Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Glycols (25265-71-8, 110-98-5, & 24800-44-0)


78 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Final report on the safety assessment of propylene glycol and polypropylene glycols

Author: Andersen, FA (1994) Journal of the American College of Toxicology 13:437-491. [Review] HERO ID: 1875316

[Less] Propylene Glycol is an aliphatic alcohol manufactured as a reaction product of propylene oxide and water. . . . [More] Propylene Glycol is an aliphatic alcohol manufactured as a reaction product of propylene oxide and water. Polypropylene Glycol is a polymer formed by adding propylene oxide to dipropylene glycol. Propylene Glycol is reportedly used as a skin-conditioning agent-humectant, solvent, viscosity-decreasing agent, and humectant in thousands of cosmetic formulations. Polypropylene Glycols of various polymer lengths are reportedly used as miscellaneous skin-conditioning agents in far fewer formulations. Acute, subchronic, and short-term animal studies suggested little toxicity beyond slight growth and body weight decreases. Little ocular or skin irritation was observed in animal studies, and no sensitization was seen. Small increases in fetal malformations were seen in mice injected subcutaneously with Propylene Glycol, but a continuous breeding reproduction study in mice showed no reproductive toxicity following oral administration. A wide range of mutagenesis assays were negative, and studies in mice and rats showed no evidence of carcinogenesis. Clinical data showed skin irritation and sensitization reactions in Propylene Glycol in normal subjects at concentrations as low as 10% under occlusive conditions and dermatitis patients at concentrations as low as 2%. A careful evaluation of skin irritation and sensitization data as a function of disease state of the individual, occlusion, and concentration was done. On the basis of that analysis, it is concluded that Propylene Glycol and Polypropylene Glycol are safe for use in cosmetic products at concentrations up to 50%.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF ADDITIVES INCLUDING MULTIFUNCTIONAL ACRYLATES IN WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITES

Authors: Khan, MA; Ali, KMI; Garnett, JL (1993) Radiation Physics and Chemistry 42:167-170. HERO ID: 1204953

[Less] Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) was prepared with simul (soft wood, density = 0.4g/cc) and butylmethacrylate . . . [More] Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) was prepared with simul (soft wood, density = 0.4g/cc) and butylmethacrylate (BMA) monomer using 10% methanol as the swelling agent. Effect of additives including (i) multifunctional acrylates such as tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) (ii) oligomer acrylates like the urethane (UA), epoxy (EA) and polyester (PEA) acrylates and (iii) N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) was investigated using 1 to 3 Mrad dose at 0.8 Mrad/h. Synergistic increases in polymer loading yields was achieved in presence of the additives, particularly with the trifunctional acrylate (TMPTA). In addition, acid as well as urea were also used as co-additives and synergistic enhancement in yields of polymer loading were obtained. The synergistic polymer loading by acid addition causes substantial decrease in tensile strength of the composite; but other additives and co-additives increase both the polymer loading and the tensile strength in these systems.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Further evaluation of a new penetration enhancer, HPE-101

Authors: Yano, T; Higo, N; Fukuda, K; Tsuji, M; Noda, K; Otagiri, M (1993) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 45:775-778. HERO ID: 1615034

[Less] The penetration enhancer, 1-[2-(decylthio)ethyl]azacyclopentan-2-one (HPE-101), significantly enhanced . . . [More] The penetration enhancer, 1-[2-(decylthio)ethyl]azacyclopentan-2-one (HPE-101), significantly enhanced the excretion of topically applied [14C]indomethacin when dissolved in dipropylene glycol, triethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, 1,3-butylene glycol, trimethylene glycol, glycerin, water, silicone or triethanolamine, but not when dissolved in ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, oleyl alcohol, olive oil, peppermint oil, isopropyl myristate or hexylene glycol. HPE-101 significantly enhanced the excrection of [14C]indomethacin, [14C]nicotinic acid, [14C]5-fluorouracil, [3H]oestradiol and [3H]triamcinolone acetonide, but not that of [3H]testosterone. HPE-101 also significantly enhanced the excretion of [14C]indomethacin applied to intact skin of rabbit, guinea-pig and rat, and to tape-stripped skin of guinea-pig, but did not enhance the excretion of [14C]indomethacin applied to tape-stripped skin of rat or rabbit.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Allergic contact dermatitis due to an amino-substituted diacrylate in a UV-cured lacquer

Authors: Carmichael, AJ; Foulds, IS (1993) Contact Dermatitis 28:45-46. HERO ID: 4947203


The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Percutaneous toxicity of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and of dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether in the rat

Authors: Fairhurst, S; Knight, R; Marrs, TC; Scawin, JW; Spurlock, MS; Swanston, DW (1989) Toxicology 57:209-215. HERO ID: 4146480

[Less] The subacute percutaneous toxicity of dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPM) in male rats dosed 5 . . . [More] The subacute percutaneous toxicity of dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPM) in male rats dosed 5 days/week for 4 weeks under both occluded and unoccluded conditions has been assessed and compared to the percutaneous toxicity of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGM). DPM caused no significant changes in the clinical chemistry, haematology, or pathology, whereas EGM caused changes in the haematology and clinical chemistry, and both testicular and bone marrow damage at doses of 1000 mg/kg per day.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Final report on the safety assessment of butylene glycol, hexylene glycol, ethoxydiglycol, and dipropylene glycol

Author: CIR (1985) Journal of the American College of Toxicology 4:223-248. HERO ID: 4941420

[Less] Butylene Glycol, Hexylene Glycol, Ethoxydiglycol, and Dipropylene Glycol are viscous liquids used in . . . [More] Butylene Glycol, Hexylene Glycol, Ethoxydiglycol, and Dipropylene Glycol are viscous liquids used in the cosmetic industry as humectants, emulsifiers, plasticizers, and solvents. The results of acute, subchronic, and chronic oral toxicity studies using a variety of animal species indicate low order of toxicity for the Glycols. Butylene Glycol, Ethoxydiglycol, and Dipropylene Glycol caused minimal to mild irritation of rabbit skin, whereas Hexylene Glycol was moderately irritating. The Glycols produced mild to severe ocular irritation when tested in rabbit, with Hexylene Glycol producing the most severe irritation. Human skin patch tests on undiluted Butylene Glycol and undiluted Hexylene Glycol produced a very low order of primary skin irritation. A repeated insult patch test on Butylene Glycol produced no evidence of skin sensitization. It is concluded the Butylene Glycol, Hexylene Glycol, Ethoxydiglycol, and Dipropylene Glycol are safe as presently used in cosmetics.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Metabolism and disposition of dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME) in male rats

Authors: Miller, RR; Hermann, EA; Calhoun, LL; Kastl, PE; Zakett, D (1985) Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 5:721-726. HERO ID: 4946615

[Less] Male Fischer 344 rats were given a single oral dose of approximately 1289 mg/kg (8.7 mmol/kg) of ( super(14)C)DPGME. . . . [More] Male Fischer 344 rats were given a single oral dose of approximately 1289 mg/kg (8.7 mmol/kg) of ( super(14)C)DPGME. After dosing, expired air, excreta, and tissues were analyzed for super(14)C activity, and metabolites in urine were isolated and identified. Approximately 60% of the administered super(14)C activity was excreted in urine, while 27% was eliminated as super(14)CO sub(2) within 48 hr after dosing. DPGME, PGME, dipropylene glycol, propylene glycol, as well as sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of DPGME were identified in urine of animals given ( super(14)C)DPGME. Results of the study indicate that DPGME is metabolized via the same routes to the same general types of metabolites as previously identified for propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME).

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether: A 13-week inhalation toxicity study in rats and rabbits

Authors: Landry, TD; Yano, BL (1984) Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 4:612-617. HERO ID: 4946620

[Less] Fischer 344 rats (10/sex/exposure concentration) and New Zealand white rabbits (7/sex/exposure concentration) . . . [More] Fischer 344 rats (10/sex/exposure concentration) and New Zealand white rabbits (7/sex/exposure concentration) were exposed to 0, 15, 50, or 200 ppm (0, 91, 303, or 1212 mg/m super(3)) of dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME) for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks. Criteria of response included general observations, body weights, clinical chemistry, hematology, urinalyses (rats only), necropsy, organ weights, and histopathology. There were no effects attributed to exposure to DPGME at any exposure concentration in either male or female rats or rabbits. Based on the low vapor pressure of DPGME, and results in this 13-week study, DPGME appears to have a low subchronic vapor inhalation toxicity hazard.