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Arsenic (Inorganic)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenate toxicity and stress responses in the freshwater ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis

Authors: Zhang, Y-Y; Yang, J; Yin, X-X; Yang, S-P; Zhu, Y-G (In Press) European Journal of Protistology. HERO ID: 1015745

[Less] The arsenic metabolism in different biological organisms has been studied extensively. However, little . . . [More] The arsenic metabolism in different biological organisms has been studied extensively. However, little is known about protozoa. Herein, we investigated the cell stress responses of the freshwater ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis to arsenate toxicity. An acute toxicity assay revealed an 18-h EC(50) arsenate concentration of ca. 40μM, which caused significant changes in the cell shape, growth and organism mobility. Whereas, under exposure to 30μM arsenate, T. pyriformis could grow reasonably well, indicating a certain resistance of this organism. Arsenic speciation analysis revealed that 94-98% of the total arsenate in cells of T. pyriformis could be transformed to monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid and a small proportion of arsenite after 18h of arsenate exposure, thus indicating the major detoxification pathway by arsenic oxidation/reduction and biomethylation. Finally, comparative proteomic analysis unveiled significant changes in the expression of multiple proteins involved in anti-oxidation, sugar and energy metabolism, proteolysis, and signal transduction. Our results revealed multiple pathways of arsenate detoxification in T. pyriformis, and indicated that protozoa may play important roles in the biogeochemical cycles of arsenic.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Field Testing of Arsenic in Groundwater Samples of Bangladesh Using a Test Kit Based on Lyophilized Bioreporter Bacteria

Authors: Siegfried, K; Endes, C; Bhuiyan, AF; Kuppardt, A; Mattusch, J; van der Meer, JR; Chatzinotas, A; Harms, H (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1015751

[Less] A test kit based on living, lyophilized bacterial bioreporters emitting bioluminescence as a response . . . [More] A test kit based on living, lyophilized bacterial bioreporters emitting bioluminescence as a response to arsenite and arsenate was applied during a field campaign in six villages across Bangladesh. Bioreporter field measurements of arsenic in groundwater from tube wells were in satisfying agreement with the results of spectroscopic analyses of the same samples conducted in the lab. The practicability of the bioreporter test in terms of logistics and material requirements, suitability for high sample throughput, and waste disposal was much better than that of two commercial chemical test kits that were included as references. The campaigns furthermore demonstrated large local heterogeneity of arsenic in groundwater, underscoring the use of well switching as an effective remedy to avoid high arsenic exposure.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic, organic foods, and brown rice syrup

Authors: Jackson, BP; Taylor, VF; Karagas, MR; Punshon, T; Cottingham, KL (In Press) Environmental Health Perspectives. HERO ID: 1015755

[Less] BACKGROUND: Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products are also used as ingredients in prepared foods, some of which may not be obviously rice-based. Organic brown rice syrup (OBRS) is used as a sweetener in organic food products as an alternative to high fructose corn syrup. We hypothesized that OBRS introduces arsenic into these products. OBJECTIVE: We determined the concentration and speciation of arsenic (As) in commercially available brown rice syrups, and in products containing OBRS including toddler formula, cereal/energy bars, and high energy foods used by endurance athletes. METHODS: We used ICP-MS and IC-ICP-MS to determine total As (Astotal) concentrations and As speciation in products purchased via the internet or in stores in the Hanover, NH area. DISCUSSION: We found that OBRS can contain high concentrations of Asi and dimethylarsenate (DMA). An 'organic' toddler milk formula containing OBRS as the primary ingredient had Astotal concentrations up to six times the EPA safe drinking water limit. Cereal bars and high energy foods containing OBRS also had higher As concentrations than equivalent products that did not contain OBRS. Inorganic As was the main As species in the majority of food products tested in this study. CONCLUSIONS: There are currently no US regulations applicable to As in food, but our findings suggest that the OBRS products we evaluated may introduce significant concentrations of Asi to an individual's diet. Thus, we conclude that there is an urgent need for regulatory limits on As in food.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic Speciation in Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) Along a Highly Contaminated Arsenic Gradient

Authors: Whaley-Martin, KJ; Koch, I; Moriarty, M; Reimer, KJ (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1015763

[Less] Arsenic is naturally present in marine ecosystems, and these can become contaminated from mining activities, . . . [More] Arsenic is naturally present in marine ecosystems, and these can become contaminated from mining activities, which may be of toxicological concern to organisms that bioaccumulate the metalloid into their tissues. The toxic properties of arsenic are dependent on the chemical form in which it is found (e.g., toxic inorganic arsenicals vs nontoxic arsenobetaine), and two analytical techniques, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), were used in the present study to examine the arsenic species distribution in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) obtained from an area where there is a strong arsenic concentration gradient as a consequence of mining impacted sediments. A strong positive correlation was observed between the concentration of inorganic arsenic species (arsenic compounds with no As-C bonds) and total arsenic concentrations present in M. edulis tissues (R(2) = 0.983), which could result in significant toxicological consequences to the mussels and higher trophic consumers. However, concentrations of organoarsenicals, dominated by arsenobetaine, remained relatively constant regardless of the increasing As concentration in M. edulis tissue (R(2) = 0.307). XANES bulk analysis and XAS two-dimensional mapping of wet M. edulis tissue revealed the presence of predominantly arsenic-sulfur compounds. The XAS mapping revealed that the As(III)-S and/or As(III) compounds were concentrated in the digestive gland. However, arsenobetaine was found in small and similar concentrations in the digestive gland as well as the surrounding tissue suggesting arsenobetaine may being used in all of the mussel's cells in a physiological function such as an intracellular osmolyte.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Antimony (Sb) and Arsenic (As) in Sb Mining Impacted Paddy Soil from Xikuangshan, China: Differences in Mechanisms Controlling Soil Sequestration and Uptake in Rice

Authors: Okkenhaug, G; Zhu, YG; He, J; Li, X; Luo, L; Mulder, J (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1015789

[Less] Foods produced on soils impacted by antimony (Sb) mining activities are a potential health risk due . . . [More] Foods produced on soils impacted by antimony (Sb) mining activities are a potential health risk due to plant uptake of the contaminant metalloids (Sb) and arsenic (As). Here we report for the first time the chemical speciation of Sb in soil and porewater of flooded paddy soil, impacted by active Sb mining, and its effect on uptake and speciation in rice plants (Oryza sativa L. cv Jiahua). Results are compared with behavior and uptake of As. Pot experiments were conducted under controlled conditions in a climate chamber over a period of 50 days. In pots without rice plants, flooding increased both the concentration of dissolved Sb (up to ca. 2000 μg L(-1)) and As (up to ca. 1500 μg L(-1)). When rice was present, Fe plaque developing on rice roots acted as a scavenger for both As and Sb, whereby the concentration of As, but not Sb, in porewater decreased substantially. Dissolved Sb in porewater, which occurred mainly as Sb(V), correlated with Ca, indicating a solubility governed by Ca antimonate. No significant differences in bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor between Sb and As were observed. Greater relative concentration of Sb(V) was found in rice shoots compared to rice root and porewater, indicating either a preferred uptake of Sb(V) or possibly an oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) in shoots. Adding soil amendments (olivine, hematite) to the paddy soil had no effect on Sb and As concentrations in porewater.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Classification accuracy and cut point selection

Author: Liu, X (In Press) Statistics in Medicine. HERO ID: 1015791

[Less] In biomedical research and practice, quantitative tests or biomarkers are often used for diagnostic . . . [More] In biomedical research and practice, quantitative tests or biomarkers are often used for diagnostic or screening purposes, with a cut point established on the quantitative measurement to aid binary classification. This paper introduces an alternative to the traditional methods based on the Youden index and the closest-to-(0, 1) criterion for threshold selection. A concordance probability evaluating the classification accuracy of a dichotomized measure is defined as an objective function of the possible cut point. A nonparametric approach is used to search for the optimal cut point maximizing the objective function. The procedure is shown to perform well in a simulation study. Using data from a real-world study of arsenic-induced skin lesions, we apply the method to a measure of blood arsenic levels, selecting a cut point to be used as a warning threshold. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic in volcanic geothermal fluids of Latin America

Authors: López, DL; Bundschuh, J; Birkle, P; Armienta, MA; Cumbal, L; Sracek, O; Cornejo, L; Ormachea, M (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. HERO ID: 1015817

[Less] Numerous volcanoes, hot springs, fumaroles, and geothermal wells occur in the Pacific region of Latin . . . [More] Numerous volcanoes, hot springs, fumaroles, and geothermal wells occur in the Pacific region of Latin America. These systems are characterized by high As concentrations and other typical geothermal elements such as Li and B. This paper presents a review of the available data on As concentrations in geothermal systems and their surficial discharges and As data on volcanic gases of Latin America. Data for geothermal systems in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile are presented. Two sources of As can be recognized in the investigated sites: Arsenic partitioned into volcanic gases and emitted in plumes and fumaroles, and arsenic in rocks of volcanic edifices that are leached by groundwaters enriched in volcanic gases. Water containing the most elevated concentrations of As are mature Na-Cl fluids with relatively low sulfate content and As concentrations reaching up to 73.6mgL(-1) (Los Humeros geothermal field in Mexico), but more commonly ranging from a few mgL(-1) to tens of mgL(-1). Fluids derived from Na-Cl enriched waters formed through evaporation and condensation at shallower depths have As levels of only a few μgL(-1). Mixing of Na-Cl waters with shallower meteoric waters results in low to intermediate As concentrations (up to a few mgL(-1)). After the waters are discharged at the ground surface, As(III) oxidizes to As(V) and attenuation of As concentration can occur due to sorption and co-precipitation processes with iron minerals and organic matter present in sediments. Understanding the mechanisms of As enrichment in geothermal waters and their fate upon mixing with shallower groundwater and surface waters is important for the protection of water resources in Latin America.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Rapid sample preparation procedure for As speciation in food samples by LC-ICP-MS

Authors: Batista, BL; Nacano, LR; De Souza, SS; Barbosa, F (In Press) Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A: Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment. HERO ID: 1015849

[Less] This paper describes a rapid method for arsenic (As) speciation by LC-ICP-MS in several types of food . . . [More] This paper describes a rapid method for arsenic (As) speciation by LC-ICP-MS in several types of food samples. Prior to analysis, samples were milled and the As species extracted from biological tissues by sonication in only 2 min with a solution containing MeOH (10%, v/v) plus HNO(3) (2%, v/v). As species were separated by LC using an anion exchange column. Method detection limits for AsB, As(3+), DMA, MMA and As(5+) were 1.3, 0.9, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 ng g(-1), respectively. Method accuracy and precision were traceable to Certified Reference Materials SRM1577 bovine liver from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, CE278 mussel tissue from the Institute of Reference Materials and Measurements and DOLT-3 dogfish liver tissue and DORM-3 fish protein from the National Research Council of Canada. Finally, the method was applied to speciate As in food samples (egg, fish muscle, beef and chicken) purchased in Brazilian markets.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Silibinin potentially protects arsenic-induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in rats

Authors: Muthumani, M; Prabu, SM (In Press) Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods. HERO ID: 1015878

[Less] Arsenic (As) compounds are reported as environmental toxicants and human carcinogens. Exposure to arsenic . . . [More] Arsenic (As) compounds are reported as environmental toxicants and human carcinogens. Exposure to arsenic imposes a big health issue worldwide. Silibinin (SB) is a major flavonolignan compound of silimarin and is found in milk thistle of Silybum marianum. It has been reported that silibinin has antioxidant efficacy as metal chelators due to the orientation of its functional groups. However, it has not yet been explored in experimental animals. In view of this fact, the purpose of this study was to delineate the ameliorative role of silibinin against arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were orally treated with arsenic alone (5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) plus silibinin (75 mg/kg bw/day) for 4weeks. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by the increased activities of serum hepatospecific enzymes namely aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and total bilirubin along with increased elevation of lipid peroxidative markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl content and conjugated dienes. The toxic effect of arsenic was also indicated by significantly decreased activities of membrane bound ATPases, enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase along with nonenzymatic antioxidants like reduced glutathione, total sulfhydryl groups, vitamins C and E. Administration of silibinin exhibited a significant reversal of arsenic-induced toxicity in hepatic tissue. All these changes were supported by reduction of DNA damage in hepatocytes and histopathological observations of the liver. These results suggest that silibinin has a potential protective effect over arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in rat.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Small-scale and household methods to remove arsenic from water for drinking purposes in Latin America

Authors: Litter, MI; Alarcón-Herrera, MT; Arenas, MJ; Armienta, MA; Avilés, M; Cáceres, RE; Cipriani, HN; Cornejo, L; Dias, LE; Cirelli, AF; Farfán, EM; Garrido, S; Lorenzo, L; Morgada, ME; Olmos-Márquez, MA; Pérez-Carrera, A (In Press) Science of the Total Environment. [Review] HERO ID: 1017514

[Less] Small-scale and household low-cost technologies to provide water free of arsenic for drinking purposes, . . . [More] Small-scale and household low-cost technologies to provide water free of arsenic for drinking purposes, suitable for isolated rural and periurban areas not connected to water networks in Latin America are described. Some of them are merely adaptation of conventional technologies already used at large and medium scale, but others are environmentally friendly emerging procedures that use local materials and resources of the affected zone. The technologies require simple and low-cost equipment that can be easily handled and maintained by the local population. The methods are based on the following processes: combination of coagulation/flocculation with adsorption, adsorption with geological and other low-cost natural materials, electrochemical technologies, biological methods including phytoremediation, use of zerovalent iron and photochemical processes. Examples of relevant research studies and developments in the region are given. In some cases, processes have been tested only at the laboratory level and there is not enough information about the costs. However, it is considered that the presented technologies constitute potential alternatives for arsenic removal in isolated rural and periurban localities of Latin America. Generation, handling and adequate disposal of residues should be taken into account in all cases.