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Methanol (Non-Cancer)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Optimization and validation of a HPLC method for simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), G(2), ochratoxin A and zearalenone using an experimental design

Authors: Rahmani, A; Selamat, J; Soleimany, F (In Press) Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A: Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment. HERO ID: 1039967

[Less] A reversed-phase HPLC optimization strategy is presented for investigating the separation and retention . . . [More] A reversed-phase HPLC optimization strategy is presented for investigating the separation and retention behavior of aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), G(2,) ochratoxin A and zearalenone, simultaneously. A fractional factorial design (FFD) was used to screen the significance effect of seven independent variables on chromatographic responses. The independent variables used were: (X1) column oven temperature (20-40°C), (X2) flow rate (0.8-1.2 ml/min), (X3) acid concentration in aqueous phase (0-2%), (X4) organic solvent percentage at the beginning (40-50%), and (X5) at the end (50-60%) of the gradient mobile phase, as well as (X6) ratio of methanol/acetonitrile at the beginning (1-4) and (X7) at the end (0-1) of gradient mobile phase. Responses of chromatographic analysis were resolution of mycotoxin peaks and HPLC run time. A central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM) was then carried out for optimization of the most significant factors by multiple regression models for response variables. The proposed optimal method using 40°C oven temperature, 1 ml/min flow rate, 0.1% acetic acid concentration in aqueous phase, 41% organic phase (beginning), 60% organic phase (end), 1.92 ratio of methanol to acetonitrile (beginning) and 0.2 ratio (end) for X1-X7, respectively, showed good prediction ability between the experimental data and predictive values throughout the studied parameter space. Finally, the optimized method was validated by measuring the linearity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision parameters, and has been applied successfully to the analysis of spiked cereal samples.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Optimization of ethanol, citric acid, and α-amylase production from date wastes by strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger, and Candida guilliermondii

Authors: Acourene, S; Ammouche, A (In Press) Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. HERO ID: 1035497

[Less] The present study deals with submerged ethanol, citric acid, and α-amylase fermentation by Saccharomyces . . . [More] The present study deals with submerged ethanol, citric acid, and α-amylase fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae SDB, Aspergillus niger ANSS-B5, and Candida guilliermondii CGL-A10, using date wastes as the basal fermentation medium. The physical and chemical parameters influencing the production of these metabolites were optimized. As for the ethanol production, the optimum yield obtained was 136.00 ± 0.66 g/l under optimum conditions of an incubation period of 72 h, inoculum content of 4% (w/v), sugars concentration of 180.0 g/l, and ammonium phosphate concentration of 1.0 g/l. Concerning citric acid production, the cumulative effect of temperature (30°C), sugars concentration of 150.0 g/l, methanol concentration of 3.0%, initial pH of 3.5, ammonium nitrate concentration of 2.5 g/l, and potassium phosphate concentration of 2.5 g/l during the fermentation process of date wastes syrup did increase the citric acid production to 98.42 ± 1.41 g/l. For the production of α-amylase, the obtained result shows that the presence of starch strongly induces the production of α-amylase with a maximum at 5.0 g/l. Among the various nitrogen sources tested, urea at 5.0 g/l gave the maximum biomass and α-amylase estimated at 5.76 ± 0.56 g/l and 2,304.19 ± 31.08 μmol/l/min, respectively after 72 h incubation at 30°C, with an initial pH of 6.0 and potassium phosphate concentration of 6.0 g/l.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Continuous biodiesel production in a fixed bed reactor packed with anion-exchange resin as heterogeneous catalyst

Authors: Ren, Y; He, B; Yan, F; Wang, H; Cheng, Y; Lin, L; Feng, Y; Li, J (In Press) Bioresource Technology. HERO ID: 1039274

[Less] A continuous biodiesel production from the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was investigated . . . [More] A continuous biodiesel production from the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was investigated in a fixed bed reactor packed with D261 anion-exchange resin as a heterogeneous catalyst. The conversion to biodiesel achieved 95.2% within a residence time 56min under the conditions: reaction temperature of 323.15K, n-hexane/soybean oil weight rate of 0.5, methanol/soybean oil molar ratio of 9:1 and feed flow rate of 1.2ml/min. The resin can be regenerated in-situ and restored to the original activity to achieve continuous production after the resin deactivation. The product obtained was mainly composed of methyl esters. No glycerol in the product was detected due to the resin adsorbing glycerol in the fixed bed, which solved the issue of glycerol separation from biodiesel. It is believed that the fixed bed reactor with D261 has a potential commercial application in the transesterification of triglyceride.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Development of a rapid method for the determination and confirmation of nitroimidazoles in six matrices by fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Authors: Tölgyesi, A; Sharma, VK; Fekete, S; Fekete, J; Simon, A; Farkas, S (In Press) Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. HERO ID: 1037716

[Less] A rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to identify . . . [More] A rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to identify and to quantify nitroimidazoles, metronidazole (MNZ), ronidazole (RNZ) and dimetridazole (DMZ) and their corresponding hydroxy metabolites, MNZ-OH and 2-hydroxymethyl-1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole (HMNNI) in plasma, milk, muscle, egg, honey and feed samples. The same sample clean-up procedure including a novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) on polymeric Strata-SDB cartridges was used for each matrix. The analytes were separated on Kinetex XB C-18 core-shell type HPLC column using isocratic elution mode with a mobile phase containing 0.1% formic acid in water/methanol (88/12, v/v, pH 2.6) at a flow rate of 0.7ml/min. The main advantage of the developed method is that the analysis time of only 3min, which is about three to ten times shorter than in other reported HPLC methods. The developed method was validated using a matrix-comprehensive in-house validation strategy. The matrix effect of LC-MS/MS analysis was also investigated. Results are presented from the successful application of the developed method to an incurred pork meat certified reference material and to incur porcine plasmas in a proficiency test in year 2011.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Identification of a methanol-inducible promoter from Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4 and its use as an expression vector

Authors: Kagawa, Y; Mitani, Y; Yun, HY; Nakashima, N; Tamura, N; Tamura, T (In Press) Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. HERO ID: 1038603

[Less] The genus Rhodococcus exhibits a broad range of catalytic activity and is tolerant to various kinds . . . [More] The genus Rhodococcus exhibits a broad range of catalytic activity and is tolerant to various kinds of organic solvents. This property makes rhodococci suitable for use as a whole-cell catalyst. Various tools for genetic engineering have been developed to use Rhodococcus erythropolis as a host for bioconversion. In this study, we investigated the protein expression responses of R. erythropolis strains and found that isocitrate lyase production in R. erythropolis PR4 (ICL(Re)) was induced by methanol. By analyzing the regulation mechanisms of icl(Re) expression, the ~200-bp upstream region from the first nucleotide of the translation initiation codon of icl(Re) was shown to be sufficient for the methanol-inducible expression. Also, the ~100-bp upstream region exhibited strong constitutive promoter activity by an unknown mechanism(s). By investigating proteins that bound to the upstream region of icl(Re)in vitro, a RamB homologue of R. erythropolis PR4 (RamB(Re)) was identified. Moreover, 2 putative RamB(Re) binding sites were identified in the upstream region of icl(Re) through pull-down assays. A ramB(Re) knockout experiment suggested that RamB(Re) negatively controlled the expression of icl(Re) and that RamB(Re) regulation was dependent on the availability of a carbon source. On the basis of these findings, we were able to create novel methanol-inducible and strong constitutive expression vectors.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Protective effect of Enicostema axillare on mutagenicity of Salmonella typhimurium by increasing free radical scavenging abilities

Authors: Saravanan, S; Hairul Islam, VI; Gabriel Paulraj, M; Ignacimuthu, S (In Press) Pharmaceutical Biology. HERO ID: 1039306

[Less] Context: Enicostema axillare A. Raynal (Gentianaceae) has been used in the traditional Indian system . . . [More] Context: Enicostema axillare A. Raynal (Gentianaceae) has been used in the traditional Indian system of medicine as a depurative and for the treatment of skin diseases, tumors, intermittent fever, and helminthiasis. Objective: E. axillare was investigated for antimutagenic and antioxidant effects. Materials and methods: The antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of E. axillare fractions were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 against direct-acting mutagens, such as sodium azide (NaN(3)), 4-nitro-O-phenylene diamine (NPD), and mutagen needing activation, such as 2-aminofluorene (2AF). Toxicity study of these fractions was also performed. Results and discussion: The ethyl acetate fraction showed maximum antimutagenic effect by 88.25 and 84.46% (preincubation) and 85.13 and 84.47% (coincubation) of inhibition against NaN(3) and NPD-induced mutagenicity, respectively. Inhibition of S9-dependent mutagens such as 2AF was higher than direct-acting mutagens by the ethyl acetate fraction of E. axillare. It showed 90.25 and 92.00% of inhibition in the preincubation and coincubation experiments. The ethyl acetate fraction showed higher total antioxidant capacity (24.79 ± 0.29 µg) and low IC(50) value for DPPH radical scavenging assay (192.27 ± 3.67 µg). The overall effect of E. axillare fractions was found to be in the order: ethyl acetate > methanol > hexane in these assays. In subacute toxicity study, with oral administration of these fractions, no marked biochemical and histopathologic changes were observed. Conclusion: The significant antimutagenic and antioxidant activities of E. axillare might provide a scientific validation for the traditional use of this plant.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Determination of aflatoxins in by-products of industrial processing of cocoa beans

Authors: Copetti, MV; Iamanaka, BT; Pereira, JL; Lemes, DP; Nakano, F; Taniwaki, MH (In Press) Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A: Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment. HERO ID: 1037882

[Less] This study has examined the occurrence of aflatoxins in 168 samples of different fractions obtained . . . [More] This study has examined the occurrence of aflatoxins in 168 samples of different fractions obtained during the processing of cocoa in manufacturing plants (shell, nibs, mass, butter, cake and powder) using an optimised methodology for cocoa by-products. The method validation was based on selectivity, linearity, limit of detection and recovery. The method was shown to be adequate for use in quantifying the contamination of cocoa by aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Furthermore, the method was easier to use than other methods available in the literature. For aflatoxin extraction from cocoa samples, a methanol-water solution was used, and then immunoaffinity columns were employed for clean-up before the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. A survey demonstrated a widespread occurrence of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products, although in general the levels of aflatoxins present in the fractions from industrial processing of cocoa were low. A maximum aflatoxin contamination of 13.3 ng g(-1) was found in a nib sample. The lowest contamination levels were found in cocoa butter. Continued monitoring of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products is nevertheless necessary because these toxins have a high toxicity to humans and cocoa is widely consumed by children through cocoa-containing products, like candies.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Quantitative analysis of azaspiracids in Azadinium spinosum cultures

Authors: Jauffrais, T; Herrenknecht, C; Séchet, V; Sibat, M; Tillmann, U; Krock, B; Kilcoyne, J; Miles, CO; Mccarron, P; Amzil, Z; Hess, P (In Press) Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. HERO ID: 1038054

[Less] Azaspiracids (AZAs) are secondary metabolites of Azadinium spinosum that can accumulate in shellfish . . . [More] Azaspiracids (AZAs) are secondary metabolites of Azadinium spinosum that can accumulate in shellfish and cause food poisoning when consumed. We describe here an analytical procedure for the determination of AZAs in cultures of A. spinosum with a focus on the formation of AZA methyl esters as artefacts during extraction and sample pre-treatment. A. spinosum cells were collected from bioreactor cultures using centrifugation or filtration. Different extraction procedures were evaluated for formation of methyl ester artefacts, yield, and matrix effects. Filtration of cultures using glass-fibre filters led to increased formation of methyl esters, and centrifugation is recommended for recovery of cells. The extraction solvent (methanol (MeOH), acetone, and acetonitrile (MeCN)) did not significantly affect the yield of AZAs as long as the organic content was 80% or higher. However, the use of MeOH as extraction solvent led to increased formation of methyl esters. AZA1 recovery over two successive extractions was 100% at the 95% confidence level for acetone and MeOH. In standard-addition experiments, no significant matrix effects were observed in extracts of A. spinosum or Azadinium obesum up to a sample size of 4.5 × 10(9) μm(3). Moreover, experiments carried out to clarify the formation and structure of methylated AZA analogues led to the description of two AZA methyl esters and to the correction of the chemical structures of AZAs29-32.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Comparative transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of citrus fruit, to improve understanding of the effect of low temperature on maintaining fruit quality during lengthy post-harvest storage

Authors: Yun, Z; Jin, S; Ding, Y; Wang, Z; Gao, H; Pan, Z; Xu, J; Cheng, Y; Deng, X (In Press) Journal of Experimental Botany. HERO ID: 1038264

[Less] Fruit quality is a very complex trait that is affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Generally, . . . [More] Fruit quality is a very complex trait that is affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Generally, low temperature (LT) is used to delay fruit senescence and maintain fruit quality during post-harvest storage but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hirado Buntan Pummelo (HBP; Citrus grandis × C. paradis) fruit were chosen to explore the mechanisms that maintain citrus fruit quality during lengthy LT storage using transcriptome and proteome studies based on digital gene expression (DGE) profiling and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), respectively. Results showed that LT up-regulated stress-responsive genes, arrested signal transduction, and inhibited primary metabolism, secondary metabolism and the transportation of metabolites. Calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)-CBL-interacting protein kinase complexes might be involved in the signal transduction of LT stress, and fruit quality is likely to be regulated by sugar-mediated auxin and abscisic acid (ABA) signalling. Furthermore, ABA was specific to the regulation of citrus fruit senescence and was not involved in the LT stress response. In addition, the accumulation of limonin, nomilin, methanol, and aldehyde, together with the up-regulated heat shock proteins, COR15, and cold response-related genes, provided a comprehensive proteomics and transcriptomics view on the coordination of fruit LT stress responses.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The non-protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-L: -alanine in Portuguese cyanobacterial isolates

Authors: Cervantes Cianca, RC; Baptista, MS; Lopes, VR; Vasconcelos, VM (In Press) Amino Acids. HERO ID: 1040565

[Less] The tailor made amino acid β-N-methyl-amino-L: -alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxin produced by cyanobacteria. . . . [More] The tailor made amino acid β-N-methyl-amino-L: -alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxin produced by cyanobacteria. It has been associated with certain forms of progressive neurodegenerative disease, including sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Some different reports of BMAA in cyanobacterial blooms from lakes, reservoirs, and other water resources have been made by different investigators. We here report the detection of BMAA of both free and protein-bound produced by cyanobacteria, belonging to the Chroococcales, Oscillatoriales and Nostocales ordered. We use a rapid and sensitive HPLC-FD method that utilizes methanol elution and the Waters AQC Tag chemistry. On other hand, we have used three different assay procedures for BMAA extraction from cyanobacteria: Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), Methanol/Acetone and hydrochloric acid (HCl). All assays let successfully detect BMAA in all cyanobacteria samples analyzed. Nevertheless, with TCA and HCl extraction procedures the highest BMAA values, for free as well as protein-bound BMAA were detected. BMAA content could not be related to the taxonomy of the isolates or to their geographical origin, and no correlation between free and protein-bound BMAA concentrations were observed within or between taxonomic groups. These data offer confirmation of the taxonomic and geographic ubiquity of BMAA from naturally occurring populations of cyanobacteria, for the first time reported for estuaries.