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Arsenic (Inorganic)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Immunohistochemical analysis of PDK1 expression in breast cancer

Author: Arsenic, R (In Press) HERO ID: 2337224

[Less] BACKGROUND: 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) functions downstream . . . [More] BACKGROUND: 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) functions downstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3) and activates members of the AGC family of protein kinases that are known to play crucial roles in physiological processes associated with cell metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival. Changes in the expression and activity of PDK1 and several AGC kinases have been linked to human disease, including cancer.

METHODS: We used immunohistochemical analysis to determine PDK1 expression in 241 tumors from patients with breast cancer in which we had previously analyzed PIK3CA mutation status.

RESULTS: Moderate or high expression of PDK1 was observed in 213 of the 241 cases (88%). There was no correlation between PIK3CA mutation status and PDK1 overexpression.

CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that PDK1 is independently activated in breast cancer and not only as part of the PIK3CA pathway, suggesting that PDK1 plays a specific and distinct role from the canonical PIK3/Akt pathway and promotes oncogenesis independently of AKT. Our data implicate PDK-1 and downstream components of the PDK-1 signaling pathway as promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of breast cancer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Reduced-intensity Allogeneic Transplantation using Alemtuzumab from HLA-Matched Related, Unrelated or Haploidentical Related Donors for Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

Authors: Kanda, J; Long, GD; Gasparetto, C; Horwitz, ME; Sullivan, KM; Chute, JP; Morris, A; Shafique, M; Li, Z; Chao, NJ; Rizzieri, DA (In Press) Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. HERO ID: 2149126

[Less] We present a comparative study on 124 patients with hematologic malignancies who had undergone reduced-intensity . . . [More] We present a comparative study on 124 patients with hematologic malignancies who had undergone reduced-intensity conditioning and then received a transplant from an HLA-matched related (MRD), an HLA-matched unrelated (MUD), or an HLA-haploidentical related (HAPLO) donor. The conditioning regimen, which consisted of fludarabine, melphalan or busulfan, and alemtuzumab, was administered to patients with lymphoid (n = 62) or myeloid disease (n = 62). Mycophenolate mofetil was used as prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and 38, 58, and 33 patients received transplants from MRD, MUD, and HAPLO donors, respectively. Only 2 patients experienced primary graft failure (GF) after melphalan-based regimen, whereas 8 of the 17 patients who received a transplant from HAPLO donors experienced a primary GF after busulfan-based regimen. The cumulative incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD in engrafted patients who had received transplants from MRD, MUD, or HAPLO donors was 3%, 11%, and 27%, respectively, and the 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 51%, 22%, and 23%, respectively. According to multivariate analysis, transplantation from either MUD or HAPLO donors compared with MRD were adverse factors that affected the OS (P = 0.006 and P = 0.002, respectively). In conclusion, the reduced-intensity regimen that included fludarabine, busulfan or melphalan, and alemtuzumab, using only mycophenolate mofetil as the GVHD prophylaxis, conferred favorable outcomes in the MRD group but lower survival rates in the MUD and HAPLO groups. The busulfan-based regimen led to a high incidence of GF in the HAPLO group, suggesting the need for modification or intensification of immunosuppression.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Residual Gastric Volume Estimated with a New Radiological Volumetric Model: Relationship with Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

Authors: Vidal, P; Ramón, JM; Busto, M; Domínguez-Vega, G; Goday, A; Pera, M; Grande, L (In Press) Obesity Surgery. HERO ID: 2149142

[Less] BACKGROUND: The volume of the gastric reservoir appears crucial to explain the success . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The volume of the gastric reservoir appears crucial to explain the success of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in the treatment of morbid obesity. The aims of this study were to describe a new, easy model to estimate gastric reservoir volume after LSG; to evaluate the volumetric changes 1 year after surgery; and to analyze their relationship with weight loss.

METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of all patients undergoing LSG in the Department of Surgery at our institution. The gastric reservoir was evaluated radiologically considering the image as a complex geometrical shape with two components: a cylinder (gastric body) and a truncated cone (antrum). Radiologic assessment using this new model was performed at 1 and 12 months after surgery. Moreover, body mass index and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) were evaluated at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after LSG.

RESULTS: Forty-five patients (34 F/11 M) with a mean age of 46.9 years were included. A significant increase in total gastric reservoir volume (124.8 ± 58.7 and 188.6 ± 76.4 mL at 1 and 12 months, respectively; p = 0.001) was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed comparing volume of the two components at the two time points. The %EWL at 18 months was inversely correlated with reservoir volume changes at 12 months after LSG (p = 0.006).

CONCLUSIONS: We describe an easy volumetric model to estimate the size of the gastric reservoir after LSG. Moreover, a direct relationship between an increase in gastric reservoir volume and a lower weight loss after surgery was documented.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chronic arsenic exposure and microbial drug resistance

Authors: McConville, MJ; Ralph, SA (In Press) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. HERO ID: 2149153

[Less] Resistance to antimicrobial drugs represents one of the greatest threats to the control of infectious . . . [More] Resistance to antimicrobial drugs represents one of the greatest threats to the control of infectious diseases and is a particular problem in treating diseases caused by parasitic protists. These pathogens are of enormous medical importance, causing diseases such as malaria, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis. In the absence of effective vaccines, the control of these diseases is critically dependent on drug therapies that are often undermined by poor compliance or overuse in communities with struggling health care systems and endemic poverty. The development and spread of resistance to the antimalarial drug chloroquine from the 1950s onwards constitutes a spectacular example of drug failure caused by overuse. Similarly, the development of antimonial-resistance in Leishmania donovani in India in the 1970–1980s had all of the hallmarks of long-term misuse (1). L. donovani is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or Kala-Azar, which kills many thousands of people in India each year. However, in PNAS, Perry et al. (2) provide compelling evidence that Leishmania-acquired antimonial resistance in India may be attributable, at least in part, to increased arsenic contamination of the drinking water. These findings highlight how environmental factors can contribute to the emergence of microbial drug resistance and have implications for drug development.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Late term tolerance in head neck cancer patients irradiated in the IMRT era

Authors: Studer, G; Linsenmeier, C; Riesterer, O; Najafi, Y; Brown, M; Yousefi, B; Bredell, M; Huber, G; Schmid, S; Studer, S; Zwahlen, R; Rordorf, T; Glanzmann, C (In Press) HERO ID: 2149173

[Less] BACKGROUND: The aim was to quantify severe transient and persisting late term effects . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The aim was to quantify severe transient and persisting late term effects in our single institution head neck cancer (HNC) cohort treated with curatively intended intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Hypothesis was if a 2-year follow up (FU) is sufficient to estimate the long term tolerance in HNC irradiated in the IMRT era.

METHODS: Between 01/2002-8/2012, 707/1211 (58%) consecutively treated IMRT patients met the inclusion criteria of a FU time >12 months and loco-regional disease control (LRC). 45% presented with loco-regionally advanced disease; 55% were referred for curative definitive IMRT (66Gy-72Gy in 30--35 fractions), 45% underwent postoperative IMRT (60-66Gy in 30--33 fractions). Systemic concomitant therapy was administered in 85%. Highly consistent treatment procedures were performed with respect to contouring processes, dose constraints, radiation schedules, and the use of systemic therapy. Grade 3/4 late term effects were prospectively assessed and analyzed with respect to subgroups at particular risk for specific late effects.

RESULTS: Mean/median FU of the cohort was 41/35 months (15--124). 13% of the patients (92/707) experienced any grade 3/4 late effects (101 events in 92/707 patients), 81% in the first 12 months after radiation. 4% of all developed persisting late grade 3/4 effects (25 events in 25/707 patients).

CONCLUSIONS: IMRT led to a high late term tolerance in loco-regionally disease free HNC patients. The onset of any G3/4 effects showed a plateau at 2 years. The question of the cervical vessel tolerance in disease free long time survivors is still open and currently under evaluation at our institution.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal screening for clubfoot: what factors predict prenatal detection?

Authors: Mahan, ST; Yazdy, MM; Kasser, JR; Werler, MM (In Press) Prenatal Diagnosis. HERO ID: 2278838

[Less] OBJECTIVE: Routine prenatal ultrasound has often resulted in the early detection of . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: Routine prenatal ultrasound has often resulted in the early detection of musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine which socioeconomic factors are associated with prenatal detection of clubfoot.

METHODS: The Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University identified infants in three states (Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) who were reported as having a clubfoot. Mothers of these children were contacted and interviewed, and medical records obtained. Data were analyzed by using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

RESULTS: Overall detection of the clubfoot prenatally was 62.3% (421/676) but this varied considerably by state, 81.1% in Massachusetts (154/190), 58.5% in New York (124/212), and 52.2% in North Carolina (143/274). Multivariate analysis revealed that the strongest predictors for prenatal detection were maternal age ≥35 years (OR: 3.54), non-Hispanic black race (OR: 0.49), the presence of another birth defect (OR: 2.61), residing in Massachusetts (OR: 2.64), and the presence of a bilateral clubfoot (OR: 1.90).

CONCLUSIONS: We found a statistically significantly higher rate of prenatal detection of clubfoot in Massachusetts and lower rate in younger mothers (age <35) and black mothers, even after adjustment for other sociodemographic variables. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin: Loxechinus albus (Camarodonta, Parechinidae)

Authors: Jung, G; Lee, YH (In Press) HERO ID: 2278896

[Less] Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin Loxechinus albus, the single species . . . [More] Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin Loxechinus albus, the single species of the genus Loxechinus, is determined. The circular mitogenome is 15,709 bp in length containing 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA and 13 protein coding genes as well as the control region. The gene order is identical to those of described Camarodonta species. There are 24 bp gene overlaps at 6 locations and 124 bp intergenic spacers at 17 boundaries. The nucleotide composition of the genome is 31.2% A, 22.3% C, 29.7% T, and 16.8% G. The A + T bias (60.9%) is similar to that of P. lividus (60.3%) but slightly higher than those of strongylocentrotid species (58.8-59.8%). The mitogenome sequence of L. albus will provide valuable information on the phylogeny and evolution of the genus Loxechinus in relation to other Camarodonta sea urchins.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenate stabilized Cu2O nanoparticle catalyst for one-electron transfer reversible reaction

Authors: Sahoo, R; Dutta, S; Pradhan, M; Ray, C; Roy, A; Pal, T; Pal, A (In Press) Dalton Transactions (Online). HERO ID: 2298708

[Less] The befitting capping capabilities of AsO4(3-) provide a stable Cu2O nanocatalyst from a galvanic reaction . . . [More] The befitting capping capabilities of AsO4(3-) provide a stable Cu2O nanocatalyst from a galvanic reaction between a Cu(ii) precursor salt and As(0) nanoparticles. This stable Cu2O hydrosol appears to be a suitable catalyst for the one-electron transfer reversible redox reaction between Eosin Y and NaBH4. The progress of the reaction relates to three different kinetic stages. In the presence of the new catalyst the reversible redox reaction of Eosin Y in air shows a periodic color change providing a new crowd-pleasing demonstration, i.e. a "clock reaction".

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of a multi-marker risk score for predicting cause-specific mortality at three years in older patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction

Authors: Bjurman, C; Holmström, A; Petzold, M; Hammarsten, O; Fu, ML (In Press) Cardiology Journal. HERO ID: 2279351

[Less] BACKGROUND: Due to increasing co-morbidity associated with aging, heart failure (HF) . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Due to increasing co-morbidity associated with aging, heart failure (HF) has become more prevalent and heterogeneous in older individuals, and non-cardiovascular (CV) mortality has increased. Previously, we defined a multi-marker modality that included cystatin C (CysC), troponin T (TnT), and age. Here, we validated this multi-marker risk score by evaluating its predictions of all-cause mortality and CV mortality in an independent population of older individuals with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

METHODS: This prospective cohort study : included 124 patients, median age 73 years, that had HFrEF. We determined all-cause mortality and CV mortality at a 3-year follow-up. We compared the risk score to the N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) for predicting all-cause mortality and CV mortality.

RESULTS: High risk scores were associated with both all-cause mortality (HR: 4.2, 95%CI: 2.2-8.1; p<0.001) and CV mortality (HR: 3.6, 95%CI: 1.7-8.0; p=0.0015). Receiver operating characteristics showed similar efficacy for the risk score and NTproBNP in predicting all-cause mortality (0.74, 95%CI: 0.65-0.81 vs. 0.74, 95%CI: 0.65-0.81; p = 0.99) and CV mortality (0.68, 95%CI: 0.59-0.76 vs. 0.67, 95%CI: 0.58-0.75; p = 0.95). When the risk score was added to the NTproBNP, the continuous net reclassification improvement was 56% for predicting all-cause mortality (95%CI: 18-95%; p = 0.004) and 45% for predicting CV mortality (95%CI: 2-89%; p=0.040).

CONCLUSIONS: In HFrEF, a risk score that included age, TnT, and CysC showed efficacy similar to the NTproBNP for predicting all-cause mortality and CV mortality in an older population.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Methods of preventing bacterial sepsis and wound complications after liver transplantation

Authors: Gurusamy, KS; Nagendran, M; Davidson, BR (In Press) HERO ID: 2298727

[Less] BACKGROUND: Bacterial sepsis and wound complications after liver transplantation increase . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Bacterial sepsis and wound complications after liver transplantation increase mortality, morbidity, or hospital stay and are likely to increase overall transplant costs. All liver transplantation patients receive antibiotic prophylaxis. This is an update of our 2008 Cochrane systematic review on the same topic in which we identified seven randomised clinical trials.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of different methods aimed at preventing bacterial sepsis and wound complications in people undergoing liver transplantation.

SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded to February 2013.

SELECTION CRITERIA: We included only randomised clinical trials irrespective of language or publication status. We excluded quasi-randomised and other observational studies for assessment of benefits, but not for harms.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors collected the data independently. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using fixed-effect and the random-effects models based on available-case analysis.

MAIN RESULTS: We identified only seven trials for inclusion, including 614 participants. Only one trial was of low risk of bias risk. Overall, the quality of evidence was very low. There were five comparisons in the seven trials: selective bowel decontamination versus inactive control; selective bowel decontamination versus prebiotics with probiotics; selective bowel decontamination versus prebiotics; prebiotics with probiotics versus prebiotics; and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) versus control. Four trials compared selective bowel decontamination versus placebo or no treatment. In one trial, participants were randomised to selective bowel decontamination, active lactobacillus with fibres (probiotic with prebiotic), or to inactivated lactobacillus with fibres (prebiotic). In one trial, active lactobacillus with fibres (probiotic with prebiotic) was compared with inactive lactobacillus with fibres (prebiotic). In the remaining trial, different doses of G-CSF and placebo were compared. There was no trial comparing different antibiotic prophylactic regimens in people undergoing liver transplantation. Most trials included adults undergoing elective liver transplantation. There was no significant difference in proportion of people who died or required retransplantation between the intervention and control groups in any of the five comparison groups. MortalityThere were no differences between 190 participants (three trials); 5/87 (adjusted proportion: 6.2%) in selective bowel decontamination group versus 7/103 (6.8%) in inactive control group; RR 0.91 (95% CI 0.31 to 2.72); 63 participants (one trial); 0/32 (0%) in selective bowel decontamination group versus 0/31 (0%) in prebiotics with probiotics group; RR - not estimable; 64 participants (one trial); 0/32 (0%) in selective bowel decontamination group versus 0/32 (0%) in prebiotics group; RR - not estimable; 129 participants (two trials); 0/64 (0%) in prebiotics with probiotics group versus 0/65 (0%) in prebiotics group; RR - not estimable; and 194 participants (one trial); 22/124 (17.7%) in G-CSF group versus 10/70 (14.3%) in placebo group; RR 1.24 (95% 0.62 to 2.47). RetransplantationThere were no differences between 132 participants (two trials); 4/58 (adjusted proportion: 6.9%) in selective bowel decontamination group versus 6/74 (8.1%) in inactive control group; RR 0.85 (95% CI 0.26 to 2.85); 63 participants (one trial); 1/32 (3.1%) in selective bowel decontamination group versus 0/31 (0%) in prebiotics with probiotics group; RR 2.91 (0.12 to 68.81); 64 participants (one trial); 1/32 (3.1%) in selective bowel decontamination group versus 0/32 (0%) in prebiotics group; RR 3.00 (95% CI 0.13 to 71.00); 129 participants (two trials); 0/64 (0%) in prebiotics with probiotics group versus 1/65 (1.5%) in prebiotics group; RR 0.33 (95% CI 0.01 to 7.9); and 194 participants (one trial); 10/124 (7.1%) in G-CSF group versus 5/70 (7.1%) in placebo group; RR 1.13 (95% CI 0.4 to 3.17).There was no significant difference in the graft rejections, intensive therapy unit stay, or hospital stay between the intervention and control groups in any of the comparisons. Overall, 193/611 participants (31.6%) developed infective complications. The proportion of people who developed infective complications and the number of infective complication episodes were significantly higher in the selective bowel decontamination group than in the prebiotics with probiotics group (1 study; 63 participants; 15/32 (46.9%) in selective bowel decontamination group versus 4/31 (12.9%) in prebiotics with probiotics group; RR 3.63; 95% CI 1.36 to 9.74 and 23/32 participants (0.72 infective complications per participant) in selective bowel decontamination group versus 4/31 participants (0.13 infective complications per participant) in prebiotics with probiotics group; rate ratio 5.58; 95% CI 1.94 to 16.09). There was no significant difference between the proportion of participants who developed infection and the number of infection episodes between the intervention group and control group in any of the other comparisons.No trials reported quality of life and overall serious adverse events.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Currently, there is no clear evidence for any intervention offering significant benefits in the reduction of bacterial infections and wound complications in liver transplantation. Selective bowel decontamination may even increase the rate of infections compared with prebiotics with probiotics. The confidence intervals were wide and further randomised clinical trials of low risk of bias are necessary.