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Arsenic (Inorganic)

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The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Increased expression of p21Waf1/Cip1 and JNK with costimulation of prostate cancer cell activation by an siRNA Egr-1 inhibitor

Authors: Parra, E; Gutiérrez, L; Ferreira, J (In Press) Oncology Reports. HERO ID: 1597292

[Less] The p21Waf1/Cip1 protein (hereafter, p21) and the c‑Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) are two well-characterized . . . [More] The p21Waf1/Cip1 protein (hereafter, p21) and the c‑Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) are two well-characterized cell modulators that play a crucial role in cell differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. Here, we report that transcription of the p21Waf1/Cip1 and JNK-1 genes is affected by inhibition of the early growth response-1 (Egr-1) in response to a small interfering RNA [siRNA)-Egr-1] in LNCaP and PC-3 prostate carcinoma cell lines. The expression levels of protein were determined by western blotting, and apoptosis was measured by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis. Inhibition of Egr-1, p21 and JNK-1 was carried out by siRNAs. LNCaP and PC-3 cells exhibited readily detectable Egr-1, JNK and p21, even in low serum medium without the addition of other exogenous agents. The expression of Egr-1, p21 and JNK was strongly increased after treatment of the cells with TPA, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or arsenite. Suppression of Egr-1 expression by siRNA abrogated the ability of TPA to induce Egr-1 and JNK-1 activities, moderately increasing the p21 activity and abrogating the anti-apoptotic effect of Egr-1 observed in the prostate cancer cell lines. Moreover, blockade of p21 and JNK was unable to decrease the activity of Egr-1, while siRNA against p21 abrogated the pro‑apoptotic effect of p21. The results demonstrated that Egr-1 acts as a key player in prostate tumor cell growth and survival, while p21 plays a key pro‑apoptotic role in LNCaP and PC-3 prostate carcinoma cell lines.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

(75)As, (63)Cu NMR and NQR characterization of selected arsenic minerals

Authors: Lehmann-Horn, JA; Miljak, DG; Bastow, TJ (In Press) Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. HERO ID: 1597306

[Less] The direct measurement and identification of solid state arsenic phases using (75)As NMR is made difficult . . . [More] The direct measurement and identification of solid state arsenic phases using (75)As NMR is made difficult by the simultaneous conditions of large quadrupole moment and low coordination symmetry in many compounds. However, specific arsenic minerals can efficiently be detected and discriminated via nuclear quadrupolar resonance (NQR). We report on the first NMR and NQR measurements in the natural minerals enargite (Cu3AsS4), niccolite (NiAs), arsenopyrite (FeAsS) and loellingite (FeAs2). The NQR frequencies have been determined from both high-field NMR powder patterns and via zero-field frequency sweeps. Density functional theory (DFT) based ab initio calculations support the experimental results. The compounds studied here are common in terms of the known set of As-containing minerals. They are sometimes encountered in the context of base metal or gold mining. The study represents a significant addition to the list of arsenic minerals that can now be detected with NQR techniques.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chronic exposure to arsenic, estrogen, and their combination causes increased growth and transformation in human prostate epithelial cells potentially by hypermethylation-mediated silencing of MLH1

Authors: Treas, J; Tyagi, T; Singh, KP (In Press) Prostate. HERO ID: 1677527

[Less] BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to arsenic and estrogen is associated with risk of prostate . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to arsenic and estrogen is associated with risk of prostate cancer, but their mechanism is not fully understood. Additionally, the carcinogenic effects of their co-exposure are not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to arsenic, estrogen, and their combination, on cell growth and transformation, and identify the mechanism behind these effects.

METHODS: RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial cells were chronically exposed to arsenic and estrogen alone and in combination. Cell growth was measured by cell count and cell cycle, whereas cell transformation was evaluated by colony formation assay. Gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and confirmed at protein level by Western blot analysis. MLH1 promoter methylation was determined by pyrosequencing method.

RESULTS: Exposure to arsenic, estrogen, and their combinations increases cell growth and transformation in RWPE-1 cells. Increased expression of Cyclin D1 and Bcl2, whereas decreased expression of mismatch repair genes MSH4, MSH6, and MLH1 was also observed. Hypermethylation of MLH1 promoter further suggested the epigenetic inactivation of MLH1 expression in arsenic and estrogen treated cells. Arsenic and estrogen combination caused greater changes than their individual treatments.

CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study for the first time suggest that arsenic and estrogen exposures cause increased cell growth and survival potentially through epigenetic inactivation of MLH1 resulting in decreased MLH1-mediated apoptotic response, and consequently increased cellular transformation. Prostate 9999: XX-XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Arsenic contamination of coarse-grained and nanostructured nitinol surfaces induced by chemical treatment in hydrofluoric acid

Authors: Korotin, DM; Bartkowski, S; Kurmaev, EZ; Borchers, C; Müller, M; Neumann, M; Gunderov, DV; Valiev, RZ; Cholakh, SO (In Press) Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B: Applied Biomaterials. HERO ID: 1255514

[Less] XPS measurements of coarse-grained and nanostructured nitinol (Ni(50.2) Ti(49.8) ) before and after . . . [More] XPS measurements of coarse-grained and nanostructured nitinol (Ni(50.2) Ti(49.8) ) before and after chemical treatment in hydrofluoric acid (40% HF, 1 min) are presented. The nanostructured state, providing the excellent mechanical properties of nitinol, is achieved by severe plastic deformation. The near-surface layers of nitinol were studied by XPS depth profiling. According to the obtained results, a chemical treatment in hydrofluoric acid reduces the thickness of the protective TiO(2) oxide layer and induces a nickel release from the nitinol surface and an arsenic contamination, and can therefore not be recommended as conditioning to increase the roughness of NiTi-implants. A detailed evaluation of the resulting toxicological risks is given.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Immunohistochemical analysis of PDK1 expression in breast cancer

Author: Arsenic, R (In Press) HERO ID: 2337224

[Less] BACKGROUND: 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) functions downstream . . . [More] BACKGROUND: 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) functions downstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3) and activates members of the AGC family of protein kinases that are known to play crucial roles in physiological processes associated with cell metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival. Changes in the expression and activity of PDK1 and several AGC kinases have been linked to human disease, including cancer.

METHODS: We used immunohistochemical analysis to determine PDK1 expression in 241 tumors from patients with breast cancer in which we had previously analyzed PIK3CA mutation status.

RESULTS: Moderate or high expression of PDK1 was observed in 213 of the 241 cases (88%). There was no correlation between PIK3CA mutation status and PDK1 overexpression.

CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that PDK1 is independently activated in breast cancer and not only as part of the PIK3CA pathway, suggesting that PDK1 plays a specific and distinct role from the canonical PIK3/Akt pathway and promotes oncogenesis independently of AKT. Our data implicate PDK-1 and downstream components of the PDK-1 signaling pathway as promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of breast cancer.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Reduced-intensity Allogeneic Transplantation using Alemtuzumab from HLA-Matched Related, Unrelated or Haploidentical Related Donors for Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

Authors: Kanda, J; Long, GD; Gasparetto, C; Horwitz, ME; Sullivan, KM; Chute, JP; Morris, A; Shafique, M; Li, Z; Chao, NJ; Rizzieri, DA (In Press) Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. HERO ID: 2149126

[Less] We present a comparative study on 124 patients with hematologic malignancies who had undergone reduced-intensity . . . [More] We present a comparative study on 124 patients with hematologic malignancies who had undergone reduced-intensity conditioning and then received a transplant from an HLA-matched related (MRD), an HLA-matched unrelated (MUD), or an HLA-haploidentical related (HAPLO) donor. The conditioning regimen, which consisted of fludarabine, melphalan or busulfan, and alemtuzumab, was administered to patients with lymphoid (n = 62) or myeloid disease (n = 62). Mycophenolate mofetil was used as prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and 38, 58, and 33 patients received transplants from MRD, MUD, and HAPLO donors, respectively. Only 2 patients experienced primary graft failure (GF) after melphalan-based regimen, whereas 8 of the 17 patients who received a transplant from HAPLO donors experienced a primary GF after busulfan-based regimen. The cumulative incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD in engrafted patients who had received transplants from MRD, MUD, or HAPLO donors was 3%, 11%, and 27%, respectively, and the 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 51%, 22%, and 23%, respectively. According to multivariate analysis, transplantation from either MUD or HAPLO donors compared with MRD were adverse factors that affected the OS (P = 0.006 and P = 0.002, respectively). In conclusion, the reduced-intensity regimen that included fludarabine, busulfan or melphalan, and alemtuzumab, using only mycophenolate mofetil as the GVHD prophylaxis, conferred favorable outcomes in the MRD group but lower survival rates in the MUD and HAPLO groups. The busulfan-based regimen led to a high incidence of GF in the HAPLO group, suggesting the need for modification or intensification of immunosuppression.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Residual Gastric Volume Estimated with a New Radiological Volumetric Model: Relationship with Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

Authors: Vidal, P; Ramón, JM; Busto, M; Domínguez-Vega, G; Goday, A; Pera, M; Grande, L (In Press) Obesity Surgery. HERO ID: 2149142

[Less] BACKGROUND: The volume of the gastric reservoir appears crucial to explain the success . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The volume of the gastric reservoir appears crucial to explain the success of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in the treatment of morbid obesity. The aims of this study were to describe a new, easy model to estimate gastric reservoir volume after LSG; to evaluate the volumetric changes 1 year after surgery; and to analyze their relationship with weight loss.

METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of all patients undergoing LSG in the Department of Surgery at our institution. The gastric reservoir was evaluated radiologically considering the image as a complex geometrical shape with two components: a cylinder (gastric body) and a truncated cone (antrum). Radiologic assessment using this new model was performed at 1 and 12 months after surgery. Moreover, body mass index and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) were evaluated at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after LSG.

RESULTS: Forty-five patients (34 F/11 M) with a mean age of 46.9 years were included. A significant increase in total gastric reservoir volume (124.8 ± 58.7 and 188.6 ± 76.4 mL at 1 and 12 months, respectively; p = 0.001) was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed comparing volume of the two components at the two time points. The %EWL at 18 months was inversely correlated with reservoir volume changes at 12 months after LSG (p = 0.006).

CONCLUSIONS: We describe an easy volumetric model to estimate the size of the gastric reservoir after LSG. Moreover, a direct relationship between an increase in gastric reservoir volume and a lower weight loss after surgery was documented.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Chronic arsenic exposure and microbial drug resistance

Authors: McConville, MJ; Ralph, SA (In Press) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. HERO ID: 2149153

[Less] Resistance to antimicrobial drugs represents one of the greatest threats to the control of infectious . . . [More] Resistance to antimicrobial drugs represents one of the greatest threats to the control of infectious diseases and is a particular problem in treating diseases caused by parasitic protists. These pathogens are of enormous medical importance, causing diseases such as malaria, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis. In the absence of effective vaccines, the control of these diseases is critically dependent on drug therapies that are often undermined by poor compliance or overuse in communities with struggling health care systems and endemic poverty. The development and spread of resistance to the antimalarial drug chloroquine from the 1950s onwards constitutes a spectacular example of drug failure caused by overuse. Similarly, the development of antimonial-resistance in Leishmania donovani in India in the 1970–1980s had all of the hallmarks of long-term misuse (1). L. donovani is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or Kala-Azar, which kills many thousands of people in India each year. However, in PNAS, Perry et al. (2) provide compelling evidence that Leishmania-acquired antimonial resistance in India may be attributable, at least in part, to increased arsenic contamination of the drinking water. These findings highlight how environmental factors can contribute to the emergence of microbial drug resistance and have implications for drug development.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Late term tolerance in head neck cancer patients irradiated in the IMRT era

Authors: Studer, G; Linsenmeier, C; Riesterer, O; Najafi, Y; Brown, M; Yousefi, B; Bredell, M; Huber, G; Schmid, S; Studer, S; Zwahlen, R; Rordorf, T; Glanzmann, C (In Press) HERO ID: 2149173

[Less] BACKGROUND: The aim was to quantify severe transient and persisting late term effects . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The aim was to quantify severe transient and persisting late term effects in our single institution head neck cancer (HNC) cohort treated with curatively intended intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Hypothesis was if a 2-year follow up (FU) is sufficient to estimate the long term tolerance in HNC irradiated in the IMRT era.

METHODS: Between 01/2002-8/2012, 707/1211 (58%) consecutively treated IMRT patients met the inclusion criteria of a FU time >12 months and loco-regional disease control (LRC). 45% presented with loco-regionally advanced disease; 55% were referred for curative definitive IMRT (66Gy-72Gy in 30--35 fractions), 45% underwent postoperative IMRT (60-66Gy in 30--33 fractions). Systemic concomitant therapy was administered in 85%. Highly consistent treatment procedures were performed with respect to contouring processes, dose constraints, radiation schedules, and the use of systemic therapy. Grade 3/4 late term effects were prospectively assessed and analyzed with respect to subgroups at particular risk for specific late effects.

RESULTS: Mean/median FU of the cohort was 41/35 months (15--124). 13% of the patients (92/707) experienced any grade 3/4 late effects (101 events in 92/707 patients), 81% in the first 12 months after radiation. 4% of all developed persisting late grade 3/4 effects (25 events in 25/707 patients).

CONCLUSIONS: IMRT led to a high late term tolerance in loco-regionally disease free HNC patients. The onset of any G3/4 effects showed a plateau at 2 years. The question of the cervical vessel tolerance in disease free long time survivors is still open and currently under evaluation at our institution.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Prenatal screening for clubfoot: what factors predict prenatal detection?

Authors: Mahan, ST; Yazdy, MM; Kasser, JR; Werler, MM (In Press) Prenatal Diagnosis. HERO ID: 2278838

[Less] OBJECTIVE: Routine prenatal ultrasound has often resulted in the early detection of . . . [More] OBJECTIVE: Routine prenatal ultrasound has often resulted in the early detection of musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine which socioeconomic factors are associated with prenatal detection of clubfoot.

METHODS: The Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University identified infants in three states (Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) who were reported as having a clubfoot. Mothers of these children were contacted and interviewed, and medical records obtained. Data were analyzed by using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

RESULTS: Overall detection of the clubfoot prenatally was 62.3% (421/676) but this varied considerably by state, 81.1% in Massachusetts (154/190), 58.5% in New York (124/212), and 52.2% in North Carolina (143/274). Multivariate analysis revealed that the strongest predictors for prenatal detection were maternal age ≥35 years (OR: 3.54), non-Hispanic black race (OR: 0.49), the presence of another birth defect (OR: 2.61), residing in Massachusetts (OR: 2.64), and the presence of a bilateral clubfoot (OR: 1.90).

CONCLUSIONS: We found a statistically significantly higher rate of prenatal detection of clubfoot in Massachusetts and lower rate in younger mothers (age <35) and black mothers, even after adjustment for other sociodemographic variables. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.