technical Report

National coastal condition assessment 2010

Author: U.S. EPA (2016) (EPA 841-R-15-006). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Office of Research and Development. HERO ID: 3209485

[Less] This National Coastal Condition Assessment 2010 (NCCA 2010) is the fifth in a series of reports assessing . . . [More] This National Coastal Condition Assessment 2010 (NCCA 2010) is the fifth in a series of reports assessing the condition of the coastal waters of the United States, including a vast array of beautiful and productive estuarine, Great Lakes, and coastal embayment waters. It is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS), a series of statistically based surveys designed to provide the public and decision makers with nationally consistent and representative information on the condition of all the nation’s waters. The NCCA 2010 answers questions such as: What is the condition of the nation’s coastal waters, and is that condition getting better or worse? What is the extent of the stressors affecting them?

This report is based on an analysis of indicators of ecological condition and key stressors in the coastal waters of the Northeast, Southeast, Gulf of Mexico, West, and Great Lakes regions of the conterminous United States. These waters are enormously varied and valuable, including remarkable resources as diverse as Narragansett Bay; the Chesapeake Bay; the subtropical waters of Biscayne Bay and Tampa Bay; San Francisco Bay and Puget Sound; and the nearshore waters of the Great Lakes—the largest expanse of fresh surface water on earth. In the summer of 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state, tribal, and federal partners sampled 1,104 sites in these waters, representing 35,400 square miles of U.S. coastal waters. They used the same methods at all sites to ensure that results would be nationally comparable. This report examines four indices as indicators of U.S. coastal condition: a benthic index, a water quality index, a sediment quality index, and an ecological fish tissue contaminant index. Figure ES-1 summarizes these findings.

Book/Book Chapter
Book/ Chapter

Dynamic geochemical models to assess deposition impacts and target loads of acidity for soils and surface waters

Authors: Bonten, LTC; Reinds, GJ; Groenenberg, JE; de Vries, W; Posch, M; Evans, CD; Belyazid, S; Braun, S; Moldan, F; Sverdrup, HU; Kurz, D (2015) In de Vries, W; Hettelingh, JP; Posch, M (Eds.), Critical loads and dynamic risk assessments: Part III (pp. 225-251). Bilthoven, The Netherlands: Springer Netherlands. HERO ID: 3287736

[Less] This chapter presents four geochemical dynamic models (VSD, MAGIC, ForSAFE and SMARTml) that have been . . . [More] This chapter presents four geochemical dynamic models (VSD, MAGIC, ForSAFE and SMARTml) that have been used to assess impacts of nitrogen and acidity inputs on soil and soil solution chemistry. These models differ in their complexity and description of some processes. Some models can be used to calculate effects on surface waters as well. For all models this chapter shows examples of site-scale applications at intensively monitored forested plots in the UK, Germany, Switzerland and Norway, illustrating the adequacy of the model behaviour. Impacts of legislated emission reductions and forest harvest scenarios on soil solution chemistry are illustrated with a MAGIC model application. Besides scenario analyses, dynamic models can also be used to determine target loads, i.e. the deposition to reach a prescribed condition within a given time frame. This chapter introduces the target load concept and presents target load calculations with the MAGIC and the VSD model.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Epiphytic macrolichen indication of air quality and climate in interior forested mountains of the Pacific Northwest, USA

Authors: Root, HT; Geiser, LH; Jovan, S; Neitlich, P (2015) HERO ID: 2959984

[Less] Biomonitoring can provide cost-effective and practical information about the distribution of nitrogen . . . [More] Biomonitoring can provide cost-effective and practical information about the distribution of nitrogen (N) deposition, particularly in regions with complex topography and sparse instrumented monitoring sites. Because of their unique biology, lichens are very sensitive bioindicators of air quality. Lichens lack a cuticle to control absorption or leaching of nutrients and they dynamically concentrate nutrients roughly in proportion to the abundance in the atmosphere. As N deposition increases, nitrogen-loving eutrophic lichens become dominant over oligotrophic lichens that thrive in nutrient-poor habitats. We capitalize on these characteristics to develop two lichen-based indicators of air-borne and depositional N for interior forested mountain ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest and calibrate them with N concentration measured in PM2.5 at 12 IMPROVE air quality monitoring sites in the study area. The two lichen indices and peak frequencies of individual species exhibited continuous relationships with inorganic N pollution throughout the range of N in ambient PM2.5, suggesting that the designation of a critical level or critical load is somewhat arbitrary because at any level above background, some species are likely to experience adverse impacts. The concentration of N in PM2.5 near the city of Spokane, Washington was the lowest measured at an instrumented monitoring site near known N pollution sources. This level, 0.37 μg/m3/year, served as a critical level, corresponding to a concentration of 1.02% N in the lichen Letharia vulpina, which is similar to the upper end of background lichen N concentrations measured elsewhere in the western United States. Based on this level, we estimate critical loads to be 1.54 and 2.51 kg/ha/year of through-fall dissolved inorganic N deposition for lichen communities and lichen N concentration, respectively. We map estimated fine-particulate (PM2.5) N in ambient air based on lichen community and lichen N concentration indices to identify hotspots in the region. We also develop and map an independent lichen community-based bioclimatic index, which is strongly related to gradients in moisture availability and temperature variability. Lichen communities in the driest climates were more eutrophic than those in wetter climates at the same levels of N air pollution.