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ISA NOxSOxPM Ecology (2018)

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290 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Toward a comparative evaluation of human impacts on fishery ecosystems of enclosed and semi-enclosed seas

Author: Caddy, JF (1993) Reviews in Fisheries Science 1:57-95. HERO ID: 91872

[Less] Fisheries of enclosed and semi‐enclosed seas provide the first basis for evaluating human . . . [More] Fisheries of enclosed and semi‐enclosed seas provide the first basis for evaluating human impacts on marine ecosystems. These have become of serious concern before similar changes are detectable in oceanic systems, thus emphasizing their value as laboratories for comparative study of man‐induced changes. The paper discusses the relevance of the cline, oligo‐meso‐eu‐dys‐trophic to stressed marine systems, and focuses on impacts on fisheries of enhanced nutrient runoff, noting common features with marine systems subject to natural enrichment, but also with well‐studied freshwater systems. It is suggested that under nutrient enrichment and heavy fishing, both “top down”; and “bottom up”; trophic mechanisms act in synchrony to change the trophic chain, leading initially to increased fishery productivity of formerly oligotrophic systems, followed by more drastic and negative changes as nutrient input passes beyond a state that may be called mesotrophic. Nutrient enrichment and overfishing have similar and synergistic effects: a decline in diversity, an initial increase in productivity of benthic/demersal and pelagic food webs, then the progressive dominance of the production system by short‐lived, especially pelagic, species. The separation of these two anthropogenic effects on semi‐enclosed seas is difficult and has been confounded by the synchronous growth of industrial fishing, and of downstream impacts of growing populations, industrialization and agro‐industry, and growing water usage, especially since World War II. A description of human impacts on several semi‐enclosed seas emphasizes the Marine Catchment Basin (MCB) concept, noting that ranking by the relative extents of catchment area and marine basin explains much of the observed impact. A systems approach to management of inland and coastal seas is suggested, with priority on the control of nutrient flows between terrestrial and aquatic systems, and the establishment of accurate statistical systems integrating fisheries and environmental data over whole basins and coastal seas.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Couplings of watersheds and coastal waters: Sources and consequences of nutrient enrichment in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts

Authors: Valiela, I; Foreman, K; LaMontagne, M; Hersh, D; Costa, J; Peckol, P; DeMeo-Andreson, B; D'Avanzo, C; Babione, M; Sham, C-H; Brawley, J; Lajtha, K (1992) Estuaries and Coasts 15:443-457. HERO ID: 92397

[Less] Human activities on coastal watersheds provide the major sources of nutrients entering shallow coastal . . . [More] Human activities on coastal watersheds provide the major sources of nutrients entering shallow coastal ecosystems. Nutrient loadings from watersheds are the most widespread factor that alters structure and function of receiving aquatic ecosystems. To investigate this coupling of land to marine systems, we are studying a series of subwatersheds of Waquoit Bay that differ in degree of urbanization and hence are exposed to widely different nutrient loading rates. The subwatersheds differ in the number of septic tanks and the relative acreage of forests. In the area of our study, groundwater is the major mechanism that transports nutrients to coastal waters. Although there is some attenuation of nutrient concentrations within the aquifer or at the sediment-water interface, in urbanized areas there are significant increases in the nutrient content of groundwater arriving at the shore's edge. The groundwater seeps or flows through the sediment-water boundary, and sufficient groundwater-borne nutrients (nitrogen in particular) traverse the sediment-water boundary to cause significant changes in the aquatic ecosystem. These loading-dependent alterations include increased nutrients in water, greater primary production by phytoplankton, and increased macroalgal biomass and growth (mediated by a suite of physiological responses to abundance of nutrients). The increased macroalgal biomass dominates the bay ecosystem through second- or third-order effects such as alterations of nutrient status of water columns and increasing frequency of anoxic events. The increases in seaweeds have decreased the areas covered by eelgrass habitats. The change in habitat type, plus the increased frequency of anoxic events, change the composition of the benthic fauna. The data make evident the importance of bottom-up control in shallow coastal food webs. The coupling of land to sea by groundwater-borne nutrient transport is mediated by a complex series of steps; the cascade of processes make it unlikely to find a one-to-one relation between land use and conditions in the aquatic ecosystem. Study of the process and synthesis by appropriate models may provide a way to deal with the complexities of the coupling.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Does nitrogen or silicon limit phytoplankton production in the Mississippi River plume and nearby regions?

Authors: Dortch, Q; Whitledge, TE (1992) Continental Shelf Research 12:1293-1309. HERO ID: 91918

[Less] The Mississippi River carries very high concentrations of nutrients into the otherwise oligotrophic . . . [More] The Mississippi River carries very high concentrations of nutrients into the otherwise oligotrophic Gulf of Mexico, resulting in high primary production and hypoxia along the Louisiana continental shelf. The hypothesis that nitrogen availability controls and ultimately limits phytoplankton production on the shelf was tested by measuring an indicator of nitrogen deficiency, the ratio of intracellular free amino acids/particulate protein (AA/Pr), in the area of the Mississippi River plume on a spring and a summer cruise. Neither AA/Pr ratios or nutrients in the water showed nitrogen limitation to be widespread. Ammonium concentrations were generally quite high, so the lack of phytoplankton nitrogen deficiency can be explained by rapid regeneration rates. Nitrogen limitation was most likely in the summer at high salinities. However, ratios of dissolved nutrient concentrations suggested that silicate was as likely, or sometimes more likely, to be a limiting nutrient than nitrogen. Although silicate depletion may not cause a decrease in productivity, it could result in major changes in phytoplankton size and species composition, and ultimately influence trophodynamics, regeneration, the fate of carbon, and severity and extent of hypoxia.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Human influence on river nitrogen

Authors: Peierls, BL; Caraco, NF; Pace, ML; Cole, JJ (1991) Nature 350:386-387. HERO ID: 92246


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nitrogen limitation on land and in the sea: How can it occur?

Authors: Vitousek, PM; Howarth, RW (1991) Biogeochemistry 13:87-115. HERO ID: 92481

[Less] The widespread occurrence of nitrogen limitation to net primary production in terrestrial and marine . . . [More] The widespread occurrence of nitrogen limitation to net primary production in terrestrial and marine ecosystems is something of a puzzle; it would seem that nitrogen fixers should have a substantial competitive advantage wherever nitrogen is limiting, and that their activity in turn should reverse limitation. Nevertheless, there is substantial evidence that nitrogen limits net primary production much of the time in most terrestrial biomes and many marine ecosystems.



We examine both how the biogeochemistry of the nitrogen cycle could cause limitation to develop, and how nitrogen limitation could persist as a consequence of processes that prevent or reduce nitrogen fixation. Biogeochemical mechansism that favor nitrogen limitation include: the substantial mobility of nitrogen across ecosystem boundaries, which favors nitrogen limitation in the "source" ecosystem - especially where denitrification is important in sediments and soils, or in terrestrial ecosystems where fires is frequent; differences in the biochemistry of nitrogen as opposed to phosphorus (with detrital N mostly carbon-bonded and detrital P mostly ester-bonded), which favor the development of nitrogen limitation where decomposition is slow, and allow the development of a positive feedback from nitrogen limitation to producers, to reduced decomposition of their detritus, and on to reduced nitrogen availability; and other more specialized, but perhaps no less important, processes.



A number of mechanisms could keep nitrogen fixation from reversing nitrogen limitation.



These include: energetic constraints on the colonization or activity of nitrogen fixers; limitation of nitrogen fixers or fixation by another nutrient (phosphorus, molybdenum, or iron) - which would then represent the ultimate factor limiting net primary production; other physical and ecological mechanisms.



The possible importance of these and other processes is discussed for a wide range of terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Seasonal and hydrological control of phytoplankton nutrient limitation in the lower Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina

Authors: Rudek, J; Paerl, HW; Mallin, MA; Bates, PW (1991) Marine Ecology Progress Series 75:133-142. HERO ID: 92303

[Less] Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton production was assessed monthly from 1987 through 1990 in the lower . . . [More] Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton production was assessed monthly from 1987 through 1990 in the lower Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA, a well-mixed, mesotrophic system. Nutrient addition bioassays indicated that the lower estuary experienced a general state of nitrogen limitation, with especially pronounced limitation during summer months, a period of high phytoplankton productivity. Bioassays conducted during spring months showed significantly greater stimulation of algal productivity with the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus than that found with nitrogen addition alone. This co-stimulation occurred during periods when surface-water dissolved inorganic nitrogen: dissolved inorganic phosphorus ratios were elevated above typical values of < 5. Seasonal patterns in ambient nutrient concentrations revealed nitrogen maxima associated with spring, fall, and winter runoff events, with summer minima. Hydrologically driven nitrogen loading exerted a strong, year-round influence on primary production and nutrient limitation characteristics. High-flow events acted to oversaturate the upper estuarine nutrient filtering capacity, resulting in increased delivery of nitrogen to the lower estuarine environment. The phytoplankton community responded to increased flow and concomitant nutrient loadings by increasing production and biomass levels, often very rapidly. In this regard, hydrologic factors influencing nitrogen loading (terrigenous runoff, point source inputs, and wet and dry atmospheric deposition) are key determinants of the trophic state of this estuary.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Initial submission: Cellosolve acetate: in Vitro cytogenetic studies (final Report) with cover letter dated 121391

Author: U.S. EPA (1991) [EPA Report] HERO ID: 1511294


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nutrient limitation of net primary production in marine ecosystems

Author: Howarth, RW (1988) Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 19:89-110. HERO ID: 93862

Abstract: N/A.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nutrient enrichment studies in a coastal plain estuary: phytoplankton growth in large-scale, continuous cultures

Authors: D'Elia, CF; Sanders, JG; Boynton, WR (1986) Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 43:397-406. HERO ID: 36935


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chesapeake Bay anoxia: Origin, development, and significance

Authors: Officer, CB; Biggs, RB; Taft, JL; Cronin, LE; Tyler, MA; Boynton, WR (1984) Science 223:22-27. HERO ID: 37206

[Less] Anoxia occurs annually in deeper waters of the central portion of the Chesapeake Bay and presently extends . . . [More] Anoxia occurs annually in deeper waters of the central portion of the Chesapeake Bay and presently extends from Baltimore to the mouth of the Potomac estuary. This condition, which encompasses some 5 billion cubic meters of water and lasts from May to September, is the result of increased stratification of the water column in early spring, with consequent curtailment of reoxygenation of the bottom waters across the halocline, and benthic decay of organic detritus accumulated from plankton blooms of the previous summer and fall. The Chesapeake Bay anoxia appears to have had significant ecological effects on many marine species, including several of economic importance.