Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Glycols (25265-71-8, 110-98-5, & 24800-44-0)


98 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Studies on cross-linked polyurethane acrylate-based electrolyte consisting of reactive vinyl/divinyl diluents

Authors: Digar, ML; Hung, SL; Wen, TC; Gopalan, A (2002) Polymer 43:1615-1622. HERO ID: 4948980

[Less] A series of cross-linked polyurethane acrylate (PUA) electrolytes have been prepared by using 4,4'-methylene . . . [More] A series of cross-linked polyurethane acrylate (PUA) electrolytes have been prepared by using 4,4'-methylene bis(phenyl isocyanate). polyethylene glycol, hydroxyethyl methacrylate and different reactive vinyl/divinyl diluents, such as methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethyl acrylate and acrylonitrile, tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA). The electrolytes were prepared by UV radiation induced cross-linking of the PUA-diluent mixture followed by swelling in a liquid electrolyte (LP-30). Depending upon the composition of the components, these electrolytes exhibited a wide range of mechanical and electrical properties. The system containing MMA as reactive diluent showed highest conductivity, but poor mechanical properties and stability in the liquid electrolyte. The TPGDA cross-linked system possesses a good combination of ionic conductivity and stability in liquid electrolytes. These systems showed good compatibility with Li-electrodes and sufficient electrochemical stability to allow safe operation in rechargeable Li-batteries. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

[Identification of unknown substances in polyvinyl chloride gloves containing non-phthalate plasticizers]

Authors: Kawamura, Y; Mutsuga, M; Wakui, C; Maitani, T (2002) Shokohin Eiseigaku Zasshi / Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan 43:215-220. HERO ID: 789651

[Less] The use of polyvinyl chloride gloves containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate for food contact applications . . . [More] The use of polyvinyl chloride gloves containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate for food contact applications is restricted. In their place, polyvinyl chloride gloves containing non-phthalate plasticizers (PVC-NP) have been introduced. They contained unknown substances, so they were studied by GC/MS, HR-MS and NMR. The chemical structures of the unknown substances were confirmed to be diethylene glycol dibenzoate, triethylene glycol dibenzoate, dipropylene glycol dibenzoate, and alkylsulfonic acid phenyl ester, which are plasticizers. Including di-isononyl adipate, the contents of the plasticizers were 37.5-48.9% in the PVC-NP gloves, and their migration levels were 1,010-1,390 ppm into n-heptane. These are very high levels. These plasticizers are not widely used for food contact polyvinyl chloride throughout the world, and they have also not been registered as self-standards by Japanese manufacturers. Careful consideration will be necessary for the selection of a suitable plasticizer substitute.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

N-methylpyrrolidone and dowanol DPM as replacements for chlorinated solvents in ultrasonic cleaning

Author: Niemczewski, B (2001) Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing 79:68-72. HERO ID: 3559324

[Less] The intensity of cavitation and the intensity of movements of liquid under the influence of ultrasound . . . [More] The intensity of cavitation and the intensity of movements of liquid under the influence of ultrasound radiation have been tested, in N-methylpyrrolidone (NPM) and in Dawanol DPM and for comparison purposes also in tetrachloroethylene and in chemically degassed water. The tests were carried out at four ultrasound frequencies: 27, 33, 37 and 60 kHz. A very high intensity of cavitation was found in NMP. The shapes of curves: cavitation vs. temperature and radiation pressure vs. temperature depend both on the power and frequency of the ultrasound.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Density and Viscosity of Mixtures of alkoxypropanols with ethanol at T = (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K

Authors: Ku, SC; Peng, IH; Tu, CH (2001) HERO ID: 4828943

[Less] Densities and viscosities were measured for the binary mixtures formed by 1-methoxy-2-propanol, 1-propoxy-2-propanol, . . . [More] Densities and viscosities were measured for the binary mixtures formed by 1-methoxy-2-propanol, 1-propoxy-2-propanol, 1-butoxy-2-propanol, dipropylene glycol methyl ether, dipropylene glycol propyl ether, and dipropylene glycol butyl ether with ethanol at T = (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K and atmospheric pressure over the whole concentration range. Densities were determined using a vibrating-tube densimeter. Viscosities were measured with an automatic Ubbelohde capillary viscometer. The estimated uncertainties are less than +/-1 x 10(-4) g.cm(-3) for density and +/-0.6% for viscosity. Excess volumes V-E and deviations in viscosity Delta eta for the mixtures were derived from the experimental data, and the computed results were fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. Furthermore, McAllister's multibody-interaction model is used to correlate the binary kinematic viscosities.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Excess molar volumes and partial molar volumes of dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether plus n-alkanol mixtures at 25 degrees C

Authors: Pal, A; Kumar, H (2001) Journal of Solution Chemistry 30:411-423. HERO ID: 1167387

[Less] The excess molar volumes VE for binary liquid mixtures containing dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether . . . [More] The excess molar volumes VE for binary liquid mixtures containing dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether and methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, and 1-heptanol have been measured using a continuous dilution dilatometer over the whole mole fraction range at 25 degreesC at atmospheric pressure. V-E are negative over the whole composition range except for the systems containing 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, or 1-heptanol which are positve at every composition. V-E increases in a positive direction with increase in chain length of the n-alcohol. The results have been used to estimate the excess partial molar volumes (V) over bar (E)(i) of the components. The change of V-E and (V) over bar (E)(i) with composition and the number of carbon atoms in the alcohol molecule are discussed as a basis to understand some of the molecular interactions present in the mixtures.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air and biological monitoring of solvent exposure during graffiti removal

Authors: Anundi, H; Langworth, S; Johanson, G; Lind, ML; Akesson, B; Friis, L; Itkes, N; Söderman, E; Jönsson, BA; Edling, C (2000) International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 73:561-569. HERO ID: 824457

[Less] The principal aim of the study was to estimate the level of exposure to organic solvents of graffiti . . . [More] The principal aim of the study was to estimate the level of exposure to organic solvents of graffiti removers, and to identify the chemicals used in different cleaning agents. A secondary objective was to inform about the toxicity of various products and to optimise working procedures.

Exposure to organic solvents was determined by active air sampling and biological monitoring among 38 graffiti removers during an 8-h work shift in the Stockholm underground system. The air samples and biological samples were analysed by gas chromatography. Exposure to organic solvents was also assessed by a questionnaire and interviews.

Solvents identified were N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME), propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE), toluene, xylene, pseudocumene, hemimellitine, mesitylene, ethylbenzene, limonene, nonane, decane, undecane, hexandecane and gamma-butyrolactone. The 8-h average exposures [time-weighted average (TWA)] were below 20% of the Swedish permissible exposure limit value (PEL) for all solvents identified. In poorly ventilated spaces, e.g. in elevators etc., the short-term exposures exceeded occasionally the Swedish short-term exposure limit values (STEL). The blood and urine concentrations of NMP and its metabolites were low. Glycol ethers and their metabolites (2-methoxypropionic acid (MPA), ethoxy acetic acid (EAA), butoxy acetic acid (BAA), and 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) acetic acid (MEAA)) were found in low concentrations in urine. There were significant correlation between the concentrations of NMP in air and levels of NMP and its metabolites in blood and urine. The use of personal protective equipment, i.e. gloves and respirators, was generally high.

Many different cleaning agents were used. The average exposure to solvents was low, but some working tasks included relatively high short-term exposure. To prevent adverse health effects, it is important to inform workers about the health risks and to restrict the use of the most toxic chemicals. Furthermore, it is important to develop good working procedures and to encourage the use of personal protection equipment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Biodegradability and microbial toxicity of aircraft fuel system icing inhibitors

Authors: Meshako, CE; Bleckmann, CA; Goltz, MN (1999) Environmental Toxicology 14:383-390. HERO ID: 1763085

[Less] BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. In a pollution prevention and chemical substitution effort, the U.S. Air . . . [More] BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. In a pollution prevention and chemical substitution effort, the U.S. Air Force and Navy formed a joint initiative to find safer, more environmentally acceptable jet fuel system icing inhibitors (FSII) for military aircraft. Standard biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) analysis and variations of the BOD procedure were used as simple screening tools to evaluate the potential for aquatic biodegradation and microbial toxicity of proposed FSIIs. This laboratory evaluation of biological properties allows prediction of the biotreatability of the chemicals in wastewater treatment plants, and their potential application as biocides at higher concentrations. The current FSII, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DiEGME) was evaluated along with two new candidate compounds, dipropylene glycol and glycerol formal. At a low concentration (3.5 mg), DiEGME exerted a BOD5 of about 27% of theoretical oxygen demand. Test concentrations of \ 7 mg/L had decreasing oxygen consumption rate and extent, typical of a material with potential aquatic microbial toxicity. Dipropylene glycol began to moderately degrade only after more than 3 weeks exposure to microorganisms obtained from raw sewage. Glycerol formal showed no signs of biodegradation during a 5-week test period. In a simple microbial toxicity test DiEGME was most toxic, dipropylene glycol was moderately toxic, and glycerol formal showed little toxicity. At low concentrations (7 mg/L), none of the chemicals significantly inhibited microbial activity (P = 0.34).

Journal Article
Journal Article

A study on the preparation of UPE resins with different glycol molar patios and their physical properties: 2. Characteristics of liquid and cured UPE

Authors: Lee, SH; Park, TW; Lee, JO (1999) HERO ID: 4436364

[Less] In order to improve the mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester(UPE) resins, the UPE resins were . . . [More] In order to improve the mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester(UPE) resins, the UPE resins were fabricated using various glycols and characterized before and after curing. The UPE resins were prepared by condensation of mixtures (1 : 1 molar ratio) of phthalic anhydride(PA) and maleic anhydride(MA) with ethylene glycol(EG), propylene glycol(PG), diethylene glycol (DEG), dipropylene glycol (DPG), neopentyl glycol (NPG). The reactivity of the condensation was in the order of NPG>EG>DEG>PG>DPG. The opaque UPE resin with EG revealed phase separation in styrene monomer(SM) because of low solubility. Viscosities of the UPE resins decreased with increasing molecular weights of the glycols used. The gel-time of UPE resins tended to be increased with higher molecular weights of glycols. The UPE cured resins based on NPG and PG were found to improved hardness, water resistance, tensile strength and the flexural strength. The UPE resins of DEG or EG showed poor water resistance and low tensile elongation. Among the UPE resins prepared from various kinds of glycols, those of NPG and PG showed better mechanical properties.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Fragrance and contact allergens in vitro modulate the HLA-DR and E-cadherin expression on human epidermal Langerhans cells

Authors: Verrier, A; Schmitt, D; Staquet, M (1999) International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 120:56-62. HERO ID: 1808388

[Less] BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. Background: Epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) play a critical role in the . . . [More] BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. Background: Epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) play a critical role in the induction of contact hypersensitivity. The LCs leave the skin, move to the regional lymph nodes and present the allergens embedded in the HLA-DR molecule to naive T-lymphocytes. To allow LC emigration from the epidermis, E-cadherin must be down-regulated. In this study, we have examined the early events that occur in the human epidermis after exposure to three strong contact sensitizers and two commonly used fragrances by e nesulfonic acid, Bandrowski's base, or p-phenylene diamine resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of HLA-DR expression on the surface of LCs without affecting the number of positive cells. These contact allergens induced a downregulation of E-cadherin expression as well as a significant decrease of the percentage of E-cadherin-positive cells. Incubation with an irritant, sodium lauryl sulfate, did not significantly change HLA-DR and E-cadherin expression. Conclusions: Based on the alteration of E s of in vitro tests, this rapid and simple method should help to detect the sensitizing potential of a substance to be applied onto the human skin as an alternative to animal testing.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Relationship between the primary and secondary dielectric relaxation processes in propylene glycol and its oligomers

Authors: Leon, C; Ngai, KL; Roland, CM (1999) Journal of Chemical Physics 110:11585-11591. HERO ID: 3038973

[Less] Dielectric relaxation measurements were performed on propylene glycol (PG) and oligomers having different . . . [More] Dielectric relaxation measurements were performed on propylene glycol (PG) and oligomers having different number of repeat units (N=2, 3, and 69). The primary alpha-relaxation had the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) form, with a stretch exponent (1-n) which decreased with increasing N. The temperature dependence of the alpha-relaxation time, as reflected in the fragility index, increased with N. A broad, rather symmetric secondary beta-relaxation was observed at higher frequencies in the dielectric loss spectrum for all samples with N>1. This is the first observation of the beta-relaxation peak in dipropylene glycol (N=2) and tripropylene glycol (N=3). The separation between the a-and beta-relaxations increased with increasing N. This trend indicates that the separation is minimal in PG, which makes it difficult to resolve the beta-relaxation from the more intense alpha-relaxation. This, together with the fact that the strength of the beta-relaxation decreases with the molecular weight of PPG, as found by Johari and coworkers, explains the absence of an observable beta-peak or shoulder in isothermal or isochronal dielectric measurement on PG. It is proposed that the deviation of the dielectric loss peak for PG from either the KWW or the Cole-Davidson functions at higher frequencies is due to a beta-relaxation masked by the alpha-process. The same conclusion was reached by Johari and co-workers, based on evidence from their "difference isochrone method.'' Finally, we show that the data from oligomers of propylene glycol support the recently proposed correlation of tau(beta)(T-g) with (1-n) and the rough agreement between tau(beta)(T-g) and the primitive relaxation time of the coupling model at temperatures above T-g. [S0021-9606(99)51423-2].