Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


ISA-PM (current)


137 References Were Found:

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effects of reducing exposure to air pollution on submaximal cardiopulmonary test in patients with heart failure: Analysis of the randomized, double-blind and controlled FILTER-HF trial

Authors: Vieira, JL; Guimaraes, GV; de Andre, PA; Nascimento Saldiva, PH; Bocchi, EA (2016) International Journal of Cardiology 215:92-97. HERO ID: 3272021

[Less] Background: Air pollution exposure could mitigate the health benefits of exercise in patients with heart . . . [More] Background: Air pollution exposure could mitigate the health benefits of exercise in patients with heart failure (HF). We tested the effects of a respiratory filter on HF patients exposed to air pollution during exercise.

Methods and Results: Ancillary analysis of the FILTER-HF trial, focused on the exercise outcomes. In a randomized, double-blind, 3-way crossover design, 26 HF patients and 15 control volunteers were exposed to clean air, unfiltered dilute diesel engine exhaust (DE), or filtered DE for 6 min during a submaximal cardiopulmonary testing in a controlled-exposure facility. Prospectively collected data included six-minute walking test [6mwt], VO2, VE/VCO2 Slope, O(2)Pulse, pulmonary ventilation [VE], tidal volume, VD/Vt, oxyhemoglobin saturation and CO2-rebreathing. Compared to clean air, DE adversely affected VO2 (11.0 +/- 3.9 vs. 8.4 +/- 2.8 ml/kg/min; p < 0.001); 6mwt (243.3 +/- 13.0 vs. 220.8 +/- 13.7 m; p = 0.030); and O(2)Pulse (8.9 +/- 1.0 vs. 7.8 +/- 0.7 ml/beat; p < 0.001) in HF patients. Compared to DE, filtration reduced the particulate concentration from 325 +/- 31 to 25 +/- 6 mu g/m(3), and was associated with an increase in VO2 (10.4 +/- 3.8 ml/kg/min; p < 0.001 vs. DE) and O(2)Pulse (9.7 +/- 1.1 ml/beat; p < 0.001 vs. DE) in patients with HF. Filtration was associated with higher VE and CO2-rebreathing in both groups. VE/VCO2 Slope was higher among patients with HF.

Conclusion: DE adversely affects exercise capacity in patients with HF. A simple respiratory filter can reduce the adverse effects of pollution on VO2 and O(2)Pulse. Given the worldwide prevalence of exposure to traffic-related air pollution, these findings are relevant for public health especially in this highly susceptible population. The filter intervention holds great promise that needs to be tested in future studies. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Autophagy is essential for ultrafine particle-induced inflammation and mucus hyperproduction in airway epithelium

Authors: Chen, ZH; Wu, YF; Wang, PL; Wu, YP; Li, ZY; Zhao, Y; Zhou, JS; Zhu, C; Cao, C; Mao, YY; Xu, F; Wang, BB; Cormier, SA; Ying, SM; Li, W; Shen, HH (2016) Autophagy 12:297-311. HERO ID: 3120081

[Less] Environmental ultrafine particulate matter (PM) is capable of inducing airway injury, while the detailed . . . [More] Environmental ultrafine particulate matter (PM) is capable of inducing airway injury, while the detailed molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate pivotal roles of autophagy in regulation of inflammation and mucus hyperproduction induced by PM containing environmentally persistent free radicals in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and in mouse airways. PM was endocytosed by HBE cells and simultaneously triggered autophagosomes, which then engulfed the invading particles to form amphisomes and subsequent autolysosomes. Genetic blockage of autophagy markedly reduced PM-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines, e.g. IL8 and IL6, and MUC5AC in HBE cells. Mice with impaired autophagy due to knockdown of autophagy-related gene Becn1 or Lc3b displayed significantly reduced airway inflammation and mucus hyperproduction in response to PM exposure in vivo. Interference of the autophagic flux by lysosomal inhibition resulted in accumulated autophagosomes/amphisomes, and intriguingly, this process significantly aggravated the IL8 production through NFKB1, and markedly attenuated MUC5AC expression via activator protein 1. These data indicate that autophagy is required for PM-induced airway epithelial injury, and that inhibition of autophagy exerts therapeutic benefits for PM-induced airway inflammation and mucus hyperproduction, although they are differentially orchestrated by the autophagic flux.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 on cough hypersensitivity induced by particulate matter 2.5

Authors: Lv, H; Yue, J; Chen, Z; Chai, S; Cao, X; Zhan, J; Ji, Z; Zhang, H; Dong, R; Lai, K (2016) Life Sciences 151:157-166. HERO ID: 3120097

[Less] AIMS: The mechanism of cough hypersensitivity induced by particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) . . . [More] AIMS: The mechanism of cough hypersensitivity induced by particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) still remains elusive. The current study was designed to explore the effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) on cough hypersensitivity in airway and central nervous system.

MAIN METHODS: The PM2.5-induced chronic cough model of guinea pig was established by exposure to different doses of PM2.5 for three weeks. After exposure, the animals were microinjected with TRPV1 agonist, antagonist in the dorsal vagal complex respectively. Cough sensitivity was measured by determining the provocative concentration of citric acid inducing 5 or more coughs (C5). Airway inflammation was detected by hematoxylin eosin (HE) staining and Evans blue fluorescence, and substance P (SP) and TRPV1 expressions in airway were observed by immunohistochemical staining. TRPV1 expressions in the dorsal vagal complex were observed by immunofluorescence. Retrograde tracing by pseudorabies virus-Bartha (PRV-Bartha) was conducted to confirm the regulatory pathway between airway and central nervous system.

KEY FINDINGS: PM2.5 induced TRPV1 expressions in both of airway and dorsal vagal complex and airway neurogenic inflammation. Microinjecting agonist and antagonist of TRPV1 into the dorsal vagal complex could induce SP expressions increase and decrease respectively which indicated that TRPV1 in the dorsal vagal complex could promote airway neurogenic inflammation and regulate the cough reflex sensitivity through neural pathways of vagal complex-airways.

SIGNIFICANCE: These findings implicated the therapeutic potential of specific inhibition of TRPV1 in airway and central nervous system for chronic cough induced by PM2.5.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Acute increase in blood pressure during inhalation of coarse particulate matter air pollution from an urban location

Authors: Byrd, JB; Morishita, M; Bard, RL; Das, R; Wang, L; Sun, Z; Spino, C; Harkema, J; Dvonch, JT; Rajagopalan, S; Brook, RD (2016) American Society of Hypertension. Journal 10:133-139.e4. HERO ID: 3121500

[Less] Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a leading global risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. . . . [More] Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a leading global risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Although exposure to fine PM <2.5 μm raises arterial blood pressure (BP), few studies have evaluated the impact of coarse PM which differs in size (2.5-10 μm), sources, and chemistry. Twenty-nine healthy adults (30.4 ± 8.2 years) underwent a randomized double-blind crossover study involving 2-hour exposures to concentrated ambient coarse PM (164.2 ± 80.4 μg/m(3)) at an urban location (Dearborn, Michigan) versus filtered air. Cardiovascular outcomes were measured during, immediately, and 2 hours after exposures. Both systolic (1.9 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 2.8; P < .001) and diastolic (1.9 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.7; P < .001) BP levels were higher throughout coarse PM compared with filtered air exposures by mixed-model analyses. Heart rate variability, endothelial function, and arterial compliance were not significantly affected. Brief exposure to coarse PM in an urban environment raises arterial BP. These findings add mechanistic support to the contention that coarse PM may be capable of promoting cardiovascular events.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Long-term coarse particulate matter exposure and heart rate variability in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA)

Authors: Adhikari, R; D'Souza, J; Solimon, EZ; Burke, GL; Daviglus, M; Jacobs, DR; Park, SK; Sheppard, L; Thorne, PS; Kaufman, JD; Larson, TV; Adar, SD (2016) Epidemiology 27:405-413. HERO ID: 3179442

[Less] BACKGROUND: Reduced heart rate variability, a marker of impaired cardiac autonomic . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Reduced heart rate variability, a marker of impaired cardiac autonomic function, has been linked to short-term exposure to airborne particles. This research adds to the literature by examining associations with long-term exposures to coarse particles (PM10-2.5).

METHODS: Using electrocardiogram recordings from 2,780 participants (45-84 years) from three Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis sites, we assessed the standard deviation of normal-tonormal intervals (SDNN) and root-mean square differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals (rMSSD) at a baseline (2000-2002) and follow-up (2010-2012) examination (mean visits/person=1.5). Annual average concentrations of PM10-2.5 mass, copper, zinc, phosphorus, silicon, and endotoxin were estimated using site-specific spatial prediction models. We assessed associations for baseline heart rate variability and rate of change in heart rate variability over time using multivariable mixed models adjusted for time, sociodemographic, lifestyle, health, and neighborhood confounders, including co-pollutants.

RESULTS: In our primary models adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors and site, PM10-2.5 mass was associated with 1.0% (95% CI: -4.1, 2.1%) lower SDNN levels per interquartile range of 2 µg/m3. Stronger associations, however, were observed prior to site adjustment and with increasing residential stablity. Similar patterns were found for rMSSD. We found little evidence for associations with other chemical species and with with the rate of change in heart rate variability, though endotoxin was associated with increasing heart rate variability over time.

CONCLUSION: We found only weak evidence that long-term PM10-2.5 exposures are associated with lowered heart rate variability. Stronger associations among residentially stable individuals suggest that confirmatory studies are needed.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

The effects of urban particulate matter on the nasal epithelium by gender: An experimental study in mice

Authors: Yoshizaki, K; Fuziwara, CS; Brito, JM; Santos, TM; Kimura, ET; Correia, AT; Amato-Lourenco, LF; Vasconcellos, P; Silva, LF; Brentani, MM; Mauad, T; Saldiva, PH; Macchione, M (2016) Environmental Pollution 213:359-369. HERO ID: 3120029

[Less] Nose is the first portion of the respiratory system into contact with air pollution particles, including . . . [More] Nose is the first portion of the respiratory system into contact with air pollution particles, including organic compounds that could act as endocrine releasers. The objective was to identify and quantify estrogenic receptor-β (ERβ), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, and mucus profile in the nasal epithelium of mice. BALB/c mice male (n = 32) and female (n = 82) in proestrus, estrus and diestrus were divided into two groups: 1) exposed to ambient air; 2) concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) to achieve an accumulated dose (concentration vs. time product) of 600 μg/m(3), the time of the exposure was controlled to ensure the same concentration for all groups (5 days per week for 40-51 days). RT-PCR (Erβ-1, Erβ-2, Ahr, Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1), immunohistochemistry and morphometry (ERβ, AhR) were used to analyze. The mucus profiles were examined using acid (Alcian Blue) and neutral (periodic acid Schiff's) stains. Exposed females had significantly lower levels of Erβ-2 mRNA than exposed males (p = 0.036). Cyp1b1 mRNA in diestrus females was significantly lower in the CAP-exposed group compared with the ambient air group (p ≤ 0.05). ERβ expression in the epithelium and submucosa nucleus was lower in estrus exposed to CAPs compared with ambient air. CAPs increases AhR in the epithelium (p = 0.044) and submucosa (p = 0.001) nucleus of female when compared with male mice. Exposure to CAPs, also led to relatively increased acidic content in the mucus of males (p = 0.048), but decreased acidic content in that of females (p = 0.04). This study revealed sex-dependent responses to air pollution in the nasal epithelium that may partially explain the predisposition of females to airway respiratory diseases.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Lung bioaccessibility of contaminants in particulate matter of geological origin

Authors: Guney, M; Chapuis, RP; Zagury, GJ (2016) Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23:24422-24434. HERO ID: 3360033

[Less] Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects. While inhalation . . . [More] Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects. While inhalation exposure to airborne PM is a prominent research subject, exposure to PM of geological origin (i.e., generated from soil/soil-like material) has received less attention. This review discusses the contaminants in PM of geological origin and their relevance for human exposure and then evaluates lung bioaccessibility assessment methods and their use. PM of geological origin can contain toxic elements as well as organic contaminants. Observed/predicted PM lung clearance times are long, which may lead to prolonged contact with lung environment. Thus, certain exposure scenarios warrant the use of in vitro bioaccessibility testing to predict lung bioavailability. Limited research is available on lung bioaccessibility test development and test application to PM of geological origin. For in vitro tests, test parameter variation between different studies and concerns about physiological relevance indicate a crucial need for test method standardization and comparison with relevant animal data. Research is recommended on (1) developing robust in vitro lung bioaccessibility methods, (2) assessing bioaccessibility of various contaminants (especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) in PM of diverse origin (surface soils, mine tailings, etc.), and (3) risk characterization to determine relative importance of exposure to PM of geological origin.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

A work group report on ultrafine particles (American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology): Why ambient ultrafine and engineered nanoparticles should receive special attention for possible adverse health outcomes in human subjects

Authors: Li, N; Georas, S; Alexis, N; Fritz, P; Xia, T; Williams, MA; Horner, E; Nel, A (2016) Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 138:386-396. HERO ID: 3359457

[Less] Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are airborne particulates of less than 100 nm in aerodynamic diameter. Examples . . . [More] Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are airborne particulates of less than 100 nm in aerodynamic diameter. Examples of UFPs are diesel exhaust particles, products of cooking, heating, and wood burning in indoor environments, and, more recently, products generated through the use of nanotechnology. Studies have shown that ambient UFPs have detrimental effects on both the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, including a higher incidence of atherosclerosis and exacerbation rate of asthma. UFPs have been found to alter in vitro and in vivo responses of the immune system to allergens and can also play a role in allergen sensitization. The inflammatory properties of UFPs can be mediated by a number of different mechanisms, including the ability to produce reactive oxygen species, leading to the generation of proinflammatory cytokines and airway inflammation. In addition, because of their small size, UFPs also have unique distribution characteristics in the respiratory tree and circulation and might be able to alter cellular function in ways that circumvent normal signaling pathways. Additionally, UFPs can penetrate intracellularly and potentially cause DNA damage. The recent advances in nanotechnology, although opening up new opportunities for the advancement of technology and medicine, could also lead to unforeseen adverse health effects in exposed human subjects. Further research is needed to clarify the safety of nanoscale particles, as well as the elucidation of the possible beneficial use of these particulates to treat disease.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Mitochondrial oxidative DNA damage and exposure to particulate air pollution in mother-newborn pairs

Authors: Grevendonk, L; Janssen, BG; Vanpoucke, C; Lefebvre, W; Hoxha, M; Bollati, V; Nawrot, TS (2016) Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 15:10. HERO ID: 3103394

[Less] BACKGROUND: Studies emphasize the importance of particulate matter (PM) in the formation . . . [More] BACKGROUND: Studies emphasize the importance of particulate matter (PM) in the formation of reactive oxygen species and inflammation. We hypothesized that PM exposure during different time windows in pregnancy influences mitochondrial 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels, which is an established biomarker for oxidative stress, in both maternal and foetal blood.

METHODS: We investigated maternal (n = 224) and cord blood (n = 293) from mother-newborn pairs that were enrolled in the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort. We determined mitochondrial 8-OHdG by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Multivariable regression models were used to assess the association between mitochondrial 8-OHdG with PM10 and PM2.5 exposure over various time windows during pregnancy.

RESULTS: In multivariable analysis, PM10 exposure during the entire pregnancy was positively associated with levels of mitochondrial 8-OHdG in maternal blood. For an IQR increment in PM10 exposure an increase of 18.3 % (95 % confidence interval (CI): 5.6 to 33.4 %, p = 0.004) in 8-OHdG was observed. PM10 exposure during the last trimester of pregnancy was positively associated with levels of 8-OHdG (28.1, 95 % CI: 8.6 to 51.2 %, p = 0.004, for an IQR increment in PM10). In a similar way, PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with an increase of mitochondrial 8-OHdG levels in maternal blood during the entire pregnancy (13.9, 95 % CI: 0.4 to 29.4 %, p = 0.04 for an IQR increment in PM2.5 exposure) and third trimester of pregnancy (28.1, 95 % CI: 3.6 to 58.4 %, p = 0.02 for an IQR increment in PM2.5 exposure). In umbilical cord blood, 8-OHdG levels were significantly associated with PM10 exposure during first and second trimester of pregnancy with respectively an increase of 23.0 % (95 % CI: 5.9 to 42.8 %, p = 0.007) and 16.6 % (95 % CI: 1.8 to 33.5 %, p = 0.03) for an IQR increment in PM10 exposure.

CONCLUSIONS: We found PM-associated increased mitochondrial oxidative DNA damage during pregnancy in both mothers and their newborns. Accordingly, our study showed that particulate air pollution exposure in early life plays a role in increasing systemic oxidative stress, at the level of the mitochondria, both in mother and foetus.

The "refereed" or "peer review" status of a journal comes from the Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory (http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/), as supplied by the publisher. The term refers to the system of critical evaluation of manuscripts/articles by professional colleagues or peers. The content of refereed publications is sanctioned, vetted, or otherwise approved by a peer-review or editorial board. The peer-review and evaluation system is utilized to protect, maintain, and raise the quality of scholarly material published in serials. Publications subject to the referee process are assumed, then, to contain higher quality content than those that are not.
Peer Reviewed Journal Article

Air pollution exposure and blood pressure: An updated review of the literature

Authors: Giorginia, P; Di Giosia, P; Grassi, D; Rubenfire, M; Brook, RD; Ferri, C (2016) Current Pharmaceutical Design 22:28-51. HERO ID: 3262718

[Less] Both high arterial blood pressure (BP) and elevated levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution . . . [More] Both high arterial blood pressure (BP) and elevated levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution have been associated with an increased risk for several cardiovascular (CV) diseases, including stroke, heart failure, and myocardial infarction. Given that PM2.5 and high BP are each independently leading risk factors for premature mortality worldwide, a potential relationship between these factors would have tremendous public health repercussions. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize recent evidence linking air pollution and BP. Epidemiological findings demonstrate that particulate pollutants cause significant increases in BP parameters in relation to both short and long-term exposures, with robust evidence for exposures to PM2.5. Moreover, recent epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between residence within regions with higher levels of ambient PM and an increased incidence and prevalence of overt hypertension. Studies provide consistent results that elevated concentrations of pollutants increase hospital admissions and/or emergency visits for hypertensive disorders and also support that PM levels increases BP in vulnerable subsets of individuals (pregnant women, high CV risk individuals). In this context, PM-mediated BP elevations may be an important pathway which acts as a potential triggering factor for acute CV events. Mechanistic evidence illustrates plausible pathways by which acute and chronic exposures to air pollutants might disrupt hemodynamic balance favoring vasoconstriction, including autonomic imbalance and augmented release of various pro-oxidative, inflammatory and/or hemodynamically-active mediators. Together these responses may underlie PM-induced BP elevations; however, full details regarding the responsible mechanisms require further studies. As a consequence of the ubiquity of air pollution, even a small effect on raising BP and/or the prevalence of hypertension, i.e. the major risk factor for mortality and morbidity worldwide, would have enormous global public health implications.