Patch testing with components of water-based metalworking fluids: results of a multicentre study with a second series
Authors: Geier, J; Lessmann, H; Becker, D; Bruze, M; Frosch, PJ; Fuchs, T; Jappe, U; Koch, P; Pföhler, C; Skudlik, C
Contact Dermatitis 55:322-329.
HERO ID: 1313686
BACKGROUND: Although many allergens in metalworking fluids (MWF) are identified, there . . .
BACKGROUND: Although many allergens in metalworking fluids (MWF) are identified, there are still some MWF components, which are not sufficiently investigated concerning their sensitizing properties.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate sensitization to 10 frequently used MWF components, which are not part of the established MWF test series, in metalworkers with suspected occupational dermatitis due to MWF.
PATIENTS/METHODS: Oleyl alcohol, myristyl alcohol, dimethylolurea, 4,4'-methylenebis morpholine, imazalil, 1-amino-2-propanol (monoisopropanolamine; MIPA), 2-amino-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (AEPD), 2,5-bis(n-octyldithio)-1,3,4-thiadiazole, zinc alkyl dithiophosphate and dibenzyl disulfide have been patch tested in 144 patients.
RESULTS: 7 patients reacted positively to the formaldehyde releaser 4,4'-methylenebis morpholine, and 6 of these patients also reacted to formaldehyde and/or other formaldehyde releasers. 4 patients reacted positively to myristyl alcohol tested at 10% petrolatum (pet.). Additionally, 20 doubtful or irritant reactions occurred. 1 patient each reacted positively to oleyl alcohol, MIPA, and AEPD. None of the other test substances mentioned above elicited any clear-cut positive reaction. Patch testing with well-known MWF allergens showed proportions of positive reactions, which were comparable to those from other studies, e.g. 11% to monoethanolamine, 8% to colophonium and 3%-5% to various preservatives.
CONCLUSIONS: 4,4'-methylenebis morpholine may be an important MWF allergen, although clinical relevance could not be stated definitely in every case. Myristyl alcohol should not be patch tested at 10% pet., but at a lesser concentration, due to irritant properties.