Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA-PM (current)


137 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Metabolomic changes in murine serum following inhalation exposure to gasoline and diesel engine emissions

Authors: Brower, JB; Doyle-Eisele, M; Moeller, B; Stirdivant, S; Mcdonald, JD; Campen, MJ (2016) Inhalation Toxicology 28:241-250. HERO ID: 3260542

[Less] The adverse health effects of environmental exposure to gaseous and particulate components of vehicular . . . [More] The adverse health effects of environmental exposure to gaseous and particulate components of vehicular emissions are a major concern among urban populations. A link has been established between respiratory exposure to vehicular emissions and the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanisms driving this interaction remain unknown. Chronic inhalation exposure to mixed vehicle emissions has been linked to CVD in animal models. This study evaluated the temporal effects of acute exposure to mixed vehicle emissions (MVE; mixed gasoline and diesel emissions) on potentially active metabolites in the serum of exposed mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to a single 6-hour exposure to filtered air (FA) or MVE (100 or 300 mu g/m(3)) by whole body inhalation. Immediately after and 18 hours after the end of the exposure period, animals were sacrificed for serum and tissue collection. Serum was analyzed for metabolites that were differentially present between treatment groups and time points. Changes in metabolite levels suggestive of increased oxidative stress (oxidized glutathione, cysteine disulfide, taurine), lipid peroxidation (13-HODE, 9-HODE), energy metabolism (lactate, glycerate, branched chain amino acid catabolites, butrylcarnitine, fatty acids), and inflammation (DiHOME, palmitoyl ethanolamide) were observed immediately after the end of exposure in the serum of animals exposed to MVE relative to those exposed to FA. By 18 hours post exposure, serum metabolite differences between animals exposed to MVE versus those exposed to FA were less pronounced. These findings highlight complex metabolomics alterations in the circulation following inhalation exposure to a common source of combustion emissions.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Extreme air pollution conditions adversely affect blood pressure and insulin resistance the air pollution and cardiometabolic disease study

Authors: Brook, RD; Sun, Z; Brook, JR; Zhao, X; Ruan, Y; Yan, J; Mukherjee, B; Rao, X; Duan, F; Sun, L; Liang, R; Lian, H; Zhang, S; Fang, Q; Gu, D; Sun, Q; Fan, Z; Rajagopalan, S (2016) Hypertension 67:77-85. HERO ID: 3282292

[Less] Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly . . . [More] Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 mu g/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 mu g/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 mu g/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 mu g/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

DNA hypomethylation and its mediation in the effects of fine particulate air pollution on cardiovascular biomarkers: A randomized crossover trial

Authors: Chen, R; Meng, X; Zhao, A; Wang, C; Yang, C; Li, H; Cai, J; Zhao, Z; Kan, H (2016) Environment International 94:614-619. HERO ID: 3355705

[Less] BACKGROUND: Short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution has . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution has been associated with altered DNA methylation in observational studies, but it remains unclear whether this change mediates the effects on cardiovascular biomarkers.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of ambient PM2.5 on gene-specific DNA methylation and its potential mediation in the acute effects of PM2.5 on cardiovascular biomarkers.

METHODS: We designed a randomized, double-blind crossover trial using true or sham air purifiers for 48h among 35 healthy college students in Shanghai, China, in 2014. We measured blood global methylation estimated in long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE‑1) and Alu repetitive elements, methylation in ten specific genes, and ten cardiovascular biomarkers. We used linear mixed-effect models to examine the associations between PM2.5 and methylation. We also performed causal mediation analyses to evaluate the potential mediation of methylation in the associations between PM2.5 and biomarkers.

RESULTS: Air purification increased DNA methylation in repetitive elements and all candidate genes. An IQR increase (64μg/m(3)) in PM2.5 was significantly associated with reduction of methylation in LINE-1 (1.44%), one pro-inflammatory gene (CD40LG, 9.13%), two pro-coagulant genes (F3, 15.20%; SERPINE1, 3.69%), and two pro-vasoconstriction genes (ACE, 4.64%; EDN1, 9.74%). There was a significant mediated effect (17.82%, P=0.03) of PM2.5 on sCD40L protein through CD40LG hypomethylation. Hypomethylation in other candidate genes generally showed positive but non-significant mediation.

CONCLUSIONS: This intervention study provided robust human evidence that ambient PM2.5 could induce rapid decreases in DNA methylation and consequently partly mediate its effects on cardiovascular biomarkers.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Personal exposure to fine particulate matter and blood pressure: A role of angiotensin converting enzyme and its DNA methylation

Authors: Wang, C; Chen, R; Cai, J; Shi, J; Yang, C; Tse, LA; Li, H; Lin, Z; Meng, X; Liu, C; Niu, Y; Xia, Y; Zhao, Z; Kan, H (2016) Environment International 94:661-666. HERO ID: 3355729

[Less] BACKGROUND: The underlying intermediate mechanisms about the association between fine . . . [More] BACKGROUND: The underlying intermediate mechanisms about the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and blood pressure (BP) were unclear. Few epidemiological studies have explored the potential mediation effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and its DNA methylation.

METHODS: We designed a longitudinal panel study with 4 follow-ups among 36 healthy college students in Shanghai, China from December 17, 2014 to July 11, 2015. We measured personal real-time exposure to PM2.5, serum ACE level, and blood methylation of ACE gene and the repetitive elements. We applied linear mixed-effects models to examine the effects of PM2.5 on ACE protein, DNA methylation and BP markers. Furthermore, we conducted mediation analyses to evaluate the potential pathways.

RESULTS: An interquartile range increase (26.78μg/m(3)) in 24-h average exposure to PM2.5 was significantly associated with 1.12 decreases in ACE average methylation (%5mC), 13.27% increase in ACE protein, and increments of 1.13mmHg in systolic BP, 0.66mmHg in diastolic BP and 0.82mmHg in mean arterial pressure. ACE hypomethylation mediated 11.78% (P=0.03) of the elevated ACE protein by PM2.5. Increased ACE protein accounted for 3.90~13.44% (P=0.35~0.68) of the elevated BP by PM2.5. Repetitive-element methylation was also decreased but did not significantly mediate the association between PM2.5 and BP.

CONCLUSIONS: This investigation provided strong evidence that short-term exposure to PM2.5 was significantly associated with BP, ACE protein and ACE methylation. Our findings highlighted a possible involvement of ACE and ACE methylation in the effects of PM2.5 on elevating BP.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Inhalation of diesel exhaust and allergen alters human bronchial epithelium DNA methylation

Authors: Clifford, RL; Jones, MJ; Macisaac, JL; Mcewen, LM; Goodman, SJ; Mostafavi, S; Kobor, MS; Carlsten, C (2016) Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 139:112-121. HERO ID: 3357903

[Less] BACKGROUND: Allergic disease affects 30% to 40% of the world's population, and its . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Allergic disease affects 30% to 40% of the world's population, and its development is determined by the interplay between environmental and inherited factors. Air pollution, primarily consisting of diesel exhaust emissions, has increased at a similar rate to allergic disease. Exposure to diesel exhaust may play a role in the development and progression of allergic disease, in particular allergic respiratory disease. One potential mechanism underlying the connection between air pollution and increased allergic disease incidence is DNA methylation, an epigenetic process with the capacity to integrate gene-environment interactions.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect of allergen and diesel exhaust exposure on bronchial epithelial DNA methylation.

METHODS: We performed a randomized crossover-controlled exposure study to allergen and diesel exhaust in humans, and measured single-site (CpG) resolution global DNA methylation in bronchial epithelial cells.

RESULTS: Exposure to allergen alone, diesel exhaust alone, or allergen and diesel exhaust together (coexposure) led to significant changes in 7 CpG sites at 48 hours. However, when the same lung was exposed to allergen and diesel exhaust but separated by approximately 4 weeks, significant changes in more than 500 sites were observed. Furthermore, sites of differential methylation differed depending on which exposure was experienced first. Functional analysis of differentially methylated CpG sites found genes involved in transcription factor activity, protein metabolism, cell adhesion, and vascular development, among others.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that specific exposures can prime the lung for changes in DNA methylation induced by a subsequent insult.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The Effect of Seasonal Variations in Airborne Particulate Matter on Asthma-Related Airway Inflammation in Mice

Authors: Kurai, J; Watanabe, M; Sano, H; Hantan, D; Shimizu, E (2016) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13. HERO ID: 3358117

[Less] This study aimed to investigate the effects of winter and spring particulate matter (PM) on airway inflammation . . . [More] This study aimed to investigate the effects of winter and spring particulate matter (PM) on airway inflammation and allergies in a mouse asthma model. PM was collected during 7-28 February 2013 (winter) and during 7-28 April 2013 (spring) in Yonago, Japan. NC/Nga mice were co-sensitized using intranasal instillation of the PMs and Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) for 5 consecutive days, and were subsequently challenged using intranasal Df at 7 days after the last sensitization. At 24 h after the challenge, serum immunoglobulin levels, differential leukocyte counts, and inflammatory cytokines levels were measured in the mice's bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Compared to co-sensitization using spring PM and Df, winter PM and Df induced greater increases in the BALF neutrophil and eosinophil counts and total serum IgE and IgG2a levels. Furthermore, winter PM-sensitized mice exhibited higher BALF levels of interleukin-5, interleukin-13, interleukin-6, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. Therefore, we observed seasonal variations in the effects of PM on asthma-related airway inflammation. These findings suggest that the compositions of PM vary according to season, and that it is important to evaluate PM compositions in order to understand the associations between asthma and PM.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Assessment of estrogenic and androgenic activity in PM10 air samples from an urban, industrial and rural area in Flanders (Belgium) using the CALUX bioassay

Authors: Croes, K; Van den Heuvel, R; Van den Bril, B; Staelens, J; Denison, MS; Van Langenhove, K; Vandermarken, T; Elskens, M (2016) Environmental Research 150:66-72. HERO ID: 3358348

[Less] BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals represent a broad class of compounds, are . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals represent a broad class of compounds, are widespread in the environment and can pose severe health effects.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the overall estrogen and androgen activating potential of PM10 air samples at an urban, rural and industrial location in Flanders, using a human in vitro cell bioassay.

METHODS: PM10 samples were collected on glass fiber filters every six days between April 2013 and January 2014 using a high-volume sampler. Extraction was executed with a hexane/acetone mixture before analysis using a recombinant estrogen- or androgen responsive human carcinoma cell line. Results were expressed as bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) per cubic meter of air.

RESULTS: High fluctuations in estrogenic activity were observed during the entire sampling period, with median BEQs of 32.1, 35.9 and 31.1 fg E2-Eq m(-)³ in the industrial, urban and rural background area, respectively. Estrogenic activity was measured in 70% of the samples, while no androgenic activity was observed in any of the samples. The estrogenic activity in the industrial area was positively correlated with the airborne concentration of the sum of the non-carcinogenic PAHs pyrene and fluoranthene (rho=0.48; p<0.01) and the sum of the carcinogenic PAHs (rho=0.36; p=0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that no androgenic activity was present in PM10 and that although the median estrogenic activity was rather low and comparable in the three locations, high fluctuations in estrogenic response exist over time. While atmospheric PAHs contributed to the observed estrogenic response, especially in the industrial area, the chemicals responsible for the majority of estrogenic activity remain to be identified.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Time Course of Heart Rate Variability Response to PM2.5 Exposure from Secondhand Smoke

Authors: Garza, JL; Mittleman, MA; Zhang, J; Christiani, DC; Cavallari, JM (2016) PLoS ONE 11:e0154783. HERO ID: 3358697

[Less] PURPOSE: Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with decreased heart . . . [More] PURPOSE: Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV). However, the time course of this association is unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the association between 15-240 minute SHS-related fine particulate matter (PM2.5) moving averages and indices of HRV.

METHODS: With a panel study design, we used personal monitors to continuously measure PM2.5 and HRV of 35 participants who were exposed to SHS for approximately 6 hours.

RESULTS: We observed negative, significant associations between 5-minute HRV indices and 15 minute PM2.5 moving averages and 240 minute PM2.5 moving averages: there was a significant (p<0.01) 7.5% decrease in the 5-minute square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal heart beats associated with (RMSSD), and a significant (p<0.01) 14.7% decrease in the 5-minute high frequency (HF) power associated with the 15 minute PM2.5 moving averages; there was also a significant (p<0.01) 46.9% decrease in the 5-minute RMSSD, and a significant (p<0.01) 77.7% decrease in the 5-minute high frequency (HF) power associated with the 240 minute PM2.5 moving averages.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings that exposure to SHS related PM2.5 was associated with HRV support the hypothesis that SHS can affect the cardiovascular system. The negative associations reported between short and longer term PM2.5 and HRV indicate adverse effects of SHS on the cardiovascular system.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Innate lymphoid cells contribute to allergic airway disease exacerbation by obesity

Authors: Everaere, L; Ait-Yahia, S; Molendi-Coste, O; Vorng, H; Quemener, S; Levu, P; Fleury, S; Bouchaert, E; Fan, Y; Duez, C; de Nadai, P; Staels, B; Dombrowicz, D; Tsicopoulos, A (2016) Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 138:1309-1318.e11. HERO ID: 3359022

[Less] BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and clinical observations identify obesity as an important . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and clinical observations identify obesity as an important risk factor for asthma exacerbation, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) have been implicated, respectively, in asthma and adipose tissue homeostasis and in obesity-associated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR).

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the potential involvement of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in allergic airway disease exacerbation caused by high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity.

METHODS: Obesity was induced by means of HFD feeding, and allergic airway inflammation was subsequently induced by means of intranasal administration of house dust mite (HDM) extract. AHR, lung and visceral adipose tissue inflammation, humoral response, cytokines, and innate and adaptive lymphoid populations were analyzed in the presence or absence of ILCs.

RESULTS: HFD feeding exacerbated allergic airway disease features, including humoral response, airway and tissue eosinophilia, AHR, and TH2 and TH17 pulmonary profiles. Notably, nonsensitized obese mice already exhibited increased lung ILC counts and tissue eosinophil infiltration compared with values in lean mice in the absence of AHR. The numbers of total and cytokine-expressing lung ILC2s and ILC3s further increased in HDM-challenged obese mice compared with those in HDM-challenged lean mice, and this was accompanied by high IL-33 and IL-1β levels and decreased ILC markers in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, depletion of ILCs with an anti-CD90 antibody, followed by T-cell reconstitution, led to a profound decrease in allergic airway inflammatory features in obese mice, including TH2 and TH17 infiltration.

CONCLUSION: These results indicate that HFD-induced obesity might exacerbate allergic airway inflammation through mechanisms involving ILC2s and ILC3s.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Fine particulate matter air pollution and atherosclerosis: Mechanistic insights

Authors: Bai, Y; Sun, Q (2016) Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1860:2863-2868. HERO ID: 3359249

[Less] BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by the accumulation . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids and fibrous plaque in the arteries. Its etiology is very complicated and its risk factors primarily include genetic defects, smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, lack of exercise, and infection. Recent studies suggest that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution may also contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.

SCOPE OF REVIEW: The present review integrates current experimental evidence with mechanistic pathways whereby PM2.5 exposure can promote the development of atherosclerosis.

MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: PM2.5-mediated enhancement of atherosclerosis is likely due to its pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory effects, involving multiple organs, different cell types, and various molecular mediators.

GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Studies about the effects of PM2.5inhalation on atherosclerosis may yield a better understanding of the link between air pollution and major cardiovascular diseases, and provide useful information for policy makers to determine acceptable levels of PM2.5 air quality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Air Pollution, edited by Wenjun Ding, Andy Ghio and Weidong Wu.