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Arsenic (Inorganic)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic Speciation in Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) Along a Highly Contaminated Arsenic Gradient

Authors: Whaley-Martin, KJ; Koch, I; Moriarty, M; Reimer, KJ (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1015763

[Less] Arsenic is naturally present in marine ecosystems, and these can become contaminated from mining activities, . . . [More] Arsenic is naturally present in marine ecosystems, and these can become contaminated from mining activities, which may be of toxicological concern to organisms that bioaccumulate the metalloid into their tissues. The toxic properties of arsenic are dependent on the chemical form in which it is found (e.g., toxic inorganic arsenicals vs nontoxic arsenobetaine), and two analytical techniques, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), were used in the present study to examine the arsenic species distribution in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) obtained from an area where there is a strong arsenic concentration gradient as a consequence of mining impacted sediments. A strong positive correlation was observed between the concentration of inorganic arsenic species (arsenic compounds with no As-C bonds) and total arsenic concentrations present in M. edulis tissues (R(2) = 0.983), which could result in significant toxicological consequences to the mussels and higher trophic consumers. However, concentrations of organoarsenicals, dominated by arsenobetaine, remained relatively constant regardless of the increasing As concentration in M. edulis tissue (R(2) = 0.307). XANES bulk analysis and XAS two-dimensional mapping of wet M. edulis tissue revealed the presence of predominantly arsenic-sulfur compounds. The XAS mapping revealed that the As(III)-S and/or As(III) compounds were concentrated in the digestive gland. However, arsenobetaine was found in small and similar concentrations in the digestive gland as well as the surrounding tissue suggesting arsenobetaine may being used in all of the mussel's cells in a physiological function such as an intracellular osmolyte.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Antimony (Sb) and Arsenic (As) in Sb Mining Impacted Paddy Soil from Xikuangshan, China: Differences in Mechanisms Controlling Soil Sequestration and Uptake in Rice

Authors: Okkenhaug, G; Zhu, YG; He, J; Li, X; Luo, L; Mulder, J (In Press) Environmental Science and Technology. HERO ID: 1015789

[Less] Foods produced on soils impacted by antimony (Sb) mining activities are a potential health risk due . . . [More] Foods produced on soils impacted by antimony (Sb) mining activities are a potential health risk due to plant uptake of the contaminant metalloids (Sb) and arsenic (As). Here we report for the first time the chemical speciation of Sb in soil and porewater of flooded paddy soil, impacted by active Sb mining, and its effect on uptake and speciation in rice plants (Oryza sativa L. cv Jiahua). Results are compared with behavior and uptake of As. Pot experiments were conducted under controlled conditions in a climate chamber over a period of 50 days. In pots without rice plants, flooding increased both the concentration of dissolved Sb (up to ca. 2000 μg L(-1)) and As (up to ca. 1500 μg L(-1)). When rice was present, Fe plaque developing on rice roots acted as a scavenger for both As and Sb, whereby the concentration of As, but not Sb, in porewater decreased substantially. Dissolved Sb in porewater, which occurred mainly as Sb(V), correlated with Ca, indicating a solubility governed by Ca antimonate. No significant differences in bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor between Sb and As were observed. Greater relative concentration of Sb(V) was found in rice shoots compared to rice root and porewater, indicating either a preferred uptake of Sb(V) or possibly an oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) in shoots. Adding soil amendments (olivine, hematite) to the paddy soil had no effect on Sb and As concentrations in porewater.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Rapid sample preparation procedure for As speciation in food samples by LC-ICP-MS

Authors: Batista, BL; Nacano, LR; De Souza, SS; Barbosa, F (In Press) Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A: Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment. HERO ID: 1015849

[Less] This paper describes a rapid method for arsenic (As) speciation by LC-ICP-MS in several types of food . . . [More] This paper describes a rapid method for arsenic (As) speciation by LC-ICP-MS in several types of food samples. Prior to analysis, samples were milled and the As species extracted from biological tissues by sonication in only 2 min with a solution containing MeOH (10%, v/v) plus HNO(3) (2%, v/v). As species were separated by LC using an anion exchange column. Method detection limits for AsB, As(3+), DMA, MMA and As(5+) were 1.3, 0.9, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 ng g(-1), respectively. Method accuracy and precision were traceable to Certified Reference Materials SRM1577 bovine liver from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, CE278 mussel tissue from the Institute of Reference Materials and Measurements and DOLT-3 dogfish liver tissue and DORM-3 fish protein from the National Research Council of Canada. Finally, the method was applied to speciate As in food samples (egg, fish muscle, beef and chicken) purchased in Brazilian markets.

Journal Article
Journal Article

Silibinin potentially protects arsenic-induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in rats

Authors: Muthumani, M; Prabu, SM (In Press) Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods. HERO ID: 1015878

[Less] Arsenic (As) compounds are reported as environmental toxicants and human carcinogens. Exposure to arsenic . . . [More] Arsenic (As) compounds are reported as environmental toxicants and human carcinogens. Exposure to arsenic imposes a big health issue worldwide. Silibinin (SB) is a major flavonolignan compound of silimarin and is found in milk thistle of Silybum marianum. It has been reported that silibinin has antioxidant efficacy as metal chelators due to the orientation of its functional groups. However, it has not yet been explored in experimental animals. In view of this fact, the purpose of this study was to delineate the ameliorative role of silibinin against arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were orally treated with arsenic alone (5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) plus silibinin (75 mg/kg bw/day) for 4weeks. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by the increased activities of serum hepatospecific enzymes namely aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and total bilirubin along with increased elevation of lipid peroxidative markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl content and conjugated dienes. The toxic effect of arsenic was also indicated by significantly decreased activities of membrane bound ATPases, enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase along with nonenzymatic antioxidants like reduced glutathione, total sulfhydryl groups, vitamins C and E. Administration of silibinin exhibited a significant reversal of arsenic-induced toxicity in hepatic tissue. All these changes were supported by reduction of DNA damage in hepatocytes and histopathological observations of the liver. These results suggest that silibinin has a potential protective effect over arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in rat.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Antiapoptotic efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B(12) against arsenic-induced toxicity

Authors: Majumdar, S; Maiti, A; Karmakar, S; Sekhar Das, A; Mukherjee, S; Das, D; Mitra, C (In Press) Environmental Toxicology. HERO ID: 1017429

[Less] Earlier, we proposed that the ability of folic acid and vitamin B(12) to preserve systemic and mitochondrial . . . [More] Earlier, we proposed that the ability of folic acid and vitamin B(12) to preserve systemic and mitochondrial function after short-term exposure to arsenic may prevent further progression to more permanent injury and pathological changes leading to cell death. To elucidate its mechanism, the present study examined the antiapoptotic efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B(12) against short-term arsenic exposure-induced hepatic mitochondria oxidative stress and dysfunction. Sixteen to eighteen weeks old male albino rats weighing 140-150 × g were divided into five groups: Control (A), Arsenic-treated (B), Arsenic + folic acid (C), Arsenic +vitamin B(12) (D), and Arsenic + folic acid + vitamin B(12) (E). Data generated indicated that folic acid and vitamin B(12) separately or in combination can give significant protection against alterations in oxidative stress and apoptotic marker parameters and downstream changes in mitochondria, namely pro-oxidative (NO, TBARS, OH(-)) and antioxidative defense (SOD, CAT, GSH) markers, iNOS protein expression, mitochondrial swelling, cytochrome c oxidase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, Ca(2+) content, caspase-3 activity. Additionally, results of hepatic cell DNA fragmentation, arsenic load of blood, hepatic tissue and urine, and histological observations, all strongly support that both these supplements have efficacy in preventing apoptotic changes and cellular damage. As the mechanisms of actions of both of these supplements are methylation related, a combined application was more effective. Results further reveal new molecular targets through which folic acid and vitamin B(12) separately or in combination work to alleviate one critical component of arsenic-induced liver injury: mitochondria dysfunction. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2010.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Oxidation of arsenite by two β-proteobacteria isolated from soil

Authors: Bachate, SP; Khapare, RM; Kodam, KM (In Press) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. HERO ID: 1003602

[Less] Two heterotrophic As(III)-oxidizing bacteria, SPB-24 and SPB-31 were isolated from garden soil. Based . . . [More] Two heterotrophic As(III)-oxidizing bacteria, SPB-24 and SPB-31 were isolated from garden soil. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain SPB-24 was closely related to genus Bordetella, and strain SPB-31 was most closely related to genus Achromobacter. Both strains exhibited high As(III) (15 mM for SPB-24 and 40 mM for SPB-31) and As(V) (>300 mM for both strains) resistance. Both strains oxidized 5 mM As(III) in minimal medium with oxidation rate of 554 and 558 μM h(-1) for SPB-24 and SPB-31, respectively. Washed cells of both strains oxidized As(III) over broad pH and temperature range with optimum pH 6 and temperature 42°C for both strains. The As(III) oxidation kinetic by washed cells showed K (m) and V (max) values of 41.7 μM and 1,166 μM h(-1) for SPB-24, 52 μM and 1,186 μM h(-1) for SPB-31. In the presence of minimal amount of carbon source, the strains showed high As(III) oxidation rate and high specific arsenite oxidase activity. The ability of strains to resist high concentration of arsenic and oxidize As(III) with highest rates reported so far makes them potential candidates for bioremediation of arsenic-contaminated environment.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Genotoxic potential of arsenic at its reference dose

Authors: Kesari, VP; Kumar, A; Khan, PK (In Press) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. HERO ID: 1015662

[Less] Arsenic, a highly hazardous contaminant in our drinking water, accounts for various toxic effects (including . . . [More] Arsenic, a highly hazardous contaminant in our drinking water, accounts for various toxic effects (including cancer) in human. However, intake of arsenic @0.3μgkg(-1)day(-1) through drinking water, containing arsenic at its guideline value or maximum contaminant limit (10μgL(-1)), has been estimated to pose very little or no measurable risk to cancer in humans. The value also appears to be equal to the human reference dose (or index dose) of arsenic based on human skin toxicity data. The present work was a quantitative assessment of the genotoxic potential of arsenic in mice at doses equivalent to its human reference dose as well as its multiples. Significant increases in the frequencies of chromosome abnormalities in the bone marrow cells were registered over the control level upon exposure to all the doses of arsenic including its reference dose (or index dose). The assessment of arsenic genotoxicity in humans at low doses will therefore be highly instrumental in establishing a permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Phytochelatins play a key role in arsenic accumulation and tolerance in the aquatic macrophyte Wolffia globosa

Authors: Zhang, X; Uroic, MK; Xie, W-Y; Zhu, Y-G; Chen, B-D; McGrath, SP; Feldmann, J; Zhao, F-J (In Press) Environmental Pollution. HERO ID: 1015678

[Less] The rootless duckweed Wolffia globosa can accumulate and tolerate relatively large amounts of arsenic . . . [More] The rootless duckweed Wolffia globosa can accumulate and tolerate relatively large amounts of arsenic (As); however, the underlying mechanisms were unknown. W. globosa was exposed to different concentrations of arsenate with or without l-buthionine sulphoximine (BSO), a specific inhibitor of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Free thiol compounds and As(III)-thiol complexes were identified and quantified using HPLC - high resolution ICP-MS - accurate mass ESI-MS. Without BSO, 74% of the As accumulated in the duckweed was complexed with phytochelatins (PCs), with As(III)-PC(4) and As(III)-PC(3) being the main species. BSO was taken up by the duckweed and partly deaminated. The BSO treatment completely suppressed the synthesis of PCs and the formation of As(III)-PC complexes, and also inhibited the reduction of arsenate to arsenite. BSO markedly decreased both As accumulation and As tolerance in W. globosa. The results demonstrate an important role of PCs in detoxifying As and enabling As accumulation in W. globosa.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibition by arsenite promotes the survival of cells with unrepaired DNA lesions induced by UV exposure

Authors: Qin, X-J; Liu, W; Li, Y-N; Sun, X; Hai, C-X; Hudson, LG; Liu, KJ (In Press) Toxicological Sciences. HERO ID: 1015694

[Less] Human arsenic exposure is associated with increased risk of skin cancer and arsenite greatly enhances . . . [More] Human arsenic exposure is associated with increased risk of skin cancer and arsenite greatly enhances ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin tumors in a mouse model of carcinogenesis. Inhibition of DNA repair is one proposed mechanism for the observed co-carcinogenicity. We have previously demonstrated that low concentrations of arsenite inhibit Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, thus interfering with DNA-repair process triggered by UV radiation. Since over-activation of PARP-1 often leads to apoptotic cell death, and unrepaired DNA lesions promote genomic instability and carcinogenesis, we hypothesized that inhibition of PARP-1 by arsenic may promote the survival of potentially "initiated carcinogenic cells", i.e., cells with unrepaired DNA lesions. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis on UV-challenged HaCat cells. Cells were pretreated with 2 μM arsenite for 24 hrs before UV exposure. Outcome parameters included apoptotic death rate, PARP-1 activation, apoptotic molecules and retention of DNA lesions. UV exposure induced PARP-1 activation and associated PAR production, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) release, cytochrome C release and caspases activation, which led to apoptotic death in HaCat cells. Pretreatment with 2 μM arsenite significantly inhibited UV-induced cell death as well as the associated molecular events. Notably, knockdown of PARP-1 with siRNA completely abolished the antagonism of arsenite. Furthermore, arsenite pretreatment led to long-term retention of UV-induced cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimers (CDPs). Together, these results suggest that low concentration of arsenite reduces UV-induced apoptosis via inhibiting PARP-1, thus promoting the survival of cells with unrepaired DNA lesions, which may be an important mechanism underlying arsenic co-carcinogenic action.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Ameliorative effect Trichosanthes dioica root against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in male albino rats

Authors: Bhattacharya, S; Haldar, PK (In Press) Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. HERO ID: 1015695

[Less] The present study evaluated the ameliorative potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Trichosanthes dioica . . . [More] The present study evaluated the ameliorative potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Trichosanthes dioica root (TDA) against arsenic induced toxicity in male albino rats. TDA (5 and 10mg/kg) was administered orally to rats for 20 consecutive days before oral administration of sodium arsenite (10mg/kg) for 8 days. Then the body weights, organ weights, haematological profiles, serum biochemical profile; hepatic and renal antioxidative parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and DNA fragmentation were evaluated. Pretreatment with TDA markedly and significantly normalized body weights, organ weights, haematological profiles, serum biochemical profile and significantly modulated all the hepatic and renal biochemical parameters and reduced DNA fragmentation in arsenic intoxicated rats. The present findings conclude that T. dioica root possessed remarkable ameliorative effect against arsenic induced organ toxicity in male albino rats mediated by alleviation of arsenic induced oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms.