Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Diethyl phthalate (DEP)

Show Project Details Hide Project Details
331 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

DETERMINATION OF PLASTICIZERS IN DRINKING WATER USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY

Authors: Souza, RR; Jardim Martins, EA; Otomo, JI; Furusawa, HA; Faustino Pires, MA (2012) HERO ID: 1322079

[Less] DETERMINATION OF PLASTICIZERS IN DRINKING WATER USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY. This . . . [More] DETERMINATION OF PLASTICIZERS IN DRINKING WATER USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY. This study investigated the levels of plasticizer endocrine disruptors (diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and bisphenol A) in drinking water at Paraiba do Sul River region and release of these compounds from bottled water. An analytical method employing solid phase extraction and GC/MS was optimized and validated. The results showed that the method is selective, linear (r(2) > 0.99), precise (RSD < 12%), accurate (recoveries between 62 and 105%), sensitive and robust. Applying the method, the presence of all studied pollutants in drinking water was observed for the three sampled plasticizers. These plasticizers were not found in mineral bottled water, before or after storage.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Compound-specific isotope analysis for aerobic biodegradation of phthalate acid esters

Authors: Peng, X; Li, X (2012) Talanta 97:445-449. HERO ID: 1315304

[Less] The degradation of three phthalic acid esters (PAEs) (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) . . . [More] The degradation of three phthalic acid esters (PAEs) (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)) by natural microbial community under aerobic condition and their isotope fractionation were compared by using a laboratory microcosm system with natural marine sediment overlying with natural seawater. The results showed that the degradation of the three tested PAEs followed a first-order kinetics, with rate constants of 0.0541, 0.0352 and 0.00731 day(-1) for DMP, DBP and DOP, respectively, indicating that the degradation rate of PAEs is a inverse function of the length of the alkyl side chain: the longer the side chain, the slower the rate is. (13)C isotope enrichment of the three residual PAEs were evaluated with compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). A relatively obvious (13)C enrichment, with maximum δ(13)C shifts of Δδ(13)C(DMP)=2.05±0.21‰ (f=0.17) and Δδ(13)C(DBP)=1.92±0.23‰ (f=0.08) in the residual DMP and DBP, respectively, was observed at an advanced stage of biodegradation. No significant (13)C enrichment occurred in the residual DOP (Δδ(13)C(DOP)=0.55±0.21‰, f=0.16) within the accuracy and reproducibility for GC-C-IRMS (±0.5‰). The experimental results indicated that the degree of isotopic fractionation in the three residual PAEs appeared to be related to the number of carbon atoms, which is in the order of DMP>DBP>DOP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phthalates in Belgian cow's milk and the role of feed and other contamination pathways at farm level

Authors: Fierens, T; Van Holderbeke, M; Willems, H; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I (2012) Food and Chemical Toxicology 50:2945-2953. HERO ID: 1311704

[Less] This study investigated the occurrence of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl . . . [More] This study investigated the occurrence of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) in raw cow's milk and feed from Belgian farms in order to determine their most relevant contamination pathways in milk. Measurable levels of DMP, DEP, DnBP, DCHP and DnOP were found in various feed samples, although they were not observed in milk. A plausible explanation for this is that they are rapidly metabolised in cows. DEHP and in a smaller degree also DiBP and BBP levels in milk seemed to vary across seasons and farms. DiBP and BBP levels were lower in summer than in winter milk, which was in contrast with what was observed for DEHP. This is possibly due to another feed composition during summer and winter. Comparing BBP and DEHP concentrations in manually with those in mechanically obtained milk revealed that, besides environmental contamination via feed ingestion, contact materials used during the mechanical milking process is another important contamination pathway. Concentrations observed in this study confirm the decreasing trend of DEHP in European cow's milk owing to the substitution of DEHP by other plasticisers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Identification of phthalates in medications and dietary supplement formulations in the United States and Canada

Authors: Kelley, KE; Hernández-Díaz, S; Chaplin, EL; Hauser, R; Mitchell, AA (2012) Environmental Health Perspectives 120:379-384. HERO ID: 1249433

[Less] BACKGROUND: In animal studies, some ortho-phthalates, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate . . . [More] BACKGROUND: In animal studies, some ortho-phthalates, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), have been shown to be reproductive and developmental toxicants. Human studies show widespread population exposure to background levels of phthalates. Limited evidence suggests that particularly high exposure levels may result from orally ingested medicinal products containing phthalates as excipients (inactive ingredients).

OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to identify and describe the scope of prescription (RX) and nonprescription (over-the-counter; OTC) medicinal products and dietary supplements marketed in the United States and Canada since 1995 that include phthalates as excipients.

METHODS: We used lists of modified-release drug products to identify potential drug products. Inclusion of phthalates was verified using available electronic databases, print references, published package inserts, product packages, and direct communication from manufacturers. Additional products were identified using Internet searches utilizing keywords for phthalates.

RESULTS: Based on labeling information, 6 RX drug products included DBP as an excipient, and 45 specified the use of diethyl phthalate (DEP). Phthalate polymers with no known toxicity--hypromellose phthalate (HMP), cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), and polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP)--were included in 75 RX products. Three OTC drug and dietary supplement products listed DBP, 64 listed DEP, and > 90 indicated inclusion of polymers.

CONCLUSIONS: Numerous RX and OTC drug products and supplements from a wide range of therapeutic categories may use DBP or DEP as excipients in oral dosage forms. The potential effects of human exposure to these phthalates through medications are unknown and warrant further investigation.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Interpreting variability in population biomonitoring data: Role of elimination kinetics

Authors: Aylward, LL; Kirman, CR; Adgate, JL; Mckenzie, LM; Hays, SM (2012) Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 22:398-408. HERO ID: 1248938

[Less] Biomarker concentrations in spot samples of blood and urine are implicitly interpreted as direct surrogates . . . [More] Biomarker concentrations in spot samples of blood and urine are implicitly interpreted as direct surrogates for long-term exposure magnitude in a variety of contexts including (1) epidemiological studies of potential health outcomes associated with general population chemical exposure, and (2) cross-sectional population biomonitoring studies. However, numerous factors in addition to exposure magnitude influence biomarker concentrations in spot samples, including temporal variation in spot samples because of elimination kinetics. The influence of half-life of elimination relative to exposure interval is examined here using simple first-order pharmacokinetic simulations of urinary concentrations in spot samples collected at random times relative to exposure events. Repeated exposures were modeled for each individual in the simulation with exposure amounts drawn from lognormal distributions with varying geometric standard deviations. Relative variation in predicted spot sample concentrations was greater than the variation in underlying dose distributions when the half-life of elimination was shorter than the interval between exposures, with the degree of relative variation increasing as the ratio of half-life to exposure interval decreased. Results of the modeling agreed well with data from a serial urine collection data set from the Centers for Disease Control. Data from previous studies examining intra-class correlation coefficients for a range of chemicals relying upon repeated sampling support the importance of considering the half-life relative to exposure frequency in design and interpretation of studies using spot samples for exposure classification and exposure estimation. The modeling and data sets presented here provide tools that can assist in interpretation of variability in cross-sectional biomonitoring studies and in design of studies utilizing biomonitoring data as markers for exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chemical monitoring and temporal variation in levels of endocrine disrupting chemicals (priority phenols and phthalate esters) from selected wastewater treatment plant and freshwater systems in Republic of South Africa

Authors: Olujimi, OO; Fatoki, OS; Odendaal, JP; Daso, AP (2012) HERO ID: 1322160

[Less] This study presents a quantitative estimation of the simultaneous analysis of 11 priority phenols . . . [More] This study presents a quantitative estimation of the simultaneous analysis of 11 priority phenols and six phthalate esters in surface water from five rivers collected from the upstream and downstream of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that emptied their final effluents into the rivers. In addition, influents and effluents from the WWTPs were collected on a quarterly basis between April 2010 and March 2011. Kirstenbosch Botanical Garden stream was used as a control site. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for identification and quantification using N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA). Chemical analysis by GC-MS revealed the presence of DEP, POH, PCP, DEHP, DBP, BBP, 2,4-DMP and 2-NP as the most abundant congeners. Zandvliet WWTP showed to be the most polluted as it receives wastewater from the largest informal settlement in the city. Generally, concentration ranged from below detection limit (LOD) for most of the congeners to 34.520 mg l(-1) for DBP at Zandvliet WWTP. Also, statistical analysis showed correlation between levels of analytes in effluent and downstream water samples, an indication of pollution from the WWTP. From the monitoring exercise, data obtained for most compounds analyzed showed that the congeners are effectively removed (approximately 80 to 100%) with the exception of 2-nitro phenol that was poorly removed. The production of 2,4-DMP is also noteworthy in the final effluent of all the investigated treatment plants. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Influence of polluted SY river on child growth and sex hormones

Authors: Tang, CY; Li, AQ; Guan, YB; Li, Y; Cheng, XM; Li, P; Li, SQ; Luo, YX; Huang, Q; Chen, HY; Cui, LX (2012) Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 25:291-296. HERO ID: 1256742

[Less] OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the polluted SY River on children's growth . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the polluted SY River on children's growth and sex hormones, and provide scientific data for assessment of the polluted status of the SY River.

METHODS: The study areas were selected randomly from the SY River Basin. Lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), phthalates (DEP, DBP, DMP, DEHP), and bisphenol A (BPA) were measured both in the river water and in the drinking water. School children were selected by cluster sampling (n=154). Physical development indexes (height, weight, bust-circumference, and skinfold thickness) and sex hormones [testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2)] were measured for all the children.

RESULTS: The contents of Pb and Hg exceeded Class V standards of surface water quality in each section of the river and other indicators exceeded Class III. Compared to the control area, the concentrations of Pb, Hg, As, BPA, DEP, and DBP in the drinking water were significantly higher than in the polluted area (P<0.05). Children from the control area had significantly lower E2 and T than children from the polluted area (P<0.05). Among anthropometric results, only skinfold thickness had statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05), while the other indexes showed no significant differences between the two groups (P>0.05).

CONCLUSION: The drinking water has been polluted by the SY River and affected serum sex hormone levels of children living in the polluted area.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of nitrate on the advanced UV photolysis of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate degradation in aqueous solution

Authors: Park, CG; Kim, JC (2012) Desalination and Water Treatment 47:163-170. HERO ID: 1322267

[Less] One of the objectives of this study was to delineate the effect of nitrate on the oxidation of di . . . [More] One of the objectives of this study was to delineate the effect of nitrate on the oxidation of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) by conducting bench- scale UV/H2O2 operations under a variety of UV doses and initial concentrations of H2O2 and NO3 --N. Also, this study evaluated the two processes, UV alone and UV/H2O2, for DEHP oxidation. DEHP separation and quantification were performed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry system (LC-ESI-MS/MS). It was found that the UV photolysis of H2O2 is a more effective method of DEHP oxidation than the direct UV photolysis. It was observed that the DEHP oxidation efficiency of about 85.0% or higher could be achieved at a UV dose of 800 mJ/cm(2) with an initial H2O2 concentration of more than 30mg/L in the absence of nitrate. Nitrate hindered the DEHP oxidation by acting as (OH)-O-center dot scavengers. The adverse effect by nitrate in the UV/H2O2 process was significantly greater than that in the UV oxidation-alone, and its oxidation was almost reduced to half by nitrate under some operating condition. However, it is noted that the DEHP oxidation efficiency of more than 70% could be expected at a UV dose of 600 mJ/cm(2) with an initial H2O2 concentration of 50mg/L while considering the nitrate scavenging effect.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Evaluation of in vitro screening system for estrogenicity: Comparison of stably transfected human estrogen receptor-α transcriptional activation (OECD TG455) assay and estrogen receptor (ER) binding assay

Authors: Lee, HK; Kim, TS; Kim, CY; Kang, IH; Kim, MG; Jung, KK; Kim, HS; Han, SY; Yoon, HJ; Rhee, GS (2012) Journal of Toxicological Sciences 37:431-437. [Letter] HERO ID: 1250627

[Less] The estrogenic activity of industrial chemicals, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di(n-butyl) phthalate . . . [More] The estrogenic activity of industrial chemicals, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), bisphenol A (BPA), and nonylphenol (NP), was compared using OECD test guideline 455(TG455), stably transfected transcriptional activation (STTA) and estrogen receptor (ER) binding assays. The estrogenic activity of BBP, BPA and NP were approximately 180,000-fold (PC(50), 4.32 x 10(-6 )M), 5,000-fold (PC(50), 1.26 x 10(-7) M) and 120,000-fold (PC(50), 2.92 x 10(-6 )M) less than 17β-estradiol (PC(50), 2.43 x 10(-11)M), whereas DEHP, DBP and DEP did not show any estrogenicity activity in the STTA assay. Moreover, binding affinities to human ERα of BBP, BPA, and NP were approximately 200,000-fold (IC(50), 4.91 x 10(-4) M), 8000-fold (IC(50), 1.92 x 10(-5) M) and 1400-fold (IC(50), 3.34 x 10(-6) M) less than 17β-estradiol (IC(50), 2.45 x 10(-9) M) in competitive human ERα binding assay. The relative potencies of STTA assay were very similar to ER binding, E-screen, and Yeast screening assays. Therefore, our results suggested that OECD test guideline TG455 may be useful as a screening test for potential endocrine disruptors.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Preparation and characterization of molecularly imprinted polymer for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate: Application to sample clean-up prior to gas chromatographic determination

Authors: Shaikh, H; Memon, N; Khan, H; Bhanger, MI; Nizamani, SM (2012) Journal of Chromatography A 1247:125-133. HERO ID: 1322167

[Less] The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) selective for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) an environmental . . . [More] The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) selective for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) an environmental endocrine disruptor was prepared by suspension polymerization using methacrylamide as functional monomer and N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide as cross-linker. The imprinted polymer was employed for solid-phase extraction of DEHP from water samples of environmental importance and characterized by FT-IR and SEM. The adsorption properties of the imprinted polymer were demonstrated by equilibrium rebinding experiments, Pseudo-second-order kinetic model, Sips isotherm and Scatchard analysis. The reusability of MIP was checked for at least six repeated batch adsorption cycles and the results showed almost no deterioration in the adsorption capacity. The competitive recognition studies were performed with DEHP and structurally similar compounds; dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and dibutyl phthalate (DBP). The imprinting factor (IF) of DEHP was found to be 12.86 which was much higher than the imprinting factors (IF) of other phthalates. A method constituted by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) with GC-FID was developed for DEHP analysis in water samples under very simple conditions. Sample loading and desorption conditions were also optimized. The MISPE method's linearity ranged from 0.035 to 3.0 μg ml⁻¹ with r² = 0.9998. Intra-assay, interassay precision and accuracy ranged from 0.0168% to 1.017%, 1.130% to 4.799% and 94.98% to 99.35%, respectively. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.011 and 0.035 μg ml⁻¹, respectively. Synthesized MIP was employed in MISPE for cleaning up the spiked river water samples prior to gas chromatographic analysis. The river samples were found to contain DEHP in the range of 1.4 × 10⁻³ to 0.349 μg ml⁻¹.