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Trimethylbenzenes (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

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15 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Visual dysfunction in workers exposed to a mixture of organic solvents

Authors: Gong, Y; Kishi, R; Kasai, S; Katakura, Y; Fujiwara, K; Umemura, T; Kondo, T; Sato, T; Sata, F; Tsukishima, E; Tozaki, S; Kawai, T; Miyama, Y (2003) NeuroToxicology 24:703-710. HERO ID: 3063456

[Less] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the workers occupationally exposed . . . [More] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the workers occupationally exposed to a mixture of organic solvents and their visual functions. Here the visual functions included color vision (CV), visual contrast sensitivity (CS) and visual evoked potentials (VEP). Test subjects were 182 workers at 53 furniture factories in the same industrial area of Japan. As control, a group consisted of 96 workers without exposure to any organic solvent was also tested. Exposure assessments were made both by the environmental concentration and biological monitoring. CV and CS tests were carried out for all the subjects. VEP was measured for 21 exposed subjects who were considered to have impaired CV and CS. In the results, the color confusion index (CCI) values of the exposed subjects were significantly higher than that of the age-matched controls (P<0.01). Their CS values were significantly lower than those in the controls at spatial frequencies of 6 and 12 cycles per degree (cpd) (P<0.01 and <0.05, respectively). A significant correlation between the concentration of urinary methylhippuric acid and contrast sensitivity was found by a multiple regression analysis (P<0.05). CCI showed a negative correlation at all spatial frequencies of CS in a simple regression analysis, no abnormal data were found by the VEP test in the exposed subjects who were found to have impaired CV and CS. The results suppose that a low concentration of the mixed organic solvents might affect the retina and optic nerve. However, it needs to be further researched if such an impact affects the Brodmann's areas of visual cortex in the brain.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Physiological-model-based derivation of the adult and child pharmacokinetic intraspecies uncertainty factors for volatile organic compounds

Authors: Pelekis, M; Gephart, LA; Lerman, SE (2001) Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 33:12-20. HERO ID: 194594

[Less] The intraspecies uncertainty factor (UF(HH)=10x) is used in the determination of the reference dose . . . [More] The intraspecies uncertainty factor (UF(HH)=10x) is used in the determination of the reference dose or reference concentration and accounts for the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic heterogeneity within the human population. The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 mandated the use of an additional uncertainty factor (UF(HC)=10x) to take into account potential pre- and postnatal toxicity and lack of completeness of the data with respect to exposure and toxicity to children. There is no conclusive experimental or theoretical justification to support or refute the magnitude of the UF(HH) and UF(HC) nor any conclusive evidence to suggest that a factor of 100 is needed to account for intrahuman variability. This study presents a new chemical-specific method for estimating the pharmacokinetic (PK) component of the interspecies uncertainty factor (UF(HH-PK) and UF(HC-PK)) for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The approach utilizes validated physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models and simplified physiological-model-based algebraic equations to translate ambient exposure concentration to tissue dose in adults and children the ratio of which is the UF(HH-PK) and UF(HC-PK). The results suggest that: (i) the UF(HH-PK) and UF(HC-PK) are chemical specific; (ii) for the chemicals used in this study there is no significant difference between UF(HH-PK) and UF(HC-PK); (iii) the magnitude of UF(HH-PK) and UF(HC-PK) varies between 0.033 and 2.85 with respect to tissue and blood concentrations; (iv) the body weight, the rate of ventilation, the fraction of cardiac output flowing to the liver, the blood : air partition coefficient, and the hepatic extraction ratio are the only parameters that play a critical role in the variability of tissue and blood doses within species; and (v) the magnitude of the UF(HH-PK) and UF(HC-PK) obtained with the simplified steady-state equations is essentially the same with that obtained with PBPK models. Overall, this study suggests that no adult-children differences in the parent chemical concentrations of the VOCs are likely to be observed during inhalation exposures. The physiological-model-based approaches used in the present study to estimate the UF(HH-PK) and UF(HC-PK) provide a scientific basis for their magnitude. They can replace the currently used empirical default approaches to provide chemical-specific UF(HH-PK) in future risk assessments. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A review of the neurotoxicity risk of selected hydrocarbon fuels

Authors: Ritchie, GD; Still, KR; Alexander, WK; Nordholm, AF; Wilson, CL; Rossi, J III; Mattie, DR (2001) Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B: Critical Reviews 4:223-312. [Review] HERO ID: 34856

[Less] Over 1.3 million civilian and military personnel are occupationally exposed to hydrocarbon fuels, emphasizing . . . [More] Over 1.3 million civilian and military personnel are occupationally exposed to hydrocarbon fuels, emphasizing gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel or kerosene. These exposures may occur acutely or chronically to raw fuel vapor, aerosol, or fuel combustion exhaust by dermal respiratory inhalation, or oral ingestion routes, and commonly occur concurrently with exposure to other chemicals and stressors. Hydrocarbon fuels are complex mixtures of 150-260+ aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds containing varying concentrations of potential neurotoxicants including benzene, n-hexane, toluene, xylenes, naphthalene, and certain n-C9-C12 fractions (n-p ropylbenzene, trimethylbenzene isomers). Due to their natural petroleum base, the chemical composition of different hydrocarbon fuels is not defined, and the fuels are classified according to broad performance criteria such as flash and boiling points, complicating toxicological comparisons. While hydrocarbon fuel exposures occur typically at concentrations below permissible exposure limits for their constituent chemicals, it is unknown whether additive or synergistic interactions may result in unpredicted neurotoxicity. The inclusion of up to six performance additives in existing fuel formulations presents additional neurotoxicity challenge. Additionally, exposures to hydrocarbon fuels, typically with minimal respiratory or dermal protection, range from weekly fueling of personal automobiles to waist-deep immersion of personnel in raw fuel during maintenance of aircraft fuel tanks. Occupational exposures may occur on a near daily basis for from several months to over 20 yr. A number of published studies have reported acute or persisting neurotoxic effects from acute, subchronic, or chronic exposure of humans or animals to hydrocarbon fuels, or to certain constituent chemicals of these fuels. This review summarizes human and animal studies of hydrocarbon fuel-induced neurotoxicity and neurobehavioral consequences. It is hoped that this review will support ongoing attempts to review and possibly revise exposure standards for hydrocarbon fuels.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Short latency visual evoked potentials in occupational exposure to organic solvents

Authors: Pratt, H; Karim, N; Bleich, N; Mittelman, N (2000) Neurophysiologie Clinique 30:306-312. HERO ID: 3063458

[Less] OBJECTIVES: Short latency visual evoked potentials (SVEP), in response to high-intensity . . . [More] OBJECTIVES: Short latency visual evoked potentials (SVEP), in response to high-intensity flashes from light emitting diodes (LED), were used to detect subclinical effects along the visual pathway in four groups of subjects with different levels of exposure to gasoline, all within legally acceptable limits.

METHODS: Potentials and exposure levels were obtained from 31 subjects with different occupational exposure levels to gasoline fumes, as well as from 17 non-exposed control subjects. SVEP were recorded from four electrode sites (infra-orbital, Cz, Pz, Oz), in response to flashes presented to each eye in turn from goggle-mounted LEDs. SVEP components were defined after digital filtering, which eliminated the high-frequency oscillatory potentials and accentuated five major components: a periocular P30, attributed to the retina; a fronto-central N50, attributed to the optic nerve; centro-parietal P65 and N85, attributed to the optic tracts and radiation; and an occipital, cortical P105.

RESULTS: The latencies of successive SVEP components of the exposed subjects showed a significant latency prolongation compared to controls, beginning with activity attributed to the optic nerve and increasing cumulatively with the later components. Retinal components were not affected by the exposure to organic solvents. Among the exposed groups, differences in latency prolongation corresponded to occupational exposure.

CONCLUSION: The low-frequency components of SVEP were reliably measured and proved to be sensitive to subclinical effects of organic solvents on conduction along the visual pathway. These components are likely to be sensitive to other subcortical visual pathway lesions, but their clinical promise needs further verification.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Neurobehavioral effects of long-term exposure to xylene and mixed organic solvents in shipyard spray painters

Authors: Ruijten, MW; Hooisma, J; Brons, JT; Habets, CE; Emmen, HH; Muijser, H (1994) NeuroToxicology 15:613-620. HERO ID: 68175

[Less] A cross-sectional study was performed in shipyard painters exposed to organic solvents and age-matched . . . [More] A cross-sectional study was performed in shipyard painters exposed to organic solvents and age-matched referents. The work duties of the painters mainly involved spray painting with solvent-based paints containing > 50% xylene. Testing methods consisted of a symptoms questionnaire, measurement of peripheral sensory and motor nerve parameters and computerized performance tests. Results indicate that complaints regarding mood changes, equilibrium and fatigue were more severe in painters than in referents, but were not related to the estimated life-time exposure index. Decreased nerve function was observed in the lower extremities and to some extent in the upper extremities. The refractory period appeared to be a sensitive parameter in motor nerves. Most neurophysiological parameters investigated were significantly related to the exposure index. Behavioral testing revealed impairment of simple visuo-motor performance and complex perceptual coding. A relationship between effects on perceptual coding and the exposure index was also demonstrated.