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Methanol (Non-Cancer)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A Study of the Histopathological Changes in the Retina and Late Changes in the Visual Field in Acute Methyl Alcohol Poisoning

Author: Mcgregor, IS (1943) HERO ID: 1144988

[Less] Histopathological changes in the retina and long term changes in the visual field were studied in human . . . [More] Histopathological changes in the retina and long term changes in the visual field were studied in human victims of acute methyl-alcohol (67561) (methanol) poisoning. Retinas of four persons were examined at autopsy using routine hemalum and eosin staining and bulk sectioning methods. Serial sections of the optic nerves were examined after staining with hematoxylin and eosin, by Marchi's method, and by a rapid stain for myelin. Changes in the visual field were studied on two occasions in four patients more than 1 year after acute methanol intoxication. These patients had ingested between 1.5 and 6.0 ounces of methanol. No changes in retinal ganglion cells which were attributable to methanol were found at autopsy, either in lipoid changes in ganglion cells, or in size and shape of the ganglion cells or the nuclear content. Similarly, optic nerve sections showed no abnormality. All four of the patients examined at followup had been blind in the acute stage. At followup, one patient had no defect in vision, and the second patient had a bilateral central scotoma. The third patient had an absolute scotoma in one eye and normal vision in the other eye. The fourth patient had a central scotoma with good vision and normal vision in the other eye. The author cautions that the failure to find histopathology in retinae of autopsied eyes may be due to the short interval between methanol ingestion and death, or suboptimal postmortem conditions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Health hazards in the manufacture of "fused collars" II Exposure to acetone-methanol

Authors: Greenburg, L; Mayers, MR; Goldwater, LJ; Burke, WJ (1938) Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 20:148-154. HERO ID: 31163

[Less] The effect of exposure to acetone (67641) and methanol (67561) was studied in workers at a fused collar . . . [More] The effect of exposure to acetone (67641) and methanol (67561) was studied in workers at a fused collar shirt factory (SIC-2321). The fusing process was carried out in solvent presses impregnated with a 3 part acetone to 1 part methanol solution using up to 50 gallons of solvent per week. The solvent was fed in by means of a closed pipe system from an outside source. The collars were then transferred to steam presses equipped with exhaust ventilation which evaporated the solvent and fused the collars. Ventilation was provided by a forced draft system in warm weather. Two air samples were taken over a 2.5 hour period. The 17 male subjects were aged 19 to 28 and two were in their forties. The first sample was taken at 80 degrees-F and 27 percent humidity and the second at 75 degrees-F and 23.5 percent humidity. The first sample of 2.3 cubic feet of air contained 25 parts per million (ppm) methanol and 45ppm acetone. The same amount of air in the second test contained 22ppm methanol and 40ppm acetone. Physical examinations yielded nothing abnormal. Blood findings were normal. The only significant finding was a positive reaction for acetone in the urinalysis, indicating absorption of this solvent from the fumes in the workroom. The authors assume that alcohol is absorbed since methanol was mixed with acetone for the industrial process, and conclude that the amounts of solvents absorbed are within the limits of tolerance. They recommend the study as a control to investigate exposure to ethylene-glycol-monoethyl-ether in the manufacture of fused collars.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Occupational Health Hazards in Massachusetts Industries. IV. Wood Heel Covering

Author: Anonymous (1937) HERO ID: 1141311

[Less] Concentrations of methanol (67561) vapor in rooms where wooden shoe heels were covered (SIC-3131) were . . . [More] Concentrations of methanol (67561) vapor in rooms where wooden shoe heels were covered (SIC-3131) were determined in eight factories in Massachusetts in 1934. Thirteen factories employing 508 workers were surveyed. It was found that solvents other than methanol used in the heel covering process were used in such a manner or in such small quantities that hazards to health seemed unlikely. A standard of safety for methanol was set at 200 parts per million (ppm). Celluloid heel coverings were soaked in methanol before use. Methanol was continually evaporating into the air near the worker handling the covers. Hands and aprons of workers were wet with excess methanol. Skin exposure to methanol resulted in cracked skin on hands and fingers. Propellor fans for ventilation were found to be inadequate due to the enclosed nature of the working rooms for reasons of fire prevention. The average concentrations of methanol found in the covering rooms of eight factories were: 780, 475, 365, 320, 210, 185, 180, and 160ppm. The principal sources of methanol vapor were examined by dividing the heel covering process into four stages and measuring the evaporation of methanol. The coverings at each stage were placed in air tight bottles. The weight of wet coverings plus container was determined and then the coverings were allowed to air dry. The amount of methanol lost to the atmosphere was determined by subtracting the weight of the container and dry coverings. It was found that only about 17 percent of the vapors came from actual manipulations by an operator; 33 percent came from a towel used to keep coverings wet before use; and 50 percent came from the finished heels drying. The author recommends the addition of exhaust hoods over these two stages of the shoe heel covering process to bring methanol concentrations to below the safety standard of 200ppm.

Technical Report
Technical Report

Kinetics And Pathways Of Methanol Metabolism

Author: Rietbrock, N (1900) HERO ID: 1141292

[Less] The kinetics and mechanism of methanol (67561) metabolism are reviewed. Methanol is more closely related . . . [More] The kinetics and mechanism of methanol (67561) metabolism are reviewed. Methanol is more closely related to water in its chemical and physical properties than other aliphatic alcohols. The kinetics of methanol metabolism are discussed. The elimination of methanol follows a biphasic kinetic mechanism. Initially, the reaction rate increases reaching a maximum after 24 hours. The rate then decreases until after 72 hours and it begins to follow a simple exponential decay law. The metabolic pathways of methanol are discussed. Oxidation of methanol by alcohol-dehydrogenase and alcohol-catalase is considered. Oxidation of methanol by microsomal enzymes is discussed. The elimination of formic-acid (64186) is considered. Formic-acid formed as a metabolite, is the actual toxic agent in cases of methanol intoxication. The factor that determines the toxicity of methanol is the rate of elimination of formic-acid. Research on dogs that have a folic-acid deficiency has shown a correlation between the plasma concentration of formate and the extent of metabolic acidosis, the main symptom of methanol poisoning. The activation of formic-acid by folate coenzymes is discussed. The author notes that the oxidative steps in the folate cycle during methanol intoxication have not been thoroughly investigated. (German)

Technical Report
Technical Report