Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA NOxSOxPM Ecology (2018)

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290 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Risks of ocean acidification in the California Current food web and fisheries: ecosystem model projections

Authors: Marshall, KN; Kaplan, IC; Hodgson, EE; Hermann, A; Busch, DS; Mcelhany, P; Essington, TE; Harvey, CJ; Fulton, EA (2017) Global Change Biology 23:1525-1539. HERO ID: 3941462

[Less] The benefits and ecosystem services that humans derive from the oceans are threatened by numerous global . . . [More] The benefits and ecosystem services that humans derive from the oceans are threatened by numerous global change stressors, one of which is ocean acidification. Here, we describe the effects of ocean acidification on an upwelling system that already experiences inherently low pH conditions, the California Current. We used an end-to-end ecosystem model (Atlantis), forced by downscaled global climate models and informed by a meta-analysis of the pH sensitivities of local taxa, to investigate the direct and indirect effects of future pH on biomass and fisheries revenues. Our model projects a 0.2-unit drop in pH during the summer upwelling season from 2013 to 2063, which results in wide-ranging magnitudes of effects across guilds and functional groups. The most dramatic direct effects of future pH may be expected on epibenthic invertebrates (crabs, shrimps, benthic grazers, benthic detritivores, bivalves), and strong indirect effects expected on some demersal fish, sharks, and epibenthic invertebrates (Dungeness crab) because they consume species known to be sensitive to changing pH. The model's pelagic community, including marine mammals and seabirds, was much less influenced by future pH. Some functional groups were less affected to changing pH in the model than might be expected from experimental studies in the empirical literature due to high population productivity (e.g., copepods, pteropods). Model results suggest strong effects of reduced pH on nearshore state-managed invertebrate fisheries, but modest effects on the groundfish fishery because individual groundfish species exhibited diverse responses to changing pH. Our results provide a set of projections that generally support and build upon previous findings and set the stage for hypotheses to guide future modeling and experimental analysis on the effects of OA on marine ecosystems and fisheries.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Eutrophication and warming-driven green tides (Ulva rigida) are predicted to increase under future climate change scenarios

Authors: Gao, G; Clare, AS; Rose, C; Caldwell, GS (2017) Marine Pollution Bulletin 114:439-447. HERO ID: 3941463

[Less] The incidence and severity of extraordinary macroalgae blooms (green tides) are increasing. Here, climate . . . [More] The incidence and severity of extraordinary macroalgae blooms (green tides) are increasing. Here, climate change (ocean warming and acidification) impacts on life history and biochemical responses of a causative green tide species, Ulva rigida, were investigated under combinations of pH (7.95, 7.55, corresponding to lower and higher pCO2), temperature (14, 18°C) and nitrate availability (6 and 150μmolL(-1)). The higher temperature accelerated the onset and magnitude of gamete settlement. Any two factor combination promoted germination and accelerated growth in young plants. The higher temperature increased reproduction, which increased further in combination with elevated pCO2 or nitrate. Reproductive success was highest (64.4±5.1%) when the upper limits of all three variables were combined. Biochemically, more protein and lipid but less carbohydrate were synthesized under higher temperature and nitrate conditions. These results suggest that climate change may cause more severe green tides, particularly when eutrophication cannot be effectively controlled.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Sex in murky waters: algal-induced turbidity increases sexual selection in pipefish

Authors: Sundin, J; Aronsen, T; Rosenqvist, G; Berglund, A (2017) Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 71:78. HERO ID: 3942469

[Less] ABSTRACT: Algal-induced turbidity has been shown to alter several important aspects . . . [More] ABSTRACT: Algal-induced turbidity has been shown to alter several important aspects of reproduction and sexual selection. However, while turbidity has been shown to negatively affect reproduction and sexually selected traits in some species, it may instead enhance reproductive success in others, implying that the impact of eutrophication is far more complex than originally believed. In this study, we aimed to provide more insight into these inconsistent findings. We used molecular tools to investigate the impact of algal turbidity on reproductive success and sexual selection on males in controlled laboratory experiments, allowing mate choice, mating competition, and mate encounter rates to affect reproduction. As study species, we used the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, a species practicing male pregnancy and where we have previously shown that male mate choice is impaired by turbidity. Here, turbidity instead enhanced sexual selection on male size and mating success as well as reproductive success. Effects from mating competition and mate encounter rates may thus override effects from mate choice based on visual cues, producing an overall stronger sexual selection in turbid waters. Hence, seemingly inconsistent effects of turbidity on sexual selection may depend on which mechanisms of sexual selection that have been under study.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Algal blooms are becoming increasingly more common due to eutrophication of freshwater and marine environments. The high density of algae lowers water transparency and reduces the possibility for fish and other aquatic animals to perform behaviors dependent on vision. We have previously shown that pipefish are unable to select the best partner in mate choice trials when water transparency was reduced. However, fish might use other senses than vision to compensate for the reduction in water transparency. In this study, we found that when fish were allowed to freely interact, thereby allowing competition between partners and direct contact between the fish, the best partner was indeed chosen. Hence, the negative effects of reduced water visibility due to algal blooms may be counteracted by the use of other senses in fish.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Eutrophication-induced acidification of coastal waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Insights into origin and processes from a coupled physical-biogeochemical model

Authors: Laurent, A; Fennel, K; Cai, WeiJun; Huang, WeiJen; Barbero, L; Wanninkhof, Rik (2017) Geophysical Research Letters 44:946-956. HERO ID: 3942476

[Less] Nutrient inputs from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River system into the northern Gulf of Mexico promote . . . [More] Nutrient inputs from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River system into the northern Gulf of Mexico promote high phytoplankton production and lead to high respiration rates. Respiration coupled with water column stratification results in seasonal summer hypoxia in bottom waters on the shelf. In addition to consuming oxygen, respiration produces carbon dioxide (CO2), thus lowering the pH and acidifying bottom waters. Here we present a high-resolution biogeochemical model simulating this eutrophication-driven acidification and investigate the dominant underlying processes. The model shows the recurring development of an extended area of acidified bottom waters in summer on the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf that coincides with hypoxic waters. Not reported before, acidified waters are confined to a thin bottom boundary layer where the production of CO2 by benthic metabolic processes is dominant. Despite a reduced saturation state, acidified waters remain supersaturated with respect to aragonite.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Fisheries, low oxygen and climate change: how much do we really know?

Authors: Townhill, BL; Pinnegar, JK; Righton, DA; Metcalfe, JD (2017) HERO ID: 3942501

[Less] As a result of long-term climate change, regions of the ocean with low oxygen concentrations are predicted . . . [More] As a result of long-term climate change, regions of the ocean with low oxygen concentrations are predicted to occur more frequently and persist for longer periods of time in the future. When low levels of oxygen are present, this places additional pressure on marine organisms to meet their metabolic requirements, with implications for growth, feeding and reproduction. Extensive research has been carried out on the effects of acute hypoxia, but far less on long-term chronic effects of low oxygen zones, especially with regard to commercially important fishes and shellfishes. To provide further understanding on how commercial species could be affected, the results of relevant experiments must support population and ecosystem models. This is not easy because individual effects are wide-ranging; for example, studies to date have shown that low oxygen zones can affect predator-prey relationships as some species are able to tolerate low oxygen more than others. Some fishes may move away from areas until oxygen levels return to acceptable levels, while others take advantage of a reduced start response in prey fishes and remain in the area to feed. Sessile or less mobile species such as shellfishes are unable to move out of depleted oxygen zones. Some species can tolerate low oxygen levels for only short periods of time, while others are able to acclimatize. To advance the knowledge-base further, a number of promising technological and modelling-based developments and the role of physiological data within these, are proposed. These include advances in remote telemetry (tagging) and sensor technologies, trait-based analyses to provide insight into how whole assemblages might respond in the future, research into long-term adaptability of species, population and ecosystem modelling techniques and quantification of economic effects. In addition, more detailed oxygen monitoring and projections are required to better understand the likely temporal and local-scale changes in oxygen.

Data/Software
Data/ Software

Northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone

Author: U.S. EPA (2017) Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. HERO ID: 4121236


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Seagrass wasting disease: Nitrate enrichment and exposure to a herbicide (Diuron) increases susceptibility of Zostera marina to infection

Authors: Hughes, RG; Potouroglou, M; Ziauddin, Z; Nicholls, JC (2017) Marine Pollution Bulletin. HERO ID: 4122207

[Less] Seagrass meadows suffered large-scale declines in the past century. The 'wasting disease', pathognomonically . . . [More] Seagrass meadows suffered large-scale declines in the past century. The 'wasting disease', pathognomonically associated with Labyrinthula zosterae, reduced populations of Zostera marina on both sides of the North Atlantic in, and since, the 1930s, coinciding with intensive agricultural use of artificial fertilizers and herbicides. This study tests the long-standing hypothesis that nutrient enrichment and a herbicide increases vulnerability to pathogens. Z. marina shoots from the Thames Estuary grown in elevated nitrate concentrations had significantly higher rates of infection by L. zosterae than controls, but not by Aplanochytrium sp., another slime-mould like protist. Z. marina shoots grown in 2μg·l(-1) Diuron solutions and infected separately by L. zosterae and Aplanochytrium sp. had significantly higher wasting indices than controls. The results identified Aplanochytrium sp. as another opportunistic pathogen causing a seagrass wasting-type disease and support the hypothesis that pollution by herbicides and nitrate increases the susceptibility of Z. marina to infections.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development of an epiphyte indicator of nutrient enrichment: A critical evaluation of observational and experimental studies

Author: Nelson, WG (2017) HERO ID: 4127888

[Less] An extensive review of the literature describing epiphytes on submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), especially . . . [More] An extensive review of the literature describing epiphytes on submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), especially seagrasses, was conducted in order to evaluate the evidence for response of epiphyte metrics to increased nutrients. Evidence from field observational studies, together with laboratory and field mesocosm experiments, was assembled from the literature and evaluated for a hypothesized positive response to nutrient addition. There was general consistency in the results to confirm that elevated nutrients tended to increase the load of epiphytes on the surface of SAV, in the absence of other limiting factors. In spite of multiple sources of uncontrolled variation, positive relationships of epiphyte load to nutrient concentration or load (either nitrogen or phosphorus) often were observed along strong anthropogenic or natural nutrient gradients in coastal regions. Such response patterns may only be evident for parts of the year. Results from both mesocosm and field experiments also generally support the increase of epiphytes with increased nutrients, although outcomes from field experiments tended to be more variable. Relatively few studies with nutrient addition in mesocosms have been done with tropical or subtropical species, and more such controlled experiments would be helpful. Experimental duration influenced results, with more positive responses of epiphytes to nutrients at shorter durations in mesocosm experiments versus more positive responses at longer durations in field experiments. In the field, response of epiphyte biomass to nutrient additions was independent of climate zone. Mesograzer activity was a critical covariate for epiphyte response under experimental nutrient elevation, but the epiphyte response was highly dependent on factors such as grazer identity and density, as well as nutrient and ambient light levels. The balance of evidence suggests that epiphytes on SAV will be a useful indicator of persistent nutrient enhancement in many situations. Careful selection of appropriate temporal and spatial constraints for data collection, and concurrent evaluation of confounding factors will help increase the signal to noise ratio for this indicator.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Seagrass ecosystems reduce exposure to bacterial pathogens of humans, fishes, and invertebrates

Authors: Lamb, JB; van de Water, JA; Bourne, DG; Altier, C; Hein, MY; Fiorenza, EA; Abu, N; Jompa, J; Harvell, CD (2017) Science 355:731-733. HERO ID: 4143834

[Less] Plants are important in urban environments for removing pathogens and improving water quality. Seagrass . . . [More] Plants are important in urban environments for removing pathogens and improving water quality. Seagrass meadows are the most widespread coastal ecosystem on the planet. Although these plants are known to be associated with natural biocide production, they have not been evaluated for their ability to remove microbiological contamination. Using amplicon sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, we found that when seagrass meadows are present, there was a 50% reduction in the relative abundance of potential bacterial pathogens capable of causing disease in humans and marine organisms. Moreover, field surveys of more than 8000 reef-building corals located adjacent to seagrass meadows showed twofold reductions in disease levels compared to corals at paired sites without adjacent seagrass meadows. These results highlight the importance of seagrass ecosystems to the health of humans and other organisms.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Macrophyte community response to nitrogen loading and thermal stressors in rapidly flushed mesocosm systems

Authors: Kaldy, JE; Brown, CA; Nelson, WG; Frazier, M (2017) Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 497:107-119. HERO ID: 4143948

[Less] A mesocosm system was developed to simulate estuarine conditions characteristic of short water-residence . . . [More] A mesocosm system was developed to simulate estuarine conditions characteristic of short water-residence time ecosystems of the Pacific Coast of North America, and used to evaluate the response of multiple macrophyte metrics to gradients of NO3 loading and temperature. Replicated experiments found that few responses could be directly attributed to NO3 loading up to 6 x ambient. Some response metrics exhibited weak relationships with nutrient loading but could not be resolved with available statistical power. While direct nutrient responses were found for some species-specific metrics (e.g. green macroalgal growth and biomass, tissue N%, etc.), many patterns were confounded with temperature. Temperature generally had a larger effect on response metrics than did nutrient load. Experimental macrophyte communities exhibited community shifts consistent with the predicted effects of nutrient loading at 20 °C, but there was no evidence of other eutrophication symptoms (phytoplankton blooms or hypoxia) due to the short system-residence time. The Z. marina Nutrient Pollution Index (NPI) tracked the NO3 gradient at 10 °C, but exhibited no response at 20 °C, which may limit the utility of this metric in areas with marked thermal seasonality. Results suggest that teasing apart the influence of temperature and nutrients on the expression of eutrophication symptoms will require complex multi-stressor experiments and the use of indicators that are sensitive across a broad range of conditions.