Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Ammonia, Oral - Problem Formulation


1,345 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

HOMEOSTATIC ADJUSTMENTS AFTER EXERCISE : I. ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM OF THE BLOOD

Author: Shock, NW (1944) HERO ID: 2821864

[Less] The rate at which displacement and recovery of the acid-base equilibrium of the blood occur in young . . . [More] The rate at which displacement and recovery of the acid-base equilibrium of the blood occur in young adult males subjected to short periods of maximal exertion has been determined. Displacement of acid-base equilibrium produced by severe exercise is along the fixed acid path, similar to the path of displacement produced by ingestion of acidifying agents such as ammonium chloride. Maximum displacement of the acid-base equilibrium is not reached until 7 to 10 minutes after the cessation of exercise. By this time over 50 per cent of the displacement in oxygen consumption, respiratory volume, and blood pressure have disappeared. A much greater metabolic acidosis was produced by exercise than could be induced by the oral administration of ammonium chloride. Recovery from the metabolic acidosis produced by exercise was much more rapid (10 times) than was recovery from the acidosis produced by ammonium chloride. After exercise the pH, returned to normal values more rapidly than did the bicarbonate content of the serum.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ammonium chloride decalcification, as modified by calcium intake: The relation between generalized osteoporosis and ostitis fibrosa

Authors: Jaffe, HL; Bodansky, A; Chandler, JP (1932) Journal of Experimental Medicine 56:823-834. HERO ID: 2821865

[Less] 1. In all age groups the effects of ammonium chloride administration were found to be strikingly dependent . . . [More] 1. In all age groups the effects of ammonium chloride administration were found to be strikingly dependent upon the calcium intake.

2. Dogs receiving an adequate calcium diet and ammonium chloride showed less decalcification than those receiving a low calcium diet with or without ammonium chloride.

3. In the younger groups the added effect of ammonium chloride to calcium-low diet brought out more striking changes than a low calcium diet alone.

4. When the decalcification was less severe—in the oldest dogs on the low calcium diet with or without ammonium chloride, and in the younger dogs on an adequate calcium intake with ammonium chloride —generalized thinning of the bones without marrow fibrosis resulted (osteoporosis).

5. When the decalcification was rapid and severe—in the youngest dogs on low calcium diet, particularly with ammonium chloride— generalized decalcification and secondary marrow fibrosis resulted (ostitis fibrosa).

6. Generalized ostitis fibrosa is a rather inclusive term and may be applied to the histologic picture which results when clinical or experimental decalcification is rapid, and therefore leads to extensive marrow fibrosis.

7. The special underlying causes of the decalcification may incidentally contribute features to modify the generalized osteoporosis or ostitis fibrosa as in rickets and in von Recklinghausen's disease.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Nutritional Anæmia in Infancy: Some Observations on a Common Deficiency Disease

Author: Mackay, HM (1929) Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 22:385-391. HERO ID: 2821866

[Less] The prevalence of anæmia among London infants is shown by an investigation extending over the last three . . . [More] The prevalence of anæmia among London infants is shown by an investigation extending over the last three years and comprising about 770 cases with 3,100 hæmoglobin estimations. This anæmia is largely nutritional in origin and is due to a deficiency of iron, possibly associated with other factors. It is known that an infant obtains its necessary iron not only from its milk, which is poor in iron, but also from a store in the liver. Our results lead us to suppose that this store may be unduly low in many London infants. The average hæmoglobin percentage in the blood of fairly healthy artificially-fed London infants shows a sharp fall from its high level at birth to about 65 per cent. at 2 to 3 months of age, a rise to about 70 per cent. by 5 to 6 months, and then a steady fall reaching about 65 per cent. at 12 months. The continuous administration of iron, beginning when the infant is under 2 months old, raised the average hæmoglobin percentage to 80 per cent. at 4 months of age and onwards. Infants whose birth-weight is under 6 lb., twins and premature infants are specially in need of iron treatment. The selection of the iron salt is of importance, and iron and ammonium citrate proved effective. It was satisfactorily administered on a large scale by giving it incorporated in a dried milk.No evidence was obtained that want of light is an etiological factor in anæmia in infancy, and artificial light therapy did not cure it. No vitamin deficiency appeared to be involved. The value of liver treatment is still under investigation, but the results so far obtained can be explained on the assumption that liver treatment is efficacious only because it provides a source of iron. The routine administration of an iron salt to artificially-fed infants is advocated on the ground that, by preventing the anæmia from which most of them would otherwise suffer, the level of health of our infant population would be raised.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

CAUSE OF IMMEDIATE DEATH BY LARGE DOSES OF BOTULINUS TOXIN

Authors: Bronfenbrenner, JJ; Schlesinger, MJ; Orr, PF (1924) HERO ID: 2821885

[Less] Parenteral introduction of amounts of the culture filtrate of Bacillus botulinus greatly in excess of . . . [More] Parenteral introduction of amounts of the culture filtrate of Bacillus botulinus greatly in excess of the minimum lethal dose has been observed to cause the practically immediate death of mice. This result is due to the presence in the filtrates of a chemical poison possessing properties distinct from those of the contained botulinus toxin which itself acts only after a well defined period of incubation. This chemical poison is not neutralized by botulinus antitoxin; it is effective only when large amounts of the culture filtrate are given; it is thermostable, not being destroyed when heated in the autoclave in a sealed tube, though when it is heated in an open container its toxicity diminishes with a coincidental volatilization of basic material. The volatile substance can be identified as ammonia. Death resulting from the injection of comparatively large amounts of ammonium salts (0.1 gm.) is easily distinguished from that due to botulism, both through the character of the symptoms and the absence of an incubation period. However, when the amount of toxic salts injected is smaller (0.01 gm.), the symptoms of poisoning are not so characteristic and death may be delayed long enough to suggest a period of incubation similar to that observed in botulism (Table IV). This circumstance is of importance in connection with the examination of partly decomposed food products in which the presence of botulinus toxin is suspected. As a rule such suspected material is injected in massive doses (0.5 to 1 cc.) in mice. It is conceivable that such spoiled foods may be contaminated with common putrefactive bacteria yielding ammonia during their growth and thus may cause death of the test animals. If in such tests mice passively protected by the preliminary injection of an excess of antitoxin be used in addition to normal animals, the chances of an error in the interpretation of the results will be materially reduced, though not ruled out. Unfortunately for such a procedure, botulinus antitoxin is not readily available, while furthermore, recent findings indicate that it may not always be effective owing to the existence of a group of toxin-producing bacteria very similar to Bacillus botulinus, but not homologous immunologically with either of the known types of the latter. The test of thermostability of the toxic constituents of suspected food may conceivably help to determine the true nature of the poison.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

ORGANIC MATTER IN THE EXPIRED BREATH WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS INHIBITING POWER ON OXIDIZING FERMENTS

Author: Amoss, HL (1913) HERO ID: 2821886

[Less] Weichardt claims to have demonstrated the presence of an organic body in the expired air. He allowed . . . [More] Weichardt claims to have demonstrated the presence of an organic body in the expired air. He allowed the exhaled breath to pass through hydrochloric acid solution, evaporated the resulting solution to dryness on a water bath, and obtained a weighable residue which charred on ignition. If he neutralized the acid solution and concentrated it under reduced pressure, he obtained a solution which inhibited the bluing of the guaiacum indicator by blood. By exposing calcium chloride in a room in which the air had been vitiated, he claimed also to have obtained a substance from the air which prevented the bluing of the guaiacum indicator by blood. The experiments here recorded show that a variable amount of matter is retained by weak hydrochloric solution when exhaled breath is passed through it, and that this matter is volatile on ignition. Contrary to the findings of Weichardt, there is no charring or blackening. Nesslerization shows the residue to consist mainly, if not wholly, of ammonium chloride. This ammonia is believed to have come from the decomposition of food particles about the teeth. In one case the person (S.) had smoked just before the experiment, so that a small amount of the ammonia from the tobacco smoke may have been held temporarily by the saliva and food particles in the mouth and been given off gradually during the experiment. Weichardt's experiments on the inhibition of the guaiacum test for blood by means of the substances retained when exhaled breath is passed through hydrochloric acid or over calcium chloride crystals are not corroborated. It is further shown that the guaiacum indicator is unreliable for these tests in view of the fact that a small amount of free acid or free alkali will inhibit the guaiacum test for blood. This fact is offered as a probable explanation of Weichardt's results. Calcium chloride alone gives a deep blue color with the guaiacin indicator. Weichardt used this salt to collect from the expired breath certain unknown substances which he claims inhibit the oxidation of guaiacum by blood. His results are therefore inconclusive. The phenolphthalin test for blood has been studied in this connection and further light has been thrown on this reaction. The sodium salt of phenolphthalin is colorless in alkaline solution, and is readily oxidized by minute quantities of blood to phenolphthalein which gives a characteristic deep purplish red color in alkaline solution. It has been found that the presence of calcium chloride and ammonium chloride in small amounts retards and, in large amounts, prevents this reaction. It is believed that any salt composed of a weak base combined with a strong acid will have the same effect. This is discussed in the text. It has also been shown that the presence of calcium chloride or ammonium chloride decreases the depth of color of phenolphthalein in sodium hydroxide solution. Carbon dioxide also prevents the oxidation of phenolphthalin by blood. Of course this does not mean that carbon dioxide prevents the action of the oxidizing ferments generally. In this particular case the substance to be oxidized, namely phenolphthalin, was not allowed by reason of the presence of the carbon dioxide to combine with the alkali and thereby assume a state in which it could be easily oxidized. The results of one experiment seem to indicate a relation between the amount of dissolved oxygen in the solutions and the percentage of oxidation. Sodium chloride either alone or with the aid of hydrogen peroxide is able to bring about the oxidation of phenolphthalin in alkali to a very slight extent (3.5 to 5 per cent. in twenty-four hours). Therefore phenolphthalin as a test for oxidizing ferments should not be used in the presence of an appreciable amount of inorganic salts or carbon dioxide. Complete dialysis is recommended in these cases. It is also to be noted that the great delicacy of the test allows considerable dilution. Liquids were obtained from the expired breath by passing this through weak hydrochloric acid or by condensing the moisture in it by conducting it through cooled Drechsel bottles. Attempts were then made to prove the presence in these liquids of some substance which inhibits the oxidation of phenolphthalin by blood, but all were unsuccessful. Moreover attempts to concentrate these liquids by evaporation under reduced pressure or by the passage of a direct current (colloidal travel) were also unsuccessful. It is planned to improve upon the apparatus used to concentrate colloids by the passage of a direct current, and to test the effect of expired breath products on the rate of oxidation of phenolphthalin by blood.